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Encyclopedia > Magic (illusion)
Hieronymus Bosch: The Conjurer, 1475-1480
Hieronymus Bosch: The Conjurer, 1475-1480

Magic is a performing art that entertains an audience by creating illusions of impossible[1] or supernatural[2] feats, using purely natural means. These feats are called magic tricks, effects or illusions. For the Scar Symmetry song see The Illusionist (song). ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... Download high resolution version (1576x1313, 217 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1576x1313, 217 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Hieronymus Bosch, (latinized, actually Jheronimus Bosch; his real name Jeroen van Aken) (c. ... Performance art is art where the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time, constitute the work. ... Entertainment is an amusement or diversion intended to hold the attention of an audience or its participants. ... An audience is a group of people who participate in an experience or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music or academics in any medium. ... For other uses, see illusion (disambiguation). ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


An artist who performs magic is called a magician. Magicians (or magi) are also referred to by names reflecting the type of magical effects they typically perform, such as prestidigitators, conjurors, illusionists, mentalists, ventriloquists, and escape artists, etc. The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Sleight-of-hand, also known as legerdemain, is a technique of close-up magic in which small items are concealed in and around the performers hands, sometimes by the use of misdirection, to enhance the illusion being performed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the performing art. ... For the Batman villain, see Ventriloquist (comics). ... Harry Houdini, a famous escapologist and magician. ...

Contents

History

The word "Magic" is derived from the Old Persian Magi. Performances we would recognize as conjuring have probably been practiced throughout history. The same ingenuity behind ancient deceptions such as the Trojan horse would have been used for entertainment, or at least for cheating in gambling games, since time immemorial. However, the profession of the illusionist gained strength only in eighteenth century, and has enjoyed several popular vogues. Successful magicians have become some of the most famous celebrities in popular entertainment. These include Chris Hanna of JAF HS. David Blaine, Criss Angel, Harry Houdini, Robert Houdin For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... History studies time in human terms. ... For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an event, performance, or activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although, for example, in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ...

Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, the first modern magician.
Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, the first modern magician.

From 1756 to 1781, Jacob Philadelphia performed feats of magic, sometimes under the guise of scientific exhibitions, throughout Europe and in Russia. Modern entertainment magic owes much of its origins to Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin (1805-1871), originally a clockmaker, who opened a magic theatre in Paris in the 1840s. His speciality was the construction of mechanical automata which appeared to move and act as if they were alive. The British performer J N Maskelyne and his partner Cooke established their own theatre, the Egyptian Hall in London's Piccadilly, in 1873. They presented stage magic, exploiting the potential of the stage for hidden mechanisms and assistants, and the control it offers over the audience's point of view. The greatest celebrity magician of the nineteenth century (or possibly of all time), Harry Houdini (real name Ehrich Weiss, 1874 - 1926), took his stage name from Robert-Houdin and developed a range of stage magic tricks, many of them based on escapology (though that word was not used until after Houdini's death). The son of a Hungarian rabbi, Houdini was genuinely highly skilled in techniques such as lockpicking and escaping straitjackets, but also made full use of the whole range of conjuring techniques, including fake equipment and collusion with individuals in the audience. Houdini's showbusiness savvy was as great as his performing skill. There is a Houdini Museum dedicated to him in Scranton, PA. In addition to expanding the range of magic hardware, showmanship and deceptive technique, these performers established the modern relationship between the performer and the audience. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin (Zhean Yuzhean Ro-bayr oo-da) (December 6, 1805 - June 13, 1871) was a French magician. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Piccadilly is a major London street, running from Hyde Park Corner in the west to Piccadilly Circus in the east. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Houdini” redirects here. ... Harry Houdini, a famous escapologist and magician. ...


