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Encyclopedia > Magicicada
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Periodical cicadas
A 17-year Periodical cicada
A 17-year Periodical cicada
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Family: Cicadidae
Genus: Magicicada
Species

See text. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Animalia redirects here. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Suborders Archaeorrhyncha Clypeorrhyncha Prosorrhyncha Sternorrhyncha Hemiptera is a large, cosmopolitan order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in three suborders. ... Genera Many. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ...

Magicicada is the genus of the 13- and 17- year periodical cicadas of eastern North America. These insects display a unique combination of long life cycles, periodicity, and mass emergences. They sometimes go by the common name "seventeen-year locust", but they are not locusts; locusts belong to the order Orthoptera. Subfamilies and genera Tettigadinae Cicadinae Cicadettinae For genera see text. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... {{Taxobox | color = pink | name = Insects | fossil_range = Carboniferous - Recent | image = European honey bee extracts nectar. ... Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Suborders and families Suborder Ensifera - crickets Superfamily Gryllacroidea Gryllacrididae - camel crikets Rhaphidophoridae - cave crickets Schizodactylidae - dune crickets Stenopelmatidae - king crickets Superfamily Grylloidea Gryllidae - true crickets Gryllotalpidae - mole cricket Mogoplistidae Myrmecophilidae Superfamily Tettigonioidea Anostostomatidae - king crickets Bradyporidae - armoured crickets Haglidae Phaneropteridae Tettigoniidae - katydids, koringkrieks Suborder Caelifera - grasshoppers, locusts Superfamily Acridoidea Acrididae...

Contents

Taxonomy

There are seven recognized species. Three species have a 17-year cycle:

  • M. cassini (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • M. septendecim (Fisher)
  • M. septendecula (Alexander and Moore, 1962)

Four more species follow a 13-year cycle: Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...

  • M. neotredecim (Marshall and Cooley, 2000)
  • M. tredecim (Walsh and Riley, 1868)
  • M. tredecassini (Alexander and Moore, 1962)
  • M. tredecula (Alexander and Moore, 1962)

Generally, the 17-year cicadas are distributed more in the northern states of the eastern United States, while the 13-year cicadas occur in the southern states. 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Description

Periodical cicadas are slightly smaller than other, annual cicadas. Imagines have a size of 2.5 to 3 cm (1 to 1.2 inches). They are black, with red eyes and yellow or orange stripes on the underside. The wings are translucent and have orange veins. The imago is the last stage of development of an insect, after the last ecdysis of an incomplete metamorphosis, or after emergence from pupation where the metamorphosis is complete. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


They are harmless animals; they neither bite nor sting. They are not poisonous, and there is no evidence that they transmit diseases. They generally do not pose a threat to vegetation, but young plants may be damaged by excessive feeding or egg laying. It is thus advised not to plant new trees or shrubs just before an emergence of the periodical cicadas. Mature plants usually do not suffer lasting damage even by a mass-emergence


Broods

Magicicadas (both teneral and fully developed). Photo by Arthur D. Guilani
Brood X Cicada
Brood X Cicada

Periodical cicadas are grouped into 30 broods, based on the year they emerge. Broods are numbered using Roman numerals; broods I–XVII are the seventeen-year cicadas, while broods XVIII–XXX are the thirteen-year cicadas. Some broods are not known to exist, but they are retained in the numbering scheme for convenience. This scheme was put forth by C.L. Martlat in his classic study of 1907. Since then the actual number of broods has been recognized as 15 rather than 30. [1] Download high resolution version (2400x1800, 839 KB)From [1]. Photo by Arthur D. Guilani. ... Download high resolution version (2400x1800, 839 KB)From [1]. Photo by Arthur D. Guilani. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1264x1440, 168 KB)17-year cicada. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1264x1440, 168 KB)17-year cicada. ... Look up Brood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...


