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Encyclopedia > Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia around 280 b. C.
Magna Graecia around 280 b. C.
Columns of doric temple at Taranto
Columns of doric temple at Taranto

Magna Graecia (Latin for "Greater Greece," Megalê Hellas/Μεγάλη Ελλάς in Greek) is the name of the area in the southern Italian peninsula that was colonised by Greek settlers in the 8th century BC, who brought with them the lasting imprint of their Hellenic civilization. Image File history File links Magna_Graecia. ... Image File history File links Magna_Graecia. ... Image File history File links Colonne_Doriche_a_Taranto. ... Image File history File links Colonne_Doriche_a_Taranto. ... Founded 706 BC as Taras () Region Apulia Mayor Rossana Di Bello Area  - City Proper  217 km² Population  - City (2001)  - Density (city proper) 201,349 973/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 40°28 N 17°14 E www. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Motto: none Anthem: Il Canto degli Italiani Capital Rome Largest city Rome Official language(s) Italian1 Government Republic  â€¢ President  â€¢ Prime minister Giorgio Napolitano Romano Prodi Unification Birth of the Republic 17 March 1861 2 June 1946 Accession to EU March 25, 1957; Founding Member Area    - Total 301,230 km² (71st... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Assyria conquers Damascus and Samaria Nineveh destroyed (789 BCE) First recorded Olympic Games held in Greece (776 BCE) Zhou Dynasty moved its capital to Luoyang (771 BC); The Spring and Autumn Period (771-481 BCE) began. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ...

Main article: Colonies in antiquity.

In the 8th and 7th centuries, driven by unsettled conditions at home, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea and Massilia (what is now Marseille, France). They included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian peninsula. The Romans called the area of Sicily and the foot of the boot of Italy Magna Graecia (Latin, “Greater Greece”), since it was so thickly inhabited by Greeks. The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia and CalabriaStrabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Marseilles redirects here. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... Apulia (official Italian name: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto in the south. ... Calabria, formerly Brutium, is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ... the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ...


With this colonisation, the Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites, its traditions of the independent polis but it soon developed an original Hellenic civilisation, later interacting with the native Italic and Latin civilisations. The most important cultural transplant was the Chalcidean/Cumaean variety of the Greek alphabet, which was firstly adopted by the Etruscans and subsequently evolved into the Latin alphabet, which went on to become the most widely used alphabet in the world. Greece is often referred to as the cradle of Western civilisation and ancient Athens was considered to be its center. ... The Greek language (Greek Ελληνικά, IPA // – Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of some 3,000 years. ... A polis (πολις) — plural: poleis (πολεις) — is a city, or a city-state. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Chalcis or Chalkida, Halkida, Halkis or Chalkis (Greek, Modern: Χαλκίδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -is), the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the strait of the Euripus at its narrowest point. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western Greek alphabet. ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Many of the new cities become very powerful and rich, like Kapuê (Capua), Neapolis (Νεάπολις, Naples), Syracuse, Akragas, Subaris(Σύβαρις, Sybaris). Other cities in Magna Graecia included Taras (Τάρας, Taranto), Epizephyrioi Lokroi or Locri (Λοκροί), Rhegion (Ρήγιον), Kroton (Κρότων, Crotone), Thurii (Θούριοι), Elea (Ελέα), Ankon (Αγκων, Ancona), etc. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Nàpule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Agrigentum (modern Agrigento). ... Sybaris, a city of Magna Graecia, on the Gulf of Taranto, between the rivers Crathis (Crati) and Sybaris (Coscile), which now meet 3 miles from the sea, but in ancient times had independent mouths, was the oldest Greek colony in this region. ... Founded 706 BC as Taras () Region Apulia Mayor Rossana Di Bello Area  - City Proper  217 km² Population  - City (2001)  - Density (city proper) 201,349 973/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Latitude Longitude 40°28 N 17°14 E www. ... Locri Epizephyri (epi-Zephyros, under the West wind; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was founded about 680 BC on the Italian shores of the Ionian Sea, near modern Capo Zefirio, by the Locrians, apparently by Opuntii (East Locrians) from the city of Opus, but including Ozolae (West... The ancient city of Rhegion was one of the Magna Graecia colonies founded by Calcidians in 730 BC. Thucydides wrote that before to found Rhegion, there was a consulting to the Delphi oracle, and then the Messenes, coming from Messene in the Peloponnesos participate to the foundation by order of... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ... Elea (Velia by the Romans; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a Greek coastal city founded around 540 BC in Lucania in southern Italy, 15 miles southeast of the Gulf of Salerno. ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of northeastern Italy, population 100,507 (2001). ...


Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic following the Pyrrhic War. Combatants Roman republic Magna Graecia, Epirus Commanders Publius Valerius Laevinus, Publius Decius Mus Pyrrhus of Epirus The Pyrrhic War was a war between Pyrrhus of Epirus and Rome that lasted from 280 BC to 275 BC. It was an important precursor to the Punic Wars, because in establishing itself as...


During the Early Middle Ages, following the Gothic War that was disastrous for the region, new waves of Byzantine Christian Greeks came to Magna Graecia from Greece and Asia Minor, as southern Italy remained loosely governed by the Eastern Roman Empire until the advent, first of the Lombards then of the Normans. Moreover, without a doubt, the Byzantines found in southern Italy people of common cultural root, the Greek-speaking eredi ellenofoni of Magna Graecia. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... See also Gothic War (377–382) for the war on the Danube. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous people of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Hrolf Ganger, who adopted the French name Rollo and swore allegiance to the king of France (Charles the Simple). ...


Although most of the Greek inhabitants of southern Italy became entirely Italianized (as Paestum had already been in the 4th century BC) and no longer speak Greek, remarkably a small Griko-speaking minority still exists today in Calabria and mostly in Salento. Griko is the name of a language combining ancient Doric Greek, Byzantine Greek, and Italian elements, spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region. There is rich oral tradition and Griko folklore, limited now, though once numerous, to only a few thousand people, most of them having become absorbed into the surrounding Italian element. Records of Magna Graecia being predominantly Greek-speaking, date as late as the 11th century AD (end of Byzantine domination in Southern Italy). Paestum overview Paestum is the classical Roman name of a major Graeco-Roman city in the Campania region of Italy. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a Modern Greek dialect which is spoken by people in the Magna Graecia region in southern Italy and Sicily, and it is otherwise known as the Grecanic language. ... Calabria, formerly Brutium, is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ... Liging van de Salento Salento (Salentu in dialect) is the south-eastern extremity of Apulia region, Italy. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική) is a linguistic term that describes the third period in the history of the Greek language. ... Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... Folklore is the body of verbal expressive culture, including tales, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs current among a particular population, comprising the oral tradition of that culture, subculture, or group. ...


See also

Note: This article contains special characters. ... Location map of the Griko-speaking areas in Salento and Calabria Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is a language combining ancient Greek, Byzantine Greek and Italian elements. ...

References

  • Luca Cerchiai, Lorena Jannelli, Fausto Longo, Lorena Janelli, 2004. The Greek Cities of Magna Graecia and Sicily (Getty Trust) ISBN 0892367512
  • T. J. Dunbabin, 1948. The Western Greeks
  • A. G. Woodhead, 1962. The Greeks in the West

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Magna Graecia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (538 words)
Magna Graecia (Latin for "Greater Greece," Megalê Hellas/Μεγάλη Ελλάς in Greek) is the name of the area in the southern Italian peninsula that was colonised by Greek settlers in the 8th century BC, who brought with them the lasting imprint of their Hellenic civilization.
Magna Graecia was absorbed into the Roman Republic following the Pyrrhic War.
During the Early Middle Ages, following the Gothic War that was disastrous for the region, new waves of Byzantine Christian Greeks came to Magna Graecia from Greece and Asia Minor, as southern Italy remained loosely governed by the Eastern Roman Empire until the advent, first of the Lombards then of the Normans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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