Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electrical potential difference (or voltage) across a conductor situated in a changing magnetic field. Michael Faraday was the first to describe this phenomenon mathematically: he found that the electromotive force (EMF) produced along a closed path is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux through any surface bounded by that path. In practice, this means that an electrical current will flow in any closed conductor, when the magnetic flux through a surface bounded by the conductor changes. This applies whether the field itself changes in strength or the conductor is moved through it. Electromagnetic induction underlies the operation of generators, induction motors, transformers and most other electrical machines.
For a coil of wire in a changing magnetic field, Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction states that
It is exactly the same for electric field and magneticinduction: the intensity of the field is significant near its source, and decreases rapidly as one moves away from it.
However the magneticinduction that we usually measure are in the range of the microtesla (µT), that is to say, one millionth of a tesla.
The magnetic permeability of a material is the capability of this material to channel magneticinduction, in other words, to concentrate magnetic flux lines and thus to increase the value of magneticinduction.
Magneticinduction is the flux per unit area normal to the direction of the magnetic path.
The average value of magneticinduction over the area of the air gap, Ag; or it is the magneticinduction measured at a specific point within the air gap; measured in Gauss.
The north pole of a magnet, or compass, is attracted toward the north geographic pole of the earth (which is actually, by definition, a magnetic south pole), and the south pole of a magnet is attracted toward the south geographic pole of the earth.
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