In this relationship, there is an unspoken agreement between the performer and the audience about what is going on. Unlike in the past, almost no performers today actually claim to possess supernatural powers (although there are exceptions to this, they are regarded as charlatans). It is understood by everyone that the effects in the performance are accomplished through sleight of hand (also called prestidigitation or léger de main), misdirection, deception, collusion with a member of the audience, apparatus with secret mechanisms, mirrors, and other trickery (hence the illusions are commonly referred to as "tricks"). The performer seeks to present an effect so clever and skilful that the audience cannot believe their eyes, and cannot think of the explanation. The sense of bafflement is part of the entertainment. In turn, the audience play a role in which they agree to be entertained by something they know to be a deception. Houdini also gained the trust of his audiences by using his knowledge of illusions to debunk charlatans, a tradition continued by magicians such as James Randi, P. C. Sorcar, and Penn and Teller. Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Charlatan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sleight-of-hand, also known as legerdemain, is a technique of close-up magic in which small items are concealed in and around the performers hands, sometimes by the use of misdirection, to enhance the illusion being performed. ... James Randi (born August 7, 1928), stage name The Amazing Randi, is a stage magician and scientific skeptic best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience. ... P. C. Sorcar P. C. Sorcar (Bangla: পি সি সরকার) (February 23, 1913 - January 6, 1971) was the stage name of Protul Chandra Sorcar, a famous Indian magician. ... Penn (left) & Teller Penn and Teller are a two-man magic and comedy team, comprised of Penn Jillette and Teller. ...


Magic has come and gone in fashion. For instance, the magic show for much of the 20th Century was marginalized in North America as largely children's entertainment. A revival started with Doug Henning, who reestablished the magic show as a form of mass entertainment with his distinctive look that rejected the old stereotypes and his exuberant sense of showmanship that became popular on both stage and numerous television specials. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Doug James Henning (born May 3, 1947 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, died February 7, 2000 of liver disease) was a Canadian magician, illusionist, and escape artist. ... Showmanship is a dog competition. ... A television special is a television program, typically a short film or television movie, which interrupts or temporarily replaces programming normally scheduled for a given time slot. ...


Today, the art is enjoying a vogue, driven by a number of highly successful performers such as David Copperfield, Lance Burton, Penn and Teller, Derren Brown, Criss Angel, Dorothy Dietrich and many other stage and TV performers. David Blaine is sometimes included in this category, though his major performances have been more a combination of Houdini-style escape tricks and physical endurance displays than the illusion magic performed by others. The mid-twentieth century saw magic transform in many different aspects: some performers preferred to renovate the craft on stage --- such as The Mentalizer Show in Times Square which dared to mix themes of spirituality and kabbalah with the art of magic --- others successfully made the transition to TV, which opens up new opportunities for deceptions, and brings the performer to huge audiences. A widely accepted code has developed, in which TV magicians can use all the traditional forms of deception, but should not resort to camera tricks, editing the videotape, or other TV special effects --- this makes deception too "easy", in the popular mind. Most TV magicians are shown performing before a live audience, who provide the remote viewer with a (sometimes misleading) reassurance that the effects are not obtained with the help of camera tricks. David Copperfield (born David Seth Kotkin) is a multi Emmy Award winning, American magician and illusionist best known for his combination of illusions and storytelling. ... Lance Burton (born William Lance Burton on March 10, 1960 in Louisville, Kentucky) is an American stage magician who performs nightly in his own show at the Monte Carlo Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... Penn (left) & Teller Penn and Teller are a two-man magic and comedy team, comprised of Penn Jillette and Teller. ... Derren Victor Brown (born February 27, 1971) is an English psychological illusionist and skeptic of paranormal phenomena. ... Criss Angel (born Christopher Nicholas Sarantakos on December 19, 1967) is an American magician, illusionist , musician, mentalist, hypnotist, escapologist, stunt performer, and actor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... David Blaine (born David Blaine White on April 4, 1973 in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.) is an American illusionist and stunt performer. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ...


Many of the basic principles of magic are comparatively old. There is an expression, "it's all done with smoke and mirrors", used to explain something baffling, but contrary to popular belief, effects are seldom achieved using mirrors today, due to the amount of work needed to install it and difficulties in transport. For example, the famous Pepper's Ghost, a stage illusion first used in 19th century London, required a specially built theatre. Harry Houdini led the field of vanishing large objects, by making an elephant disappear on stage, although not using mirrors, and modern performers have vanished objects as big as the Taj Mahal, Statue of Liberty, and the Space Shuttle, using other kinds of optical deceptions. A viewer looking through the red rectangle sees a ghost floating next to the table. ...