Brood III (the Iowan Brood) last emerged in 1997; its next emergence will be in 2014. Brood IX emerged in 2003. Brood X (the Great Eastern Brood), a seventeen-year brood stretching from New York to North Carolina on the East Coast to Illinois and Michigan, emerged in May 2004. Brood X is the largest of the broods of the periodical cicadas; it will emerge again in 2021. Brood X (Brood 10) is one of the thirty broods of periodical cicadas that appear regularly throughout the eastern United States. ... NY redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The next brood to emerge is Brood XIII—the Northern Illinois Brood. After a seventeen-year hiatus, this brood is scheduled to emerge in 2007, in northern illinois and in parts of Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan and Indiana. However, sightings in northern Illinois have occurred as early as May 2006.[1] Brood XIII (also known as Brood 13 or Northern Illinois Brood) is one of 15 separate broods of periodical cicadas that appear regularly throughout the midwestern United States. ...

Magicicada septendecim
Magicicada septendecim

The next thirteen-year brood to emerge will be Brood XIX (the Great Southern Brood) in 2011 from the Midwest to Maryland and Virginia. Brood XXIII (the Lower Mississippi River Valley Brood) is another thirteen-year brood; it last emerged in 2002 and will re-emerge in 2015. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2229x1458, 1489 KB) Reason for deletion request: The periodical cicada (Magicicada septendecim) Plate 7 from Insects, their way and means of living, R. E. Snodgrass. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2229x1458, 1489 KB) Reason for deletion request: The periodical cicada (Magicicada septendecim) Plate 7 from Insects, their way and means of living, R. E. Snodgrass. ... Brood XIX (also known as Brood 19 and the Great Southern Brood) is one of 15 separate broods of periodical cicadas that appear regularly throughout the southeastern United States. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...


Brood VII is an isolated population in upstate New York and consists only of M. septendecim. It emerged in 2001, and hence its next emergence will be in 2018. NY redirects here. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Life cycle

Transformation of the periodical cicada from the mature nymph to the adult
Transformation of the periodical cicada from the mature nymph to the adult

The nymphs of the periodic cicadas live underground, at depths of 30 cm (one foot) or more, feeding on the juices of plant roots. [2] They stay immobile and go through five development stages before constructing an exit tunnel in the spring of their 13th or 17th year. These exit tunnels have a diameter of about 1–1.5 cm (½ in.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1269x2091, 1665 KB) Caption Transformation of the periodical cicada from the mature nymph to the adult Summary Fig. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1269x2091, 1665 KB) Caption Transformation of the periodical cicada from the mature nymph to the adult Summary Fig. ... Praying mantis nymphs, approximately 4mm long, clustered on a leaf In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some insect species, which undergoes incomplete metamorphosis (Hemimetabolism) before reaching its adult stage; unlike a larva, a nymphs overall form already resembles that of an adult. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

Emergence holes
Emergence holes

The nymphs emerge at an evening when the soil temperature is above 17°C (63 F) and climb to a suitable place on the nearby vegetation to complete their transformation into an adult cicada. They molt one last time and then spend about six days in the leaves waiting for their exoskeleton to harden completely. Just after this final molt, the teneral adults are white, but darken within an hour. Download high resolution version (1091x720, 344 KB)From the U.S. Department of Agriculture, from [1]. Copyright statement at [2] says public domain, proper credit required. According to the source page, this image is courtesy of either the Ohio Department of Natural Resources or the West Virginia Department of Agriculture. ... Download high resolution version (1091x720, 344 KB)From the U.S. Department of Agriculture, from [1]. Copyright statement at [2] says public domain, proper credit required. According to the source page, this image is courtesy of either the Ohio Department of Natural Resources or the West Virginia Department of Agriculture. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... An exoskeleton, in contrast to an endoskeleton, is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body. ...

