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Encyclopedia > Magic (paranormal)
"The Sorceress" by John William Waterhouse

Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a conceptual system that asserts human ability to control the natural world (including events, objects, people, and physical phenomena) through mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. The term can also refer to the practices employed by a person asserting this influence, and to beliefs that explain various events and phenomena in such terms. In many cultures, magic is under pressure from, and in competition with, scientific[1] and religious[2] conceptual systems. Image File history File links John_William_Waterhouse_-_Circe_(The_Sorceress). ... Image File history File links John_William_Waterhouse_-_Circe_(The_Sorceress). ... John William Waterhouse. ... A conceptual system is a system that is comprised of non-physical objects, i. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ...

Contents

Etymology

Through late 14th century Old French magique, the word "magic" derives via Latin magicus from the Greek adjective magikos (μαγικός) used in reference to the "magical" arts — in particular divination — of the Magians (Greek: magoi, singular mágos, μάγος), the Zoroastrian astrologer priests. Greek mágos is first attested in Heraclitus (6th century BC, apud. Clement Protrepticus 12) who curses the Magians and others for their "impious rites." Greek magikos is attested from the 1st century Plutarch, typically appearing in the feminine, in μαγική τέχνη (magike techne, Latin ars magica) "magical art." This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Magi (Μάγοι) were Zoroastrian astrologer-priests from ancient Persia. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Likewise, sorcery was taken in ca. 1300 from Old French sorcerie, which is from Vulgar Latin *sortiarius, from sors "fate", apparently meaning "one who influences fate." Sorceress appears also in the late 14th century, while sorcerer is attested only from 1526. Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ...


History

Further information: History of astrology and History of religion

The history of astrology encompasses a great span of human history and many cultures. ... History of Buddhism History of Christianity History of Eastern Orthodox Christianity History of Hinduism History of Islam History of Judaism History of Protestantism History of Rastafarianism History of Roman Catholicism History of Santeria History of Shintoism See also Religion Categories: Religion ...

Classical antiquity

Main article: Magic in the Greco-Roman world
Hecate, the ancient Greek goddess of magic.

The prototypical "magicians" were a class of priests, the Magi of Zoroastrianism, and their reputation together with that of Ancient Egypt shaped the hermeticism of Hellenistic religion.[citation needed] The Greek mystery religions had strongly magical components, and in Egypt, a large number of magical papyri, in Greek, Coptic, and Demotic, have been recovered. These sources contain early instances of much of the magical lore that later became part of Western cultural expectations about the practice of magic, especially ceremonial magic.[citation needed] They contain early instances of: // [edit] Magical practices and beliefs [1] In the Greco-Roman world, the public and private rituals associated with religion seem to have been a part of everyday life. ... Image File history File links Hécate_-_Mallarmé.png Description Copié depuis en:Image:HecateDieuxAntiques. ... Image File history File links Hécate_-_Mallarmé.png Description Copié depuis en:Image:HecateDieuxAntiques. ... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... This article is about the magical and religious movement stemming from the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus. ... Hellenistic religion refers to any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the Eurasian peoples who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (ca. ... Mystery religions, or simply Mysteries, were belief systems of the Graeco-Roman world full admission to which was restricted to those who had gone through certain secret initiation rites. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Demotic script on a replica of the Rosetta stone. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

  • the use of "magic words" said to have the power to command spirits;
  • the use of wands and other ritual tools;
  • the use of a magic circle to defend the magician against the spirits he is invoking or evoking; and
  • the use of mysterious symbols or sigils thought useful to invoke or evoke spirits.[3]

The use of spirit mediums is also documented in these texts; many of the spells call for a child to be brought to the magic circle to act as a conduit for messages from the spirits.[citation needed] The time of the Emperor Julian of Rome, marked by a reaction against the influence of Christianity, saw a revival of magical practices associated with neo-Platonism under the guise of theurgy.[citation needed] Magic words are words which have a specific, and sometimes unintended, effect. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the dukes daughter into a white hind. ... An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare to call on, invoke) is: A supplication. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An excerpt from Sefer Raziel HaMalakh, featuring various magical sigils (or סגולות, seguloth, in Hebrew). ... In spirituality, a medium or spirit medium (plural mediums) is an individual who possesses the ability to receive messages from spirits (discorporate entities), or claims that he or she can channel such entities — that is, write or speak in the voice of these entities rather than in the mediums... ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Theurgy (from Greek: θεουργία) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action of one or more gods, especially with the goal of uniting with the divine, achieving henosis, and perfecting oneself. ...


Middle Ages

Several medieval scholars were credited as magicians in popular legend, notably Gerbert d'Aurillac and Albertus Magnus: both men were active in scientific research of their day as well as in ecclesiastical matters, which was enough to attach to them a nimbus of the occult. Albertus Magnus (b. ...


Magic practice was actively discouraged by the church, but remained widespread in folk religion throughout the medieval period. Magical thinking became syncretized with Christian dogma, expressing itself in practices like the judicial duel and relic veneration. The relics had become amulets, and various churches strove to purchase scarce or valuable examples, hoping to become places of pilgrimage. As in any other economic endeavour, demand gave rise to supply.[4][clarify] Tales of the miracle-working relics of the saints were compiled later into quite popular collections like the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine or the Dialogus miraculorum of Caesar of Heisterbach. Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Judicial Duel. ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For the Arthur Sullivan oratorio, see The Golden Legend (oratorio). ... Jacobus de Voragine (c. ... Caesar of Heisterbach, also known as Caesarius of Heisterbach ca. ...


From the 13th century, the Jewish Kabbalah exerts influence on Christian occultism, giving rise to the first grimoires and the scholarly occultism that would develop into Renaissance magic. The demonology and angelology contained in the earliest grimoires assume a life surrounded by Christian implements and sacred rituals. The underlying theology in these works of Christian demonology encourages the magician to fortify himself with fasting, prayers, and sacraments, so that by using the holy names of God in the sacred languages, he could use divine power to coerce demons into appearing and serving his usually lustful or avaricious magical goals.[5] This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... This design for an amulet comes from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... Demonology is the systematic study of demons or beliefs about demons. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... This design for an amulet comes from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ...


13th century astrologers include Johannes de Sacrobosco and Guido Bonatti. Johannes de Sacrobosco or Sacro Bosco (John of Holywood, c. ... Guido Bonatti from Forlì (XIII century) was a famous Italian astronomer and astrologer. ...