Categories of effects

There is much discussion among magicians as to how a given effect is to be categorized, and disagreement as to what categories actually exist -- for instance, some magicians consider "penetrations" to be a separate category, while others consider penetrations a form of restoration or teleportation. It is generally agreed that there are very few different types of effect. While many authors such as Fitzkee, Tarbell, S.H. Sharpe and others have disagreed, it has often been said that there are only seven types of illusion [citation needed] (perhaps because it is considered a magic number). Tarbell may refer to: Edmund Charles Tarbell (1862 – 1938), American impressionist painter Harlan Tarbell (1890 - 1960), stage magician Ida M. Tarbell (1857 – 1944), American author and journalist Jim Tarbell, Cincinnati councilman Joseph Tarbell (1780 – 1815), American naval officer Tarbell Brook, a New Hampshire stream USS Tarbell (DD-142) Category: ...

  • Production The magician produces something from nothing -- a rabbit from an empty hat, a fan of cards from thin air, a shower of coins from an empty bucket, or the magician themselves, appearing in a puff of smoke on an empty stage -- all of these effects are productions.
  • Vanish The magician makes something disappear -- a coin, a cage of doves, milk from a newspaper, an assistant from a cabinet, or even the Statue of Liberty. A vanish, being the reverse of a production, may use a similar technique, in reverse.
  • Transformation The magician transforms something from one state into another -- a silk handkerchief changes colour, a lady turns into a tiger, an indifferent card changes to the spectator's chosen card. A transformation can be seen as a combination of a vanish and a production.
  • Restoration The magician destroys an object, then restores it back to its original state -- a rope is cut, a newspaper is torn, a woman is sawn in half, a borrowed watch is smashed to pieces -- then they are all restored to their original state.
  • Teleportation The magician causes something to move from one place to another -- a borrowed ring is found inside a ball of wool, a canary inside a light bulb, an assistant from a cabinet to the back of the theatre. When two objects exchange places, it is called a transposition; a simultaneous, double teleportation.
An edge of a coin appearing to defy the laws of gravity.
An edge of a coin appearing to defy the laws of gravity.
  • Levitation The magician defies gravity, either by making something float in the air, or with the aid of another object (suspension) -- a silver ball floats around a cloth, an assistant floats in mid-air, another is suspended from a broom, a scarf dances in a sealed bottle, the magician hovers a few inches off the floor. There are many popular ways to create this illusion of the magician himself being levitated, such as the Balducci levitation, the King Rising, Criss Angel's stool levitations, the Andruzzi levitations, and the eight gravity.
  • Penetration The magician makes a solid object pass through another -- a set of steel rings link and unlink, a candle penetrates an arm, swords pass through an assistant in a basket, a saltshaker penetrates the table-top, a man walks through a mirror. Sometimes referred to as 'solid-through-solid'.
  • Prediction The magician predicts the choice of a spectator, or the outcome of an event under seemingly impossible circumstances -- a newspaper headline is predicted, the total amount of loose change in the spectator's pocket, a picture drawn on a slate. Prediction forms the basis for most 'pick-a-card' tricks, where a random card is chosen, then revealed to be known by the performer.

Many magical routines use combinations of effects. For example, in the famous 'cups and balls' a magician may use vanishes, productions, penetrations, teleportations and transformations all as part of the one presentation. Making the Statue of Liberty appear to disappear on live television is one of David Copperfields most remembered tricks. ... // Sawing a woman in half is a generic name for a number of different stage magic tricks in which a person (traditionally a woman) is apparently sawn in half or divided into two. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 363 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken by Bhavesh Chauhan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 363 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken by Bhavesh Chauhan. ... The Balducci levitation is a levitation illusion that was first described by Ed Balducci. ... The King Rising Levitation is a levitation illusion developed by Corey King. ... Tony Andruzzi (born Antonio C. Andruzzi 1925 in Cheyenne, Wyoming - December 22, 1991) was a professional Magician. ...


