FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Magnetite" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Magnetite
Magnetite

Magnetite from the Kola Peninsula, Russia
General
Category Mineral
Chemical formula iron(II,III) oxide, Fe3O4
Identification
Color Black, greyish
Crystal habit Octahedral, fine granular to massive
Crystal system Isometric
Cleavage Indistinct
Fracture Uneven
Mohs Scale hardness 5.5 - 6.5
Luster Metallic
Refractive index Opaque
Streak Black
Specific gravity 5.17 - 5.18
Major varieties
Lodestone Magnetic with definite north and south poles

Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II,III) oxide and the common chemical name ferrous-ferric oxide. The formula for magnetite may also be written as FeO.Fe2O3, which is one part wüstite (FeO) and one part hematite (Fe2O3). This refers to the different oxidation states of the iron in one structure, not a solid solution. Photograph of a magnetite specimen from the Kola Peninsular, Russia taken by Dlloyd. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... In mineralogy, shape and size give rise to descriptive terms applied to the typical appearance, or habit of crystals. ... An octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces. ... A crystal system is a category of space groups, which characterize symmetry of structures in three dimensions with translational symmetry in three directions, having a discrete class of point groups. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system (or isometric crystal system) is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ... For other uses, see Fracture (disambiguation). ... Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer. ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The streak (also called powder color) of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across a unweathered surface. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Magnetite Lodestone or loadstone refers to either: Magnetite, a magnetic mineral form of iron(II), iron(III) oxide Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides. ... In physics, a ferrimagnetic material is one in which the magnetic moment of the atoms on different sublattices oppose as in antiferromagnetism but the opposing moments are unequal and a spontaneous magnetization remains. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... The spinels are any of a class of minerals which crystallize in the isometric system with an octahedral habit. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Wüstite (FeO) is a rare mineral form of iron(II) oxide found with meteorites and native iron. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Fig. ...


The Curie temperature of magnetite is 858 K. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on Earth, and these magnetic properties led to lodestone being used as an early form of magnetic compass. Magnetite typically carries the dominant magnetic signature in rocks, and so it has been a critical tool in paleomagnetism, a science important in discovering and understanding plate tectonics. The relationships between magnetite and other iron-rich oxide minerals such as ilmenite, hematite, and ulvospinel have been much studied, as the complicated reactions between these minerals and oxygen influence how and when magnetite preserves records of the Earth's magnetic field. In physics, the Curie point, or Curie temperature, is the temperature above which a ferromagnet loses its ferromagnetic ability to possess a net (spontaneous) magnetization in the absence of an external magnetic field. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Magnetite Lodestone or loadstone refers to either: Magnetite, a magnetic mineral form of iron(II), iron(III) oxide Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides. ... This article is about the navigational instrument. ... Paleomagnetism refers to the study of the record of the Earths magnetic field preserved in various magnetic minerals through time. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... ... A metamorphic reaction is a chemical reaction that takes place during the geological process of metamorphism in an amalgamate of minerals that helps determine the final stable state of the resulting metamorphic rock. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Magnetite has been very important in understanding the conditions under which rocks form and evolve. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite, and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity. Commonly igneous rocks contain grains of two solid solutions, one between magnetite and ulvospinel and the other between ilmenite and hematite. Compositions of the mineral pairs are used to calculate how oxidizing was the magma (i.e., the oxygen fugacity of the magma): a range of oxidizing conditions are found in magmas and the oxidation state helps to determine how the magmas might evolve by fractional crystallization. In geology, a mineal redox buffer is a mineral assemblage which constrains a particular range of oxygen fugacity or sulfur fugacity within a naturally occurring rock composition. ... Fugacity is a measure of the tendency of a substance to prefer one phase (liquid, solid, gas) over another. ... Volcanic rock on North America Plutonic rock on North America Igneous rocks (etymology from latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Fig. ... Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Fugacity is a measure of the tendency of a substance to prefer one phase (liquid, solid, gas) over another. ... In geology, a mineal redox buffer is a mineral assemblage which constrains a particular range of oxygen fugacity or sulfur fugacity within a naturally occurring rock composition. ... In chemistry, Fractional Crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in soluability. ...


Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks. Magnetite also occurs in many sedimentary rocks, including banded iron formations. In many igneous rocks, magnetite-rich and ilmenite-rich grains occur that precipitated together from magma. Magnetite also is produced from peridotites and dunites by serpentinization. Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of a pre-existing rock type, the protolith, in a process called metamorphism, which means change in form, derived from the Greek words meta, change, and morphe, form. The protolith is subjected to extreme heat (>150 degrees Celsius) and pressure causing profound... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... 2. ... Volcanic rock on North America Plutonic rock on North America Igneous rocks (etymology from latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Ilmenite is a weakly magnetic iron-black or steel-gray mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Peridotite xenolith from San Carlos, southwestern United States. ... Dunite is an igneous, plutonic rock, of ultramafic composition, with coarse grained or phaneritic texture. ... A sample of serpentinite rock, partially made up of chrysotile Serpentinite is a rock comprised of one or more serpentine minerals. ...


Magnetite is a valuable source of iron ore. It dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid. This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...

