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Encyclopedia > Magnesium carbonate
Magnesium carbonate
General
Other names Magnesite
dihydrate: Barringtonite
trihydrate: Nesequehonite
pentahydrate: Lansfordite
Molecular formula MgCO3
Molar mass 84.32 g/mol
Appearance white solid
CAS number [546-93-0]
Properties
Density and phase 2.958 g/cm3, solid
Solubility in water 10.6 mg/100 ml
Melting point 662 °C decomp.
Structure
Coordination
geometry
 ?
Crystal structure Trigonal
Thermodynamic data
Standard enthalpy
of formation
ΔfH°solid
-1111.69 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy
S°solid
65.84 J.K−1.mol−1
Safety data
EU classification not listed
Flash point non flammable
RTECS number OM2470000
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Other cations Calcium carbonate
Strontium carbonate
Barium carbonate
Related compounds Artinite
Hydromagnesite
Dypingite
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is a white solid that occurs in nature as a mineral. Several hydrated and basic forms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals. In addition, MgCO3 has a variety of applications. Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. ... Magnesium carbonate, also known as magnesite when found in nature, is a chemical compound with a variety of uses. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Density, or volumic mass (ISO 31), is a measure of mass per unit volume. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The coordination geometry of an atom is the geometrical pattern formed by its neighbors in a molecule or a crystal. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In crystallography, the rhombohedral (or trigonal) crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 atmosphere... In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under conditions of standard temperature and pressure. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main source of European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... The flash point of a flammable liquid is the lowest temperature at which it can form an ignitable mixture with air. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a material is the factor by which the phase velocity of electromagnetic radiation is slowed in that material, relative to its velocity in a vacuum. ... The dielectric constant εr (represented as or K in some cases) is defined as the ratio: where εs is the static permittivity of the material in question, and ε0 is the vacuum permittivity. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... IR spectrum of a thin film of liquid ethanol. ... Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy most commonly known as NMR Spectroscopy is the name given to the technique which exploits the magnetic properties of nuclei. ... Basic schematic of a mass spectrometer Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or in common speech mass-spec) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Multivalent redirects here. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with chemical formula CaCO3. ... Strontianite (SrCO3) is a mineral consisting of strontium carbonate. ... Barium carbonate (BaCO3), also known as witherite, is a chemical compound used in rat poison, bricks and cement. ... Magnesium carbonate, also known as the mineral magnesite when found in nature, is a chemical compound with a variety of uses. ... Hydromagnesite is a mineral which generally occurs associated with the weathering products of magnesium containing rocks such as Serpentine or Brucite. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Hydrates are compounds formed by the union of water with some other substance, generally forming a neutral body, as certain crystallized salts. ... A base in chemistry is a chemical substance which has a free pair of electrons to bind a hydrogen ion commonly referred to as a proton (IUPAC definition). ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ...

Contents

Properties

The most common magnesium carbonate forms are the anhydrous salt called magnesite (MgCO3) and the di, tri, and pentahydrates known as barringtonite (MgCO3·2H2O), nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O), and lansfordite (MgCO3·5H2O), respectively. Some basic forms such as artinite (MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O), hydromagnestite (4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·4H2O), and dypingite (4MgCO3· Mg(OH)2·5H2O) also occur as minerals. Magnesite consists of white trigonal crystals. The anhydrous salt is practically insoluble in water, acetone, and ammonia. All forms of magnesium carbonate dissolve in acids. Magnesium carbonate crystallizes in the calcite structure wherein Mg2+ is surrounded by six oxygen atoms. The dihydrate has a triclinic structure, while the trihydrate has a monoclinic strucure. The pentahydrate is a white crystalline solid with monoclinic crystals. As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... In crystallography, the rhombohedral (or trigonal) crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... Insoluble Not soluble ... Impact of a drop of water. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... In crystallography, the triclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ...


Reactions

Although magnesium carbonate is ordinarily obtained by mining the mineral magnesite, the trihydrate salt, MgCO3·3H2O, can be prepared by mixing solutions of magnesium and carbonate ions under an atmosphere of carbon dioxide. Magnesium carbonate can also be synthesized by exposing a magnesium hydroxide slurry to carbon dioxide under pressure (3.5 to 5 atm) below 50 °C, which gives soluble magnesium bicarbonate: This article or section should be merged with solvent, soluble, and solubility equilibrium Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is one or more substance (the solute) dissolved in another substance (the solvent) forming a homogenous mixture. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... In organic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ... ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, otherwise known as milk of magnesia, is commonly used as an antacid or a laxative. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ...

Mg(OH)2 + 2CO2 → Mg(HCO3)2

Following the filtration of the solution, the filtrate is dried under vacuum to produce magnesium carbonate as a hydrated salt:

Mg2+ + 2HCO3- → MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O

When dissolved with acid, magnesium carbonate decomposes with release of carbon dioxide: An acid (often represented by the generic formula HA) is traditionally considered any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH of less than 7. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...

MgCO3 + 2HCl → MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O
MgCO3 + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + CO2 + H2O

At high temperatures, MgCO3 decomposes to magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide, this process is called calcining: Hi jack Magnesium oxide Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...

MgCO3 → MgO + CO2

Uses

Magnesite and dolomite minerals are used to produce magnesium metal and basic refractory bricks. MgCO3 is also used in flooring, fireproofing, fire extinguishing compositions, cosmetics, dusting powder, and toothpaste. Other applications are as filler material, smoke suppressant in plastics, a reinforcing agent in neoprene rubber, a drying agent, a laxative to loosen the bowels, and color retention in floods. In addition, high purity magnesium carbonate is used as antacid and as an additive in table salt to keep it free flowing. Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Morocco Dolomite is the name of both a carbonate rock and a mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate (formula: CaMg(CO3)2) found in crystals. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ...


Magnesium carbonate, most often referred to as 'chalk', is used as a drying agent for hands in rock climbing, gymnastics, and weight lifting.


References

  • Patnaik, Pradyot (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. New York: McGraw Hill. 
  • Trotman-Dickenson, A.F "(ed.)" (1973). Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 

External links

  • Links to external chemical sources

  Results from FactBites:
 
Magnesium carbonate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (353 words)
Magnesium carbonate crystallizes in the calcite structure wherein Mg
In addition, high purity magnesium carbonate is used as antacid and as an additive in table salt to keep it free flowing.
Magnesium carbonate, most often referred to as 'chalk', is used as a drying agent for hands in rock climbing and weight lifting.
Magnesium - MSN Encarta (473 words)
Magnesium was first isolated by the British chemist Sir Humphry Davy in 1808.
Magnesium melts at 649°C (1200°F), boils at 1090°C (1994°F), and has a specific gravity of 1.74; the atomic weight of magnesium is 24.305.
O), well known as Epsom salt; and magnesium oxide (MgO), called burnt magnesia, or magnesia, prepared by burning magnesium in oxygen or by heating magnesium carbonate and used as a heat-refractory and insulating material, in cosmetics, as a filler in paper manufacture, and as a mild, antacid laxative.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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