Magicicadas molting

The nymphs emerge in large numbers at about the same time, sometimes more than 1.5 million individuals per acre (>370/m²).[3] Their mass-emergence is a survival trait called "predator satiation": for the first week after emergence, the periodic cicadas are an easy prey for reptiles, birds, squirrels, cats, and other small and large mammals.[4][5] The cicadas' survival strategy is simply to overwhelm predators by their sheer numbers, ensuring the survival of most of the individuals and thus of the species. It has been hypothesized that the emergence period of large prime numbers (13 and 17 years) is also a predatory avoidance strategy adopted to eliminate the possibility of potential predators receiving periodic population boosts by synchronizing their own generations to divisors of the cicada emergence period. Download high resolution version (966x870, 161 KB)Emerging Cicada, by user Lorax File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (966x870, 161 KB)Emerging Cicada, by user Lorax File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Genera Many, see the article Sciuridae. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of... In mathematics, a prime number, or prime for short, is a natural number greater than one and whose only distinct positive divisors are 1 and itself. ... In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer which evenly divides n without leaving a remainder. ...


Adult periodical cicadas live only for a few weeks—by mid-July, they will all be gone. Their short life has one sole purpose: reproduction. The males "sing" a mating song; like other cicadas, they produce loud sounds using their tymbal. Receptive females respond to the calls of conspecific males with timed wing-flicks, which attract the males for mating. The sounds of a "chorus"—a group of males—can be deafening and reach 100 dB. The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit of measurement that expresses the magnitude of a physical quantity (usually power) relative to a specified or implied reference level. ...

Magicicadas egg slits (circled in red)

After mating, the male weakens and dies. The female lives a little longer in order to lay eggs: it makes between six and 20 V-shaped slits in the bark of young twigs and deposits up to 600 eggs there. Shortly afterwards, the female also dies. After about six to ten weeks, the eggs hatch and the newborn nymphs drop to the ground, where they burrow and begin another 13 or 17-year cycle. The carcasses of periodic cicadas decompose on the ground, providing a resource pulse of nutrients to the forest community.[6]
Download high resolution version (988x495, 96 KB)Photo taken by user lorax File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (988x495, 96 KB)Photo taken by user lorax File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Notes

  1. ^ (Associated Press) "Swarms of cicadas emerging in Midwest" 20 May 2007
  2. ^ Marlatt, C.F. (1907). "The periodical cicada". Bulletin of the USDA Bureau of Entomology. 71:1-181
  3. ^ Dybas, H.S. and D.D. Davis (1962). "A populations census of seventeen-year periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada)", Ecology 43(3): 432-444
  4. ^ Williams, K.S., K.G. Smith, F.M. Stephen (1993). "Emergence of 13-year periodical cicadas(Cicadidae, Magicicada): phenology, mortality, and predator satiation" Ecology 74(4):1143-1152
  5. ^ Williams, K.S. and C. Simon (1995). "The ecology, behavior and evolution of periodical cicadas". Annual Review of Entomology 40:269-295
  6. ^ Yang, L. (2004). "Periodical cicadas as resource pulses in North American forests", Science, 306:1565-1567

Media

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Periodical Cicada (Magicicada) Bibliography (2775 words)
Effects of enamel paint on the behavior and survival of the periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim (Homoptera), and the lesser migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera).
Primary structure of a novel neuropeptide isolated from the corpora cardiaca of periodical cicadas having adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic activities.
Radionuclide contamination as an influence on the morphology and genetic structre of periodical cicada (Magicicada cassini) populations.
UMMZ Periodical Cicada Page (4448 words)
Magicicada are so well-synchronized developmentally that they are nearly absent as adults in the 12 or 16 years between emergences.
Magicicada population densities are so high that predators apparently eat their fill without significantly reducing the population (a phenomenon called "predator satiation"), and the predator populations cannot build up in response because the cicadas are available as food above ground only once every 13 or 17 years.
Female Magicicada produce timed "wing flick" signals in response to male calls, and the timing of this signal in relation to the male call is species-specific for species of the same life cycle.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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