Renaissance

Further information: Renaissance magic

Renaissance humanism saw resurgence in hermeticism and Neo-Platonic varieties of ceremonial magic. The Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution, on the other hand, saw the rise of scientism, in such forms as the substitution of chemistry for alchemy, the dethronement of the Ptolemaic theory of the universe assumed by astrology, the development of the germ theory of disease, that restricted the scope of applied magic and threatened the belief systems it relied on.[4] Magic and occultism in the Late Medieval and Renaissance period (15th and 16th century). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... This article is about the magical and religious movement stemming from the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Scientism is a term mainly used as a pejorative[1][2][3] to accuse someone of holding that science has primacy over all other interpretations of life such as religious, mythical, spiritual, or humanistic explanations. ... The Ptolemaic system was a model to explain the motions of the heavens, espoused by Claudius Ptolemaeus in his work, the Almagest some time around the 2nd century, C.E., and accepted for over 1,000 years by the vast majority of Europeans to be the correct cosmological model. ... The germ theory of disease states that many diseases are caused by microorganisms, and that microorganisms grow by reproduction, rather than being spontaneously generated. ...


The seven artes magicae or artes prohibitae, arts prohibited by canon law, as expounded by Johannes Hartlieb in 1456, their sevenfold partition reflecting that of the artes liberales and artes mechanicae, were: Johannes Hartlieb (born ca. ... Septem Artes Liberales (The Seven Liberal Arts) in Herrad of Landsbergs Hortus Deliciarum (The Garden of Delights). ... Artes Mechanicae (mechanical arts) are the following: weaving, blacksmithing, navigation, war, the manufacture of agriculture, medicine, architecture, and the theatrical arts. ...

  1. nigromancy ("black magic", "demonology", linked by popular etymology with necromancy)
  2. geomancy
  3. hydromancy
  4. aeromancy
  5. pyromancy
  6. chiromancy
  7. scapulimancy

Both bourgeoisie and nobility in the 15th and 16th century showed great fascination with these arts, which exerted an exotic charm by their ascription to Arabic, Jewish, Gypsy and Egyptian sources. There was great uncertainty in distinguishing practices of vain superstition, blasphemous occultism, and perfectly sound scholarly knowledge or pious ritual. The intellectual and spiritual tensions erupted in the Early Modern witch craze, further reinforced by the turmoil of the Protestant Reformation, especially in Germany, England, and Scotland.[4] Necromancy (Greek νεκρομαντία, nekromantía) is a form of divination in which the practitioner seeks to summon operative spirits or spirits of divination, for multiple reasons, from spiritual protection to wisdom. ... For other uses, see Black magic (disambiguation). ... Demonology is the systematic study of demons or beliefs about demons. ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ... Geomancer redirects here. ... Hydromancy (from Greek hydro, water, and manteia, divination) is the art of divination by means of water. ... Aeromancy (from Greek aero, air, and manteia, divination) is divination conducted by interpreting atmospheric conditions. ... Pyromancy (from Greek pyros, fire, and manteia, divination) is the art of divination by means of fire. ... The Fortune Teller, by Caravaggio (1594–95; Canvas; Louvre), depicting a palm reading Chiromancy or cheiromancy, (Greek cheir, “hand”; manteia, “divination”), is the art of characterization and foretelling the future through the study of the palm, also known as palmistry, palm-reading, chirology or hand analysis. ... Scapulimancy (also spelled scapulomancy and scapulamancy, and also termed omoplatoscopy ) is the practice of divination by use of scapulae (shoulder blades). ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


Baroque

A talisman from the Black Pullet, a late grimoire containing instructions on how a magician could compel demons to become his servants.
A talisman from the Black Pullet, a late grimoire containing instructions on how a magician could compel demons to become his servants.
Further information: 17th-century philosophy and natural magic

Study of the occult arts remained intellectually respectable well into the 17th century, and only gradually divides into the modern categories of natural science vs. occultism or superstition. The 17th century sees the gradual rise of the "age of reason", while belief in witchcraft and sorcery, and consequently the irrational surge of Early Modern witch trials, receded, a process only completed at the end of the Baroque period or in ca. the 1730s. Christian Thomasius still met opposition as he argued in his 1701 Dissertatio de crimine magiae that it was meaningless to make dealing with the devil a criminal offence, since it was impossible to really commit the crime in the first place. In Britain, the Witchcraft Act of 1735 established that people could not be punished for consorting with spirits, while would-be magicians pretending to be able to invoke spirits could still be fined as con artists. An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... This design for an amulet comes from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... This design for an amulet comes from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... Magiae Naturalis (in English, Natural Magic) is a work of popular science by Giambattista della Porta first published in Naples in 1558. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint In the arts, Baroque (or baroque) is both a period and the artistic style that dominated it. ... Events and Trends The Great Awakening - A Protestant religious movement active in the British colonies of North America Sextant invented (probably around 1730) independently by John Hadley in Great Britain and Thomas Godfrey in the American colonies World leaders Louis XV King of France (king from 1715 to 1774) George... Christian Thomasius, portrait by Johann Christian Heinrich Sporleder. ... In England, a succession of Witchcraft Acts have governed witchcraft and provided penalties for its practice. ...

Further information: Isaac Newton's occult studies
"Newton was not the first of the age of reason, he was the last of the magicians." — John Maynard Keynes

The unpublished work of Isaac Newton included much that would now be classified as occult studies. ... Keynes redirects here. ...