Secrecy

The purpose of a magic trick is to amuse and create a feeling of wonder; the audience is generally aware that the magic is performed using trickery, and derives enjoyment from the magician's skill and cunning. Traditionally, magicians refuse to reveal the secrets to the audience. The reasons include:

  • Exposure is claimed to "kill" magic as an artform and transforms it into mere intellectual puzzles and riddles. It is argued that once the secret of a trick is revealed to a person, that one can no longer fully enjoy subsequent performances of that magic, as the amazement is missing. Sometimes the secret is so simple that the audience feels let down, and feels disappointed it was taken in so easily.
  • Keeping the secrets preserves the professional mystery of magicians who perform for money.

Membership in professional magicians' organizations often requires a solemn commitment to the "Magician's Oath" never to reveal the secrets of magic to non-magicians. Exposure in magic refers to the practice of making magical methods (the secrets of how magic tricks are performed) available to those who are not magicians. ...

The Magician's Oath (though it may vary, 'The Oath' takes the following, or similar form):
"As a magician I promise never to reveal the secret of any illusion to a non-magician, unless that one swears to uphold the Magician's Oath in turn. I promise never to perform any illusion for any non-magician without first practicing the effect until I can perform it well enough to maintain the illusion of magic."

Once sworn to The Oath, one is considered a magician, and is expected to live up to this promise. A magician who reveals a secret, either purposely or through insufficient practice, may typically find oneself without any magicians willing to teach one any more secrets.


However, it is considered permissible to reveal secrets to individuals who are determined to learn magic and become magicians. It is typically a sequential process of increasingly valuable and lesser known secrets. The secrets of almost all magical effects are available to the public through numerous books and magazines devoted to magic, available from the specialised magic trade. There are also web sites which offer videos, DVDs and instructional materials. In this sense, there are very few classical illusions left unrevealed, however this does not appear to have diminished the appeal of performances. In addition, magic is a living art, and new illusions are devised with surprising regularity. Sometimes a 'new' illusion will be built on an illusion that is old enough to have become unfamiliar.


Some magicians have taken the controversial position that revealing the methods used in certain works of magic can enhance the appreciation of the audience for cleverness of magic. Penn and Teller frequently perform tricks using transparent props to reveal how it is done, for example, although they almost always include additional unexplained effects at the end that are made even more astonishing by the revealing props being used. Penn (left) & Teller Penn and Teller are a two-man magic and comedy team, comprised of Penn Jillette and Teller. ...


Often what seems to be a revelation of a magical secret is merely another form of misdirection. For instance, a magician may explain to an audience member that the linking rings "have a hole in them" and hand the volunteer two unlinked rings, which the volunteer finds to have become linked as soon as he handles them. At this point the magician may shove his arm through the ring ('the hole in the ring'), proclaiming: "See? Once you know that every ring has a hole, it's easy!"

See also: Intellectual rights to magic methods

This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

Learning magic

The teaching of performance magic was once a secretive art. Professional magicians were unwilling to share knowledge with anyone outside the profession to prevent the laity from learning their secrets. This made it difficult for an interested apprentice to learn magic beyond the basics. Some organizations of magicians had strict rules against members discussing magic secrets with anyone but established magicians.


From the 1584 publication of Reginald Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft until the end of the 19th century, only a few books were available for budding magicians to learn the craft. Books remain extremely useful today, and are still considered the best way for a student to learn magic. Videos and DVDs are a newer medium of tuition, which many inexperienced magicians rely on as a primary source of information; in reality, many of the methods found in this format are readily found in previously published books. However, they can serve useful as a visual demonstration. 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Reginald Scot (circa 1538 - 1599) was the English author of The Discoverie of Witchcraft, which was published in 1584. ...


The next step up is joining a magic club or workshop. Here magicians, both seasoned and novitiate, can work together and help one another for mutual improvement, to learn new techniques, to discuss all aspects of magic, to perform for each other — sharing advice, encouragement and criticism.