Contents

Distribution of deposits

Magnetite is sometimes found in large quantities in beach sand. Such mineral sands or iron sands or black sands are found in various places such as California and the west coast of New Zealand. The magnetite is carried to the beach via rivers from erosion and is concentrated via wave action and currents. Black sand is a heavy, weakly magnetic, glossy, semi-metallic mixture of usually fine sands, found as part of a placer deposit. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Huge deposits have been found in banded iron formations. These sedimentary rocks have been used to infer changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere of the Earth. 2. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ...


Large deposits of magnetite also are found in Kiruna, Sweden, the Pilbara region in Western Australia, and in the Adirondack region of New York in the United States. Deposits are also found in Norway, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, South Africa, India, Mexico, and in Oregon, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Virginia, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado in the United States. Recently, in June 2005, an exploration company, Cardero Resources, discovered a vast deposit of magnetite-bearing sand dunes in Peru. The dune field covers 250 km², with the highest dune at over 2000 m above the desert floor. The sand contains 10% magnetite[1]. Kiruna View from just outside Kiruna, with European route E10 left to LuleÃ¥ and right to Narvik, Norway. ... The Pilbara is one of the nine regions of Western Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Stream on the hike to the top of Ampersand Mountain The Adirondack mountain range is located in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, St. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


Biological occurrences

Crystals of magnetite have been found in some bacteria (e.g., Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum) and in the brains of bees, of termites, of some birds (e.g., the pigeon), and of humans. These crystals are thought to be involved in magnetoreception, the ability to sense the polarity or the inclination of the earth's magnetic field, and to be involved in navigation. Also, chitons have teeth made of magnetite on their radula making them unique among animals. This means they have an exceptionally abrasive tongue with which to scrape food from rocks. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Binomial name Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum Magnetospirillum (Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum) is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic magnetotactic bacterium, first isolated from pond water by the microbiologist R. P. Blakemore in 1975. ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Reference: Earthlife as of 2002-07-26 A termite (also known as a white ant) is any member of the order Isoptera, a group of social insects that eat wood and other cellulose-rich vegetable matter. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Pigeon redirects here. ... The ability to sense the polarity or the inclination of the earths magnetic field, and to be involved in navigation. ... The polarity of an object is, in general, its physical alignment of atoms. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, the space surrounding moving electric charges, changing electric fields and magnetic dipoles contains a magnetic field. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Lined Chiton (Tonicella lineata) Chitons, also called polyplacophorans and rarely polyplacophores, are 860 species of molluscs of the Class Polyplacophora. ... Transverse view of the buccal cavity with the radula Radula types chart. ...


The study of biomagnetism began with the discoveries of Caltech paleoecologist Heinz Lowenstam in the 1960s. Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms. ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Paleoecology uses data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the ecosystems of the past. ...


Preparation as a ferrofluid

Magnetite can be prepared in the laboratory as a ferrofluid in the Massart method by mixing iron(II) chloride and iron(III) chloride in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Ferrofluid on glass, with a magnet underneath. ... Iron(II) chloride, or ferrous chloride, is the chemical compound FeCl2. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , Related Compounds Other anions Iron(III) fluoride Iron(III) bromide Other cations Iron(II) chloride Manganese(II) chloride Cobalt(II) chloride Ruthenium(III) chloride Related coagulants Iron(II) sulfate Polyaluminium chloride Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25... Flash point Non-flammable. ...


See also

Ferrite may refer to: Ferrite (magnet)s (e. ... Hematite, also spelled haematite, is the mineral form of Iron(III) oxide, (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides. ... Wüstite (FeO) is a rare mineral form of iron(II) oxide found with meteorites and native iron. ... In geology, a mineal redox buffer is a mineral assemblage which constrains a particular range of oxygen fugacity or sulfur fugacity within a naturally occurring rock composition. ... Periclase occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks. ... Maghemite is a member of the family of iron oxides. ... Bluing is a passivation process in which steel is partially protected against rust, and is named after the blue-black appearance of the resulting protective finish. ...

References

Mineralogy related

  • Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., Wiley, ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  • Webmineral data
  • Mineral galleries
  • Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Pattern

Biology related

  • Heinz A. Lowenstam and Stephen Weiner, On Biomineralization, Oxford University Press, USA (1989) ISBN 0-19-504977-2
  • Shih-Bin Robin Chang' and Joseph Lynn Kirschvink, Magnetofossils, the Magnetization of Sediments, and the Evolution of Magnetite Biomineralization, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 1989. 17:169-95 PDF file
  • Bio-magnetics
  • Magnetic bacteria (Italian)

Mining related links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Magnetite: Magnetite mineral information and data. (968 words)
Hematite overgrowths on, and inclusions in, magnetite; ilmenite inclusions, rutile overgrowths, chorite group overgrowths, pyrophanite inclusions; magnetite on hematite; inclusions in muscovite; inclusions in hematite; inclusions in ilmenite; magnetite overgrowths on olivine
Fleet, M.E., Bilcox, G.A., and Barnett, R.L. (1980) Oriented magnetite inclusions in pyroxenes from the Grenville province.
Coey, J.M.D., Berkowits, A.E., Balcells, L.I., Putris, F.F., and Parker, F.T. (1998) Magnetoresistance of magnetite.
Magnetite - LoveToKnow 1911 (466 words)
Magnetite is a mineral of wide distribution, occurring as grains in many massive and volcanic rocks, like granite, diorite and dolerite.
Grains of magnetite occur in serpentine, as an alteration-product of the olivine.
In emery, magnetite in a granular form is largely associated with the corundum; and in certain kinds of mica magnetite occurs as thin dendritic enclosures.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m