Romanticism

From 1756 to 1781, Jacob Philadelphia performed feats of magic, sometimes under the guise of scientific exhibitions, throughout Europe and Russia. Baron Carl Reichenbach's experiments with his Odic force appeared to be an attempt to bridge the gap between magic and science. More recent periods of renewed interest in magic occurred around the end of the nineteenth century, where Symbolism and other offshoots of Romanticism cultivated a renewed interest in exotic spiritualities. European colonialism, which put Westerners in contact with India and Egypt, re-introduced exotic beliefs to Europeans at this time. Hindu and Egyptian mythology frequently feature in nineteenth century magical texts.[6] The late 19th century spawned a large number of magical organizations, including the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, the Theosophical Society, and specifically magical variants on Freemasonry. The Golden Dawn represented perhaps the peak of this wave of magic, attracting cultural celebrities like William Butler Yeats, Algernon Blackwood, and Arthur Machen to its banner.[7] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Carl Ludwig von Reichenbach Baron Dr. Carl (Karl) Ludwig von Reichenbach (full name: Baron Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach) (February 12, 1788 - January 19, 1869) was a recognized chemist, metallurgist, naturalist and philosopher, a member of the prestigious Prussian Academy of Sciences. ... The Odic force (also called Od [õd], Odyle, Önd, Odes or Odems) is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach (1788-1869), an accomplished chemist (known for his analysis of creosote, waxy paraffin, and phenol). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Romantics redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A magical organization is an organization put up for the furtherance of its members by use of magic or to further the knowledge of magic among its members. ... This article is about the historical organization of the late 19th century. ... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... Freemasons redirects here. ... Yeats redirects here. ... Algernon Henry Blackwood (March 14, 1869 – December 10, 1951) was an English writer of tales of the supernatural. ... Arthur Machen (pronounced ) (March 3, 1863 – December 15, 1947) was a leading Welsh author of the 1890s. ...


20th century

A further revival of interest in magic was heralded by the repeal, in England, of the last Witchcraft Act in 1951. This was the cue for Gerald Gardner to publish his first non-fiction book Witchcraft Today, in which he claimed to reveal the existence of a witch-cult that dated back to pre-Christian Europe. Gardner combined magic and religion in a way that was later to cause people to question the Enlightenment's boundaries between the two subjects. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... In England, a succession of Witchcraft Acts have governed witchcraft and provided penalties for its practice. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ...


Gardner's newly publicized religion, and many others, took off in the atmosphere of the 1960s and 1970s, when the counterculture of the hippies also spawned another period of renewed interest in magic, divination, and other occult practices.[8] The various branches of Neopaganism and other Earth religions that have been publicized since Gardner's publication tend to follow a pattern in combining the practice of magic and religion. Following the trend of magic associated with counterculture, some feminists launched an independent revival of goddess worship. This brought them into contact with the Gardnerian tradition of magical religion, and deeply influenced that tradition in return.[7] The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Counterculture (also counter-culture) is a sociological word used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day,[1] the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Earth religion is a New Age term used mostly by believers in neo-paganism and similar faiths. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Goddess worship is a general description for the veneration of a female Goddess or goddesses. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

The pentagram is a symbol of Wicca, a neo-pagan religion that incorporates magical practices. It is also used in other branches of magic.
The pentagram is a symbol of Wicca, a neo-pagan religion that incorporates magical practices. It is also used in other branches of magic.

Some people in the West believe in or practice various forms of magic. The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, Aleister Crowley, and their followers are most often credited with the resurgence of magical tradition in the English speaking world of the 20th century. Other, similar movements took place at roughly the same time, centered in France and Germany. Most Western traditions acknowledging the natural elements, the seasons, and the practitioner's relationship with the Earth, Gaia, or the Goddess have derived at least in part from these magical groups, and are considered Neopagan. Long-standing indigenous traditions of magic are regarded as Pagan. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A pentagram A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle or, more formally, as a star pentagon) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... This article is about the historical organization of the late 19th century. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and yogi. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... For other uses, see Gaia. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


Aleister Crowley preferred the spelling magick, defining it as "the science and art of causing change to occur in conformity with the will." By this, he included "mundane" acts of will as well as ritual magic. In Magick in Theory and Practice, Chapter XIV, Crowley says: Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and yogi. ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ...

What is a Magical Operation? It may be defined as any event in nature which is brought to pass by Will. We must not exclude potato-growing or banking from our definition. Let us take a very simple example of a Magical Act: that of a man blowing his nose.

Western magical traditions include ceremonial magic, as well as Wicca and some other Neopagan religions. Definitions and uses of magic tend to vary even within magical traditions. For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ...


Wicca is one of the more famous traditions within Neopaganism, a magical religion of witchcraft with influences including the Golden Dawn and Crowley. Ruickbie (2004:193-209) shows that Wiccans and Witches define magic in many different ways and use it for a number of different purposes. Despite that diversity of opinion, he concludes that the general result upon the practitioner is a positive one. Witch redirects here. ...


The belief in Magic is often considered superstitious, although some magical practices rely on widely accepted psychological principles and are only intended to promote internal personal changes within the practitioner themselves[citation needed]. Visualization techniques, for instance, widely used by magicians, are also used in fields such as clinical psychology and sports training.[9] For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ...


Theories of magic

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Anthropological and psychological origins

Further information: Myth and ritual

The belief that one can influence supernatural powers, by prayer, sacrifice or invocation goes back to prehistoric religion, and is consequently present from the earliest records of a cultic nature, including the Egyptian pyramid texts and the Indian Vedas, among which the Atharvaveda in particular addresses magic in the classical sense, and the position of the Vedic Brahmins, like that of any ancient priesthood, can be compared to that of magicians.[10] In traditional societies, myth and ritual are two central components of religious practice. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare to call on, invoke) is: A supplication. ... Prehistoric religion is a general term for the hypothetical religious belief system of prehistoric peoples. ... The Pyramid Texts are a collection of Ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom, mostly inscriptions found in pyramids. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ...


James George Frazer believed that magic was a fallacious system and asserted that magical observations are the result of an internal dysfunction: "Men mistook the order of their ideas for the order of nature, and hence imagined that the control which they have, or seem to have, over their thoughts, permitted them to exercise a corresponding control over things."[11] Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854 - May 7, 1941), a social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ...


Others, such as N. W. Thomas[12] and Sigmund Freud have rejected this explanation. Freud explains that "the associated theory of magic merely explains the paths along which magic proceeds; it does not explain its true essence, namely the misunderstanding which leads it to replace the laws of nature by psychological ones".[13] Freud emphasizes that what led primitive men to come up with magic is the power of wishes: "His wishes are accompanied by a motor impulse, the will, which is later destined to alter the whole face of the earth in order to satisfy his wishes. This motor impulse is at first employed to give a representation of the satisfying situation in such a way that it becomes possible to experience the satisfaction by means of what might be described as motor hallucinations. This kind of representation of a satisfied wish is quite comparable to children's play, which succeeds their earlier purely sensory technique of satisfaction. [...] As time goes on, the psychological accent shifts from the motives for the magical act on to the measures by which it is carried out—that is, on to the act itself. [...] It thus comes to appear as though it is the magical act itself which, owing to its similarity with the desired result, alone determines the occurrence of that result."[14] Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ...

See also: Shamanism

This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...