The world's largest magic organization is the International Brotherhood of Magicians. It publishes a monthly journal, The Linking Ring. The oldest organization is the Society of American Magicians, of which Houdini was a member; and in London, England, there is the Magic Circle which boasts the largest magic library in Europe. The Magic Castle in Hollywood is home to the Academy of Magical Arts. International Brotherhood of Magicians (I.B.M.) is the worlds largest organization for professional and amateur magicians, with approximately 15,000 members worldwide. ... The Linking Ring is a monthly publication by the International Brotherhood of Magicians. ...


Types of magic performance

Magic performances tend to fall into a few specialities or genres.

  • Stage illusions are performed for large audiences, typically within an auditorium. This type of magic is distinguished by large-scale props, the use of assistants and often, exotic animals such as elephants and tigers. Some famous stage illusionists, past and present, include Howard Thurston, Chung Ling Soo, David Copperfield, and Siegfried & Roy.
  • Cabaret magic, Platform magic or Stand-up magic are terms used to describe magic performed for a medium to large audience. Night club magic and comedy club magic are also examples of this form. The term parlor magic is sometimes used but is considered pejorative. This genre includes the skilled manipulation of props such as billiard balls, card fans, doves, rabbits, silks, and rope. Examples of such magicians include Jeff McBride, Penn and Teller, David Abbott, Channing Pollock, Black Herman, and Fred Kaps.
  • Close-up magic is performed with the audience close to the magician, sometimes even one-on-one. It usually makes use of everyday items as props, such as cards and coins (see Coin magic) and seemingly 'impromptu' effects. This is also called "table magic" particularly when performed as dinner entertainment. Ricky Jay and Lee Asher, following in the traditions of Dai Vernon, Slydini and Max Malini, are considered among the foremost practitioners of close-up magic.
  • Mentalism creates the impression in the minds of the audience that the performer possesses special powers to read thoughts, predict events, control other minds, and similar feats. It can be presented on a stage, in a cabaret setting, before small close-up groups, or even for one spectator. Magicians in this field include Alexander, Max Maven, Kreskin, Luke Jermay, Derren Brown, The Zancigs, and Banachek.
  • Children's magic is performed for an audience primarily composed of children. It is typically performed at a birthday party, daycare or preschool, elementary school, Sunday School, or library. This type of magic is usually comedic in nature and involves audience interaction as well as volunteer assistants.
  • Corporate Magic or Trade Show Magic uses magic as a communication and sales tool, as opposed to just straightforward entertainment. Corporate magicians may come from a business background and typically present at meetings, conferences and product launches. They run workshops and can sometimes be found at trade shows, where their patter and illusions enhance an entertaining presentation of the products offered by their corporate sponsors. A significant practitioner of this discipline of magic is Eddie Tullock. [3]
  • Street magic is a form of street performing or busking that employs a hybrid of stage magic, platform and close-up magic, usually performed 'in the round' or surrounded. Notable modern street magic performers include Jeff Sheridan and Gazzo. The term "street magic" has recently (since the first David Blaine TV special "Street Magic" aired in 1997) come to be used to describe a style of "guerilla" performance where magicians approach and perform for unsuspecting members of the public on the street. Unlike traditional street magic, this style is almost purely designed for TV and gains its impact from the wild reactions of the public. Magicians of this type include David Blaine, Criss Angel and Cyril Takayama.
  • Bizarre magic uses mystical, horror, fantasy and other similar themes in performance. Bizarre magic is typically performed in a close-up venue, although some performers have effectively presented it in a stage setting. Charles Cameron has generally been credited as the "godfather of bizarre magic." Others, such as Tony Andruzzi, contributed significantly to its development.
  • Shock magic[citation needed] is a genre of magic that shocks the audience, hence the name. Sometimes referred to as "geek magic," it takes its roots from circus sideshows, in which "freakish" performances were shown to audiences. Common shock magic or geek magic effects include eating razor blades, needle-through-arm, string through neck and pen-through-tongue. Magicians known for performing shock magic include Criss Angel, Andrew Mayne, Sean Fields and Brian Brushwood.

