FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Magma chamber

A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. If the magma is able to fracture the overlaying rock sufficiently to find its way to the surface then the result will be a volcanic eruption, consequently many magma chambers underly volcanoes. Politics—see Chambers of parliament Firearms—see Chamber (weaponry) Heart chamber Combustion chamber Marvel Comics —see Chamber (comics) The Chamber was a short-lived game show on FOX. The Chamber is a suspense novel by John Grisham. ... Earth is the third planet in the Solar system. ... Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other rocky planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Eruption redirects here. ...


Magma rises through fractures from beneath the crust because it is less dense than the surrounding rock. When the magma cannot find a path upwards it pools into a magma chamber. As more magma rises up below it, the pressure in the chamber grows.


If magma resides in a chamber for a long period, then it can become stratified with lower density components rising to the top and denser materials sinking. It can also start to cool, with the higher melting point components such as olivine crystallising out of the solution, particularly near to the cooler walls of the chamber, and forming a denser mush which sinks. Any subsequent eruption may produce distinctly layered deposits, for example the deposits from the 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius include a thick layer of white pumice from the upper portion of the magma chamber overlayed with a similar layer of grey pumice produced from material erupted later from lower down in the chamber. Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... Olivine The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 in which the ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the series: forsterite (Mg-rich) and fayalite (Fe-rich). ... Look up mush in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 Events June 23 - Titus succeeds his father Vespasian as Roman emperor. ... This article is about the volcano in Italy. ... Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ...


Another effect of the cooling of the chamber is that the solidifying crystals will release the gas (primarily steam) previously dissolved when they were liquid, causing the pressure in the chamber to rise, possibly sufficiently to produce an eruption. Additionally, the removal of the lower melting point components will tend to make the magma more viscous (by increasing the concentration of silicates). Thus, stratification of a magma chamber may result in an increase in the amount of gas within the magma near the top of the chamber, and also make this magma more viscous; potentially leading to a more explosive eruption than would be the case had the chamber not become stratified. It has been suggested that crystallization processes be merged into this article or section. ... In physical chemistry, and in engineering, steam refers to vaporized water. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound consisting of silicon and oxygen (SixOy), one or more metals, and possibly hydrogen. ...

Main article: Igneous differentiation

If the magma is not vented to the surface in a volcanic eruption it will slowly cool and crystalize at depth to form an intrusive igneous body composed of granite or gabbro. Igneous differentiation is an umbrella term for the various processes by which magmas undergo bulk chemical change during the partial melting process, cooling, emplacement of eruption. ... Pluton redirects here. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Gabbro specimen. ...


Often, a volcano may have a deep magma chamber many kilometres down, which supplies a shallower chamber near the summit. The location of magma chambers can be mapped using seismology: seismic waves from earthquakes move more slowly through liquid rock than solid, allowing measurements to pinpoint the regions of slow movement which identify magma chambers. Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... Global earthquake epicenters, 1963–1998. ...


As a volcano erupts, emptying the magma chamber, the surrounding rock will collapse into it. If a large amount of magma is erupted, causing the chamber to reduce considerably in volume then this can result in a depression at the surface called a caldera. Crater Lake, Oregon A caldera is a volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a volcano into itself. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Magma chamber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (514 words)
A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further.
Another effect of the cooling of the chamber is that the solidifying crystals will release the gas (primarily steam) previously dissolved when they were liquid, causing the pressure in the chamber to rise, possibly sufficiently to produce an eruption.
Thus, stratification of a magma chamber may result in an increase in the amount of gas within the magma near the top of the chamber, and also make this magma more viscous; potentially leading to a more explosive eruption than would be the case had the chamber not become stratified.
Magma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1605 words)
Magma is a complex high-temperature (between 650 and 1200 °C) silicate solution that is ancestral to all igneous rocks.
Magma rises primarily because a melt is less dense than its source rock, it is propelled upward through the lithosphere by the buoyancy that its lower density creates (the way less dense wood is pushed up and floats in denser water).
Magma is composed mainly of silica; alkalis (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium) and iron.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m