Theories of adherents

Adherents to magic believe that it may work by one or more of the following basic principles:[citation needed]

  • Intervention of spirits similar to these hypothetical natural forces, but with their own consciousness and intelligence. Believers in spirits will often describe a whole cosmos of beings of many different kinds, sometimes organized into a hierarchy.
  • A mystical power, such as mana or numen, that exists in all things. Sometimes this power is contained in a magical object, such as a ring, a stone, charm, or dehk, which the magician can manipulate.
  • Manipulation of the Elements by using the will of the magician and/or with symbols or objects representative of the element(s). Western practitioners typically use the Classical elements of Earth, Air, Water, and Fire.
  • Manipulation of Energy. Also believed to be the manipulation of energy from the human body. Most commonly referred to by the usage of the hands while the mouth uses a command of power.
  • Manipulation of symbols. Adherents of magical thinking believe that symbols can be used for more than representation: they can magically take on a physical quality of the phenomenon or object that they represent. By manipulating symbols (as well as sigils), one is said to be able to manipulate the reality that this symbol represents.
  • The principles of sympathetic magic of Sir James George Frazer, explicated in his The Golden Bough (third edition, 1911-1915). These principles include the "law of similarity" and the "law of contact" or "contagion." These are systematized versions of the manipulation of symbols. Frazer defined them this way:
If we analyse the principles of thought on which magic is based, they will probably be found to resolve themselves into two: first, that like produces like, or that an effect resembles its cause; and, second, that things which have once been in contact with each other continue to act on each other at a distance after the physical contact has been severed. The former principle may be called the Law of Similarity, the latter the Law of Contact or Contagion. From the first of these principles, namely the Law of Similarity, the magician infers that he can produce any effect he desires merely by imitating it: from the second he infers that whatever he does to a material object will affect equally the person with whom the object was once in contact, whether it formed part of his body or not.[15]
  • Concentration or meditation. A certain amount of focusing or restricting the mind to some imagined object (or will), according to Aleister Crowley, produces mystical attainment or "an occurrence in the brain characterized essentially by the uniting of subject and object." (Book Four, Part 1: Mysticism) Magic, as defined previously, seeks to aid concentration by constantly recalling the attention to the chosen object (or Will), thereby producing said attainment. For example, if one wishes to concentrate on a God, one might memorize a system of correspondences (perhaps chosen arbitrarily, as this would not affect its usefulness for mystical purposes) and then make every object that one sees "correspond" to said God.
Aleister Crowley wrote that ". . . the exaltation of the mind by means of magickal practices leads (as one may say, in spite of itself) to the same results as occur in straightforward Yoga." Crowley's magick thus becomes a form of mental, mystical, or spiritual discipline, designed to train the mind to achieve greater concentration. Crowley also made claims for the paranormal effects of magick, suggesting a connection with the first principle in this list. However, he defined any attempt to use this power for a purpose other than aiding mental or mystical attainment as "black magick".
  • The magical power of the subconscious mind. To believers who think they need to convince their subconscious mind to make the changes they want, all spirits and energies are projections and symbols that make sense to the subconscious. A variant of this belief is that the subconscious is capable of contacting spirits, who in turn can work magic.
  • A mysterious interconnection in the cosmos that connects and binds all things, above and beyond the natural forces, or in some cases thought to be an as-yet undiscovered or unquantifiable natural force.
  • "The Oneness in All"; based on the fundamental concepts of monism and Non-duality, this philosophy holds that Magic is little more than the application of one's own inherent unity with the Universe. The central idea is that on realizing that the Self is limitless, one may live as such, seeking to preserve the Balance of Nature and live as a servant/extension thereof.

Many more theories exist. Practitioners will often mix these concepts, and sometimes even invent some themselves. In the contemporary current of chaos magic in particular, it is not unusual to believe that any concept of magic works. A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... This box:      Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... Mana is a traditional term that refers to a concept among the speakers of Oceanic languages, including Melanesians, Polynesians, and Micronesians. ... Numina (presence, singular numen) conveys the sense of immanence, of the sacred spirit that informs places and objects in Roman religion. ... Several ancient Classical Element Greek version of these ideas persisted throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, deeply influencing European thought and culture. ... In psychology and cognitive science, magical thinking is non-scientific causal reasoning (e. ... The term sigil may refer to: A seal (device) or signet ring. ... Magic (also called magick to distinguish it from stage magic) is a supposed way of influencing the world through supernatural, mystical, or paranormal means. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854 - May 7, 1941), a social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... J. M. W. Turners painting of the Golden Bough incident in the Aeneid The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and yogi. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and yogi. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Nonduality is the absence or belief in the absence of dualism or dichotomy. ... The chaos star (called a chaosphere, or black hole sun,[citations needed] by some practitioners) is the most popular symbol of chaos magic. ...


Key principles of utilizing Magic are often said to be Concentration and Visualization. Many of those who cast spells attain a mental state called the "Trance State" to enable the spell. The Trance State is often described as an emptying of the mind, akin to meditation. Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ...


Magic, ritual and religion

Viewed from a non-theistic perspective, many religious rituals and beliefs seem similar to, or identical to, magical thinking. A belief in magic as a means of influencing the world seems to have been common in all cultures. ... In traditional societies, myth and ritual are two central components of religious practice. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... In psychology and cognitive science, magical thinking is non-scientific causal reasoning (e. ...


Related to both magic and prayer is religious supplication. This involves a prayer, or even a sacrifice to a supernatural being or god. This god or being is then asked to intervene on behalf of the person offering the prayer. For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Supplication (also known as petitioning) is the most common form of prayer, wherein a person asks a supernatural deity to provide something, either for the person who is praying or for someone else on whose behalf a prayer of supplication is being made. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ...


The difference, in theory, is that prayer requires the assent of a deity with an independent will, who can deny the request. Magic, by contrast is thought to be effective:

  • by virtue of the operation itself;
  • or by the strength of the magician's will;
  • or because the magician believes he can command the spiritual beings addressed by his spells.

In practice, when prayer doesn't work, it means that the god has chosen not to hear nor grant it; when magic fails, it is because of some defect in the casting of the spell itself. Consequently magical rituals tend to place more emphasis on exact formulaic correctness and are less extempore than prayer. Ritual is the magician's failsafe, the key to any hope for success, and the explanation for failure.


A possible exception is the practice of word of faith, where it is often held that it is the exercise of faith in itself that brings about a desired result. Word of Faith, also known as Word-Faith or simply Faith, is a teaching within neo-pentecostal and charismatic churches worldwide. ...


Magic in animism and folk religion

Appearing from aboriginal tribes in Australia and Maori tribes in New Zealand to rainforest tribes in South America, bush tribes in Africa and ancient Pagan tribal groups in Europe and the British Isles, some form of shamanic contact with the spirit world seems to be nearly universal in the early development of human communities. Much of the Babylonian and Egyptian pictorial writing characters appear derived from the same sources. Te Puni, Māori Chief Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


Although indigenous magical traditions persist to this day, very early on some communities transitioned from nomadic to agricultural civilizations, and with this shift, the development of spiritual life mirrored that of civic life. Just as tribal elders were consolidated and transformed in kings and bureaucrats, so too were shamans and adepts devolved into priests and a priestly caste.


This shift is by no means in nomenclature alone. While the shaman's task was to negotiate between the tribe and the spirit world, on behalf of the tribe, as directed by the collective will of the tribe, the priest's role was to transfer instructions from the deities to the city-state, on behalf of the deities, as directed by the will of those deities. This shift represents the first major usurpation of power by distancing magic from those participating in that magic. It is at this stage of development that highly codified and elaborate rituals, setting the stage for formal religions, began to emerge, such as the funeral rites of the Egyptians and the sacrifice rituals of the Babylonians, Persians, Aztecs and Mayans. The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... This article is about religious workers. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


Magic in Hinduism

It has been often stated that India is a land of magic, both supernatural and mundane. Hinduism is one of the few religions that has sacred texts like the Vedas that discuss both white and black magic. The Atharva Veda is a veda that deals with mantras that can be used for both good and bad. The word mantrik in India literally means "magician" since the mantrik usually knows mantras, spells, and curses which can be used for or against forms of magic. Many ascetics after long periods of penance and meditation are alleged to attain a state where they may utilize supernatural powers. However, many say that they choose not to use them and instead focus on transcending beyond physical power into the realm of spirituality. Many siddhars are said to have performed miracles that would ordinarily be impossible to perform. Veda redirects here. ... The Atharva Veda is a sacred text of Hinduism, part of the four books of the Vedas. ... For other uses, see Mantra (disambiguation). ... A Mantrik or mantric is someone who specialises in practising mantra. ... An ascetic is one who practices a renunciation of worldly pursuits to achieve spiritual attainment. ... For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Siddha. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ...


Magic and monotheism

Officially, Judaism, Christianity and Islam characterize magic as forbidden witchcraft, and have often prosecuted alleged practitioners of it with varying degrees of severity. Other trends in monotheistic thought have dismissed all such manifestations as trickery and illusion, nothing more than dishonest gimmicks. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Witch redirects here. ...


In Judaism

Further information: Kabbalah and Hermetic Qabalah

Medieval Judaism preserved and embellished practices of Greco-Roman magic, claims for the authority of Kabbalah often involving an argument of the antiquity of authority. Thus, virtually all works pseudepigraphically claim, or are ascribed, ancient authorship. For example, Sefer Raziel HaMalach, an astro-magical text partly based on a magical manual of late antiquity, Sefer ha-Razim, was, according to the kabbalists, transmitted to Adam by the angel Raziel after he was evicted from Eden. This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... This article is about the western esoteric mystical tradition. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The malach of the secret rulers ha (!) ... The Sepher Ha-Razim is a Kabbalistic text supposedly given to Noah by the angel Raziel. ... Raziel (Hebrew RZIAL: secret[s] [of the] Lord), is an archangel within the teachings of Jewish mysticism (of the Kabbalah of Judaism) who is the Keeper of Secrets and the Angel of Mysteries. In some teachings he is said to be a Cherub, as well as the chief of the... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ...


Another famous work, the Sefer Yetzirah, supposedly dates back to the patriarch Abraham. This tendency toward pseudepigraphy has its roots in Apocalyptic literature, which claims that esoteric knowledge such as magic, divination and astrology was transmitted to humans in the mythic past by the two angels, Aza and Azaz'el (in other places, Azaz'el and Uzaz'el) who 'fell' from heaven (see Genesis 6:4). In Islam, the angels 'Harut' and 'Marut' were sent to teach magic only as a test to mankind (see Qur'an, Ch. 2: 102). Sefer Yetzirah (Hebrew, Book of Creation[1], ספר יצירה) is the title of the earliest book on Jewish esotericism. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... For other uses, see Azazel (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


In Christianity

Further information: Renaissance magicGrimoireChristian views on witchcraft, and Theurgy

Magia was viewed with suspicion by Christianity from the time of the Church fathers. It was, however, never completely settled whether there may be permissible practicies, e.g. involving relics or holy water as opposed to blasphemous necromancy (nigromantia) involving the invocation of demons (goetia). The distinction became particularly pointed and controversial during the Early Modern witch-hunts, with some learned authors such as Johannes Hartlieb denouncing all magical practice as blasphemous, while others portrayed natural magic as not sinful. The position taken by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, one of the foremost Renaissance magicians, is notoriously ambiguous. The character of Faustus, likely based on a historical 16th century magician or charlatan, became the prototypical popular tale of a learned magician who succumbs to blasphemy (pact with the devil). Magic and occultism in the Late Medieval and Renaissance period (15th and 16th century). ... This design for an amulet comes from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... Christian views on witchcraft arise from scriptural, theological, and historical considerations. ... Theurgy (from Greek: θεουργία) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action of one or more gods, especially with the goal of uniting with the divine, achieving henosis, and perfecting oneself. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... This article is about water that has been blessed. ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ... Buer, the 10th spirit, who teaches Moral and Natural Philosophy (from the Mathers and Liddell 1995 edition). ... Johannes Hartlieb (born ca. ... Magiae Naturalis (in English, Natural Magic) is a work of popular science by Giambattista della Porta first published in Naples in 1558. ... Cornelius Agrippa, as portrayed in Libri tres de occulta philosophia. ... Faust is the protagonist of a popular German tale that has been used as the basis for many different fictional works. ... Saint Augustine and the Devil A Pact with the Devil or Faustian Pact is a widespread cultural meme, most familiar in the legend of Faust and the figure of Mephistopheles but an element in many folktales. ...


The current Catechism of the Catholic Church discusses divination and magic under the heading of the First Commandment.[16] It is careful to allow for the possibility of divinely inspired prophecy, but rejects "all forms of divination": The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ...

(2116) All forms of divination are to be rejected: recourse to Satan or demons, conjuring up the dead or other practices falsely supposed to "unveil" the future. Consulting horoscopes, astrology, palm reading, interpretation of omens and lots, the phenomena of clairvoyance, and recourse to mediums all conceal a desire for power over time, history, and, in the last analysis, other human beings, as well as a wish to conciliate hidden powers. They contradict the honor, respect, and loving fear that we owe to God alone.

The section on "practices of magic or sorcery" is less absolute, specifying "attempts to tame occult powers" in order to "have supernatural power over others". Such are denounced as "gravely contrary to the virtue of religion", notably avoiding a statement on whether such attempts can have any actual effect (that is, attempts to employ occult practices are identified as violating the First Commandment because they in themselves betray a lack of faith, and not because they may or may not result in the desired effect).


The Catechism expresses skepticism towards widespread practices of folk Catholicism without outlawing them explicitly: Folk Catholicism are varieties of Catholicism deviating from official Roman Catholic Church doctrine. ...

(2117) [...] Wearing charms is also reprehensible. Spiritism often implies divination or magical practices; the Church for her part warns the faithful against it. Recourse to so-called traditional cures does not justify either the invocation of evil powers or the exploitation of another's credulity.

In Islam

Any discussion of Muslim magic poses a double set of problems. On the one hand, like its counterpart in predominantly Christian cultures, magic is not officially approved of by orthodox leaders and legal opinions. However, this has not prevented the practice of magic in Muslim cultures, nor staved its influence on European magical traditions and the early stages of scientific thought. On the other hand, translating various Arabic terms as ‘magic’ causes another set of problems with no clear answers. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


As with any question regarding the behavior of Muslims in relation to authorized practices, theological decisions begin by consulting the Qur’an. The second chapter introduces an explanation for the introduction of magic into the world: The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...

They followed what the evil ones gave out (falsely) against the power of Solomon: the blasphemers were, not Solomon, but the evil ones, teaching men magic, and such things as came down at Babylon to the angels Harut and Marut. But neither of these taught anyone (such things) without saying: “We are only for trial; so do not blaspheme.” They learned from them the means to sow discord between man and wife. But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah’s permission. And they learned what harmed them, not what profited them. And they knew that the buyers of (magic) would have no share in the happiness of the Hereafter. And vile was the price for which they did sell their souls, if they but knew! (Q 2:102).

Though it presents a generally contemptuous attitude towards magic, it also develops a differentiation between benevolent and malevolent forms. The first is that used by Solomon who, being a prophet of Allah, is assumed to have used magic by Allah’s blessing.[17] The second form is the magic that was taught by the “evil ones,” or al-shayatin. Al-shayatin has two meanings; the first is similar to the Christian Satan. The second meaning, which is the one used here, refers to a djinn of superior power.[18] The al-shayatin taught knowledge of evil and “pretended to force the laws of nature and the will of Allah . . .”[19] According to this belief, those who follow this path turn themselves from Allah and cannot reach heaven. Thus, present in this passage is what can very loosely be described as conceptions of white and black magic. The Arabic word translated in this passage as “magic” is sihr. The etymological meaning of sihr suggests that “it is the turning . . . of a thing from its true nature . . . or form . . . to something else which is unreal or a mere appearance . . .”[20] However, the seriousness with which the passage treats it reveals that sihr, in the context of the Qur’an, is no mere illusion. Sowing discord between a married couple and harming others with sihr are very real consequences. If one uses sihr for such malevolent purposes, then its assault on marital harmony and social justice probably influenced the contempt for which it is generally viewed in the Qur’an. By the first millennium C.E., sihr became a fully developed system in Islamic society. Within this system, all magicians “assert[ed] that magic is worked by the obedience of spirits to the magician.”[21] The efficacy of this system comes from the belief that every Arabic letter, every word, verse, and chapter in the Qur’an, every month, day, time and name were created by Allah a priori and each has an angel and a djinn servant.[22] It is through the knowledge of the names of these servants that an actor is able to control the angel and djinn for his/her purposes.[23] This article is about the Biblical character . ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ... Harut is an angel sent down to deceive the people at Babel in the Quran Surah 2:102. ... In Hinduism In Hinduism the Maruts, also known as the Marutgana and the Rudras. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... For other uses, see Genie (disambiguation). ...


The Sunni and Shia sects of Islam typically forbid all use of magic. The Sufis within these two sects are much more ambiguous about it's use as seen in the concept of "Barakah". If magic is understood in terms of Frazer’s principle of contagion, then barakah is another term that can refer to magic. Barakah, variously defined as “blessing,” or “divine power,” is a quality one possesses rather than a category of activity. According to Muslim conception, the source of barakah is solely from Allah; it is Allah’s direct blessing and intervention conferred upon special, pious Muslims.[24] Barakah has a heavily contagious quality in that one can transfer it by either inheritance or contact. Of all the humans who have ever lived, it is said that the Prophet Muhammad possessed the greatest amount of barakah and that he passed this to his male heirs through his daughter Fatima.[25] Barakah is not just limited to Muhammad’s family line; any person who is considered holy may also possess it and transfer it to virtually anyone. In Morocco, barakah transfer can be accomplished by spitting into another’s mouth or by sharing a piece of bread from which the possessor has eaten because saliva is the vessel of barakah in the human body.[26] However, the transference of barakah may also occur against the will of its possessor through other forms of physical contact such as hand shaking and kissing.[27] The contagious element of barakah is not limited to humans as it can be found in rocks, trees, water, and even some animals, such as horses.[28] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... For other uses, see Baraka. ...


Just how the actor maintained obedience depended upon the benevolence or malevolence of his practice. Malevolent magicians operated by enslaving the spirits through offerings and deeds displeasing to Allah. Benevolent magicians, in contrast, obeyed and appeased Allah so that Allah bore his will upon the spirits.[29] Al-Buni provides the process by which this practice occurs: First: the practitioner must be of utterly clean soul and garb. Second, when the proper angel is contacted, this angel will first get permission from God to go to the aid of the person who summoned him. Third: the practitioner “must not apply . . .[his power] except to that [i.e. to achieve goals] which would please God.[30]


However, not all Islamic groups accept this explanation of benevolent magic. The Wahhabis particularly view this as shirk, denying the unity of Allah. Consequently, the Wahhabis renounce appellations to intermediaries such as saints, angels, and djinn, and renounce magic, fortune-telling, and divination.[31] This particular brand of magic has also been condemned as forbidden by a fatwa issued by Al-Azhar University.[32] Further, Egyptian folklorist Hasan El-Shamy, warns that scholars have often been uncritical in their application of the term sihr to both malevolent and benevolent forms of magic. He argues that in Egypt, sihr only applies to sorcery. A person who practices benevolent magic “is not called saahir or sahhaar (sorcerer, witch), but is normally referred to as shaikh (or shaikha for a female), a title which is normally used to refer to a clergyman or a community notable or elder, and is equal to the English title: ‘Reverend.’”[33] Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-WahhābÄ«yya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative 18th century reform movement of Sunni Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), in the Islamic faith is a ruling on Islamic law issued by an Islamic scholar. ...


Varieties of magical practice

The best-known type of magical practice is the spell, a ritualistic formula intended to bring about a specific effect. Spells are often spoken or written or physically constructed using a particular set of ingredients. The failure of a spell to work may be attributed to many causes, such as failure to follow the exact formula, general circumstances being unconducive, lack of magical ability or downright fraud. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ...


Another well-known magical practice is divination, which seeks to reveal information about the past, present or future. Varieties of divination include: Astrology, Augury, Cartomancy, Chiromancy, Dowsing, Fortune telling, Geomancy, I Ching, Omens, Scrying and Tarot reading. For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... The Augur was a priest or official in ancient Rome. ... The Fortune Teller, by Art Nouveau painter Mikhail Vrubel, depicting a cartomancer Cartomancy is a form of fortune-telling or divination using a deck of cards. ... The Fortune Teller, by Caravaggio (1594–95; Canvas; Louvre), depicting a palm reading Chiromancy or cheiromancy, (Greek cheir, “hand”; manteia, “divination”), is the art of characterization and foretelling the future through the study of the palm, also known as palmistry, palm-reading, chirology or hand analysis. ... For the English iconoclast, see William Dowsing. ... Fortune teller redirects here. ... Geomancer redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... Examples of omens from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493): natural phenomena and strange births. ... The Crystal Ball by John William Waterhouse (1902, oil on canvas) Scrying (also called crystal gazing, crystal seeing, seeing, or peeping) is a magic practice that involves seeing things supernaturally in a medium, usually for purposes of divination or fortune-telling. ... The High Priestess, card number 2 in the major arcana. ...


Necromancy is another practice involving the summoning of and conversation with spirits of the dead (necros). This is sometimes done simply to commune with deceased loved ones; it can also be done to gain information from the spirits, as a type of divination; or to command the aid of those spirits in accomplishing some goal, as part of casting a spell. This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ...


Varieties of magic can also be categorized by the techniques involved in their operation. One common means of categorization distinguishes between contagious magic and sympathetic magic, one or both of which may be employed in any magical work. Contagious magic involves the use of physical ingredients which were once in contact with the person or thing the practitioner intends to influence. Sympathetic magic involves the use of images or physical objects which in some way resemble the person or thing one hopes to influence; voodoo dolls are an example. A large sequined voodoo banner by the artist George Valris The term Voodoo (Vodun in Benin; also Vodou or other phonetically equivalent spellings in Haiti; Vudu in the Dominican Republic) is applied to the branches of a West African ancestor-based Theist-Animist religious tradition. ...


Other common categories given to magic include High and Low Magic (the appeal to divine powers or spirits respectively, with goals lofty or personal as accords the type of magic). Manifest and Subtle magic typically refers to magic of legend rather than what many individuals who practice the Occult claim to use as magic, where Manifest magic is magic that immediately appears with a result, and Subtle magic being magic that gradually and intangibly alters the world. For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ...


Academic historian Richard Kieckhefer divides the category of spells into psychological magic, which seeks to influence other people's minds to do the magician's will, such as with a love spell, and illusionary magic, which seeks to conjure the manifestation of various wonders. A spell that conjured up a banquet, or that conferred invisibility on the magician, would be examples of illusionary magic. Magic that causes objective physical change, in the manner of a miracle, is not accommodated for in Kieckhefer's categories. {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... For other uses, see illusion (disambiguation). ... An example of how an object could appear to be invisible through the use of mirrors Invisibility is the state of an object which cannot be seen. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ...


Magical traditions

Another method of classifying magic is by "traditions," which in this context typically refer to complexes of magical belief and practice associated with various cultural groups and lineages of transmission. Some of these traditions are highly specific and culturally circumscribed. Others are more eclectic and syncretistic. These traditions can compass both divination and spells. For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


When dealing with magic in terms of "traditions," it is a common misconception for outsiders to treat any religion in which clergy members make amulets and talismans for their congregants as a "tradition of magic," even though what is being named is actually an organized religion with clergy, laity, and an order of liturgical service. This is most notably the case when Voodoo, Palo, Santeria, Taoism, Wicca, and other contemporary religions and folk religions are mischaracterized as forms of "magic" or even "sorcery." An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ...


Examples of magical, folk-magical, and religio-magical traditions include:

For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The chaos star (called a chaosphere, or black hole sun,[citations needed] by some practitioners) is the most popular symbol of chaos magic. ... For other uses, see Druid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the western esoteric mystical tradition. ... This article is about the magical and religious movement stemming from the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Huna is a Hawaiian word first used by Max Freedom Long (1890-1971) in 1936 to describe what he called “the secret science behind the miracles” that ancient Hawaiian kahuna (experts) performed. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Nagual or Nahual (both pronounced [nawal]) is a word used in the study of the religion, mythology, folklore and anthropology of Mesoamerican peoples and which is used with different definitions. ... Obeah is a term used in the West Indies to refer to folk magic or sorcery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Palo, or Las Reglas de Congo are a group of closely related denominations or religions of largely Bantu origin developed by slaves from Central Africa in Cuba. ... Pow-wow is a system of American folk religion and magic associated with the Pennsylvania Dutch. ... This article is about people who explore their inner psyche, and related practices; for other uses, see Psychonaut (disambiguation). ... Quimbanda is an Afro-American traditional religion found in Brazil. ... A Reiki treatment in progress Reiki IPA: ) is a form of spiritual practice,[1] used as a complementary therapy,[2] proposed for the treatment of physical, emotional, and mental diseases. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... Peter H. Gilmore, High Priest of the Church of Satan. ... Seid or seiðr is an Old Norse term for a type of sorcery or witchcraft which was practiced by the pre-Christian Norse. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun : will, from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ... This article is about the West African religion. ... Voodoo is a religious tradition originating in West Africa, which became prominent in the New World due to the importation of African slaves. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... Zos Kia Cultus is a form, style, or school of magic developed by Austin Osman Spare. ...

See also

Look up magic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Magic Circle by John William Waterhouse Magic in fiction is the endowing of fictional characters or objects with magical powers. ... “Illusionist” redirects here. ... // [edit] Magical practices and beliefs [1] In the Greco-Roman world, the public and private rituals associated with religion seem to have been a part of everyday life. ... Psionics is a term used mostly in fiction and games to denote a variety of paranormal psychic abilities, especially those that are under a persons conscious control. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Sex magic or sexual magic is a term for various types of sexual activity used in magical, theurgical, or otherwise religious and spiritual pursuits. ... . ... List of notable occultists and mystics. ... . ...

Notes

  1. ^ Magic shares with science the concept that humans can influence the world. However, the means by which this influence occurs is at issue in scientific thought.
  2. ^ This is particularly the case in the Christian West and the Muslim Middle East where the practice of magic is generally regarded as blasphemous or forbidden by orthodox leadership.
  3. ^ Hutton (2003),[page # needed]
  4. ^ a b c Kiekhefer (1998),[page # needed]
  5. ^ Waite (1913),[page # needed]
  6. ^ Greer (1996),[page # needed]
  7. ^ a b Hutton (2001),[page # needed]
  8. ^ Adler (1987),[page # needed]
  9. ^ Journal of the American Medical Association THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CHESS. JAMA, October 20, 2004; 292: 1900
  10. ^ magic in ancient India (page 51).
  11. ^ Freud (1950, 83), quoting Frazer (1911, 1, 420).
  12. ^ Thomas (1910–11),[page # needed]
  13. ^ Freud (1950, 83).
  14. ^ Freud (1950, 84).
  15. ^ Bartleby.com: The Golden Bough (1922) Chapter 3: Sympathetic Magic Part 1: The Principles of Magic
  16. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, English version, section 3.2.1.1.3
  17. ^ The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an. Translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali. Amana Publications. 2001. Ali supports this assumption in his commentary on this passage “. . . Solomon dealt in no arts of evil” (Q 2:102, note 103)
  18. ^ Gibb, H.A.R. and J.H. Kramerst. 1965. Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam. Ithaca: Cornell. pp 523-524. The djinn are intelligent beings, or spirits, created by Allah from fire, as opposed to humans and angels who are created from clay and light (Q 15:26-27 ; 55:15).
  19. ^ Ali, Q 2:102, note 103.
  20. ^ Gibb, p 545.
  21. ^ Gibb, p 546.
  22. ^ This is also a subcategory of Muslim magic called simiya, often translated as natural magic. For a complete discussion of simiya, see ibn Khaldun, The Muqaddimah: an Introduction to History. Franz Rosenthal, translator. 2nd edition, 1967. Vol. 3 pp 171-227.
  23. ^ El-Shamy, Hasan. Unpublished Manuscript. Folk Beliefs and Practices in Egypt. p. 28.
  24. ^ Westermarck, Edward Alexander. 1926. Ritual and Belief in Morocco. London: Macmillan. p. 35
  25. ^ Westermarck, p. 36. Though Westermarck did not elaborate on this statement, the emphasis on the male lineage through Fatima appears to be of Sufi or Shi’i origin rather than Sunni.
  26. ^ Westermarck, pp. 41-93.
  27. ^ Westermarck, pp. 42-43.
  28. ^ Westermarck, p. 97.
  29. ^ al-Nadim, Muhammad ibn Ishaq. The Fihrist of al-Nadim. Edited and translated by Bayard Dodge. New York: Columbia, 1970. pp. 725-726.
  30. ^ El-Shamy. Folk Beliefs and Practices in Egypt. p. 34.
  31. ^ Doumato, Eleanor Abdella. 2000 Getting God’s Ear: Women, Islam, and Healing in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf. New York: Columbia. p. 34.
  32. ^ El-Shamy. Personal communication
  33. ^ El-Shamy. Folk Beliefs and Practices in Egypt. p. 33.

Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ...

Bibliography

  • Frazer, J. G. (1911). The Magic Art (2 vols.) (The Golden Bough, 3rd ed., Part II). London.
  • Clifton, Dan Salahuddin (1998). Myth Of The Western Magical Tradition. C&GCHE. ISBN 0-393-00143-1. 
  • de Givry, Grillot (1954). Witchcraft, Magic, and Alchemy, trans. J. Courtney Locke. Frederick Pub.
  • Hutton, Ronald (2001). The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-285449-6.
  • Hutton, Ronald (2003). Witches, Druids, and King Arthur. Hambledon. ISBN 1-85285-397-2
  • Adler, Margot (1987). Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. ISBN 0-14-019536-X
  • Greer, Mary K. (1996) Women of the Golden Dawn. Llewellyn. ISBN 0-89281-607-4
  • Kampf, Erich (1894). The Plains of Magic. Konte Publishing.
  • Kiekhefer, Richard (1998). Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer's Manual of the Fifteenth Century. Pennsylvania State University. ISBN 0-271-01751-1.
  • Ruickbie, Leo (2004). Witchcraft Out of the Shadows. Robert Hale. ISBN 0-7090-7567-7.
  • Thomas, N. W. (1910–11). "Magic". Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., vol. 26, p. 337.
  • Waite, Arthur E. (1913) The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts, London. J.B. Haze

Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scotland – May 7, 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. ... Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... Margot Adler (born 5 November 1946 in Little Rock, Arkansas) is a journalist and correspondent for National Public Radio. ... Mary K. Greer is the author of Women of the Golden Dawn: Rebels and Priestesses (1995), about Maud Gonne, Moina Bergson Mathers, Annie Horniman, Florence Farr. ... Leo Ruickbie is the author of Witchcraft Out of the Shadows[1], a 2004 publication outlining the history of witchcraft from ancient Greece until the modern day. ... Arthur Edward Waite in the early 1880s Arthur Edward Waite (October 2, 1857 - May 19, 1942) was an occultist and co-creator of the Rider-Waite Tarot deck. ...

External links


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