Howard Thurston (July 20, 1869 – April 13, 1936) was a world famous stage magician. ... Chung Ling Soo Chung Ling Soo was the stage name of U.S. stage magician William Robinson (1861-1918). ... David Copperfield (born David Seth Kotkin) is a multi Emmy Award winning, American magician and illusionist best known for his combination of illusions and storytelling. ... A sculpture of Siegfried & Roy with one of their beloved white lions near the Mirage hotel on the Las Vegas Strip Siegfried & Roy are two gay German-American entertainers who worked on the Las Vegas Strip, USA. Their long running show of magic and illusion was famous for working with... Parlor magic is done for larger audiences than close-up magic (which is for a few people or even one person) and for smaller audiences than stage magic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Penn (left) & Teller Penn and Teller are a two-man magic and comedy team, comprised of Penn Jillette and Teller. ... Richman271 18:43, 17 April 2006 (UTC) Category: ... American Magician 1927 - 2006 Influenced Lance Burtons act ... Benjamin Rucker (born in Amherst, Virginia in 1892) was an American stage magician, better known by his stage name Black Herman. ... Fred Kaps (official name Abraham Pieter Adrianus Bongers), (June 8, 1926 – July 22, 1980) was a Dutch magician, famous for being the only magician to become FISM world champion three times. ... For the Russian group of artists, see Jack of Diamonds (artists). ... This article is about monetary coins. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ricky Jay Ricky Jay (b. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Dai Vernon (11 June 1894 – August 21, 1992) was a Canadian magician. ... Magician. ... Max Malini (born Max Katz Breit 1873-1942) was born in the small town of Ostrov on the borders of Poland and Austria. ... This article is about the performing art. ... Claude Alexander Conlin (1880 - 1954), also known as Alexander, C. Alexander, Alexander the Crystal Seer, and Alexander the Man Who Knows, was a stage magician who specialized in mentalism and psychic reading acts, often using a crystal ball as a prop. ... Max Maven (born Phil Goldstein in 1950) is a famous Magician and Mentalist. ... The Amazing Kreskin George Joseph Kresge, Jr. ... We dont have an article called Luke Jermay Start this article Search for Luke Jermay in. ... Derren Victor Brown (born February 27, 1971) is an English psychological illusionist and skeptic of paranormal phenomena. ... The Zancigs were stage magicians who performed a spectacularly successful two-member mentalism act during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Banachek is the stage name for a mentalist named Steven Shaw. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Busking is the practice of doing live performances in public places to entertain people, usually to solicit donations and tips. ... Theatre-in-the-round or arena theatre is any theatre space in which the audience surrounds the stage area. ... Jeff Sheridan (b. ... Gazzo may refer to: Gazzo (PD), a town in the Italian province of Padua Gazzo Veronese, a town in the Italian province of Verona Monte Gazzo, a hill near the Italian town of Sestri Ponente Michael V. Gazzo, Broadway Playwright and American Actor Jane Gazzo, British Broadcaster Gazzo Macee, street... David Blaine (born David Blaine White on April 4, 1973 in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.) is an American illusionist and stunt performer. ... David Blaine (born David Blaine White on April 4, 1973 in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.) is an American illusionist and stunt performer. ... Criss Angel (born Christopher Nicholas Sarantakos on December 19, 1967) is an American magician, illusionist , musician, mentalist, hypnotist, escapologist, stunt performer, and actor. ... Cyril Takayama (born 1973) is a Japanese/French American illusionist, born and raised in Hollywood, California. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... Horror can mean several things: Horror (emotion) Horror fiction Horror film This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Charles Cameron (October 31, 1927 - January 1, 2001) was a professional magician who specialized in a style known as bizarre magic. ... Tony Andruzzi (born Antonio C. Andruzzi 1925 in Cheyenne, Wyoming - December 22, 1991) was a professional Magician. ... Needle-through-arm is a magic effect that was popularized by comedy actor/magician Harry Anderson. ... Criss Angel (born Christopher Nicholas Sarantakos on December 19, 1967) is an American magician, illusionist , musician, mentalist, hypnotist, escapologist, stunt performer, and actor. ... Andrew Mayne Andrew Mayne is a magician and filmmaker. ... Born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Sean Fields grew up learning magic. ... Brian Brushwood (Official Promotion Photo #1) Brian Brushwood (born 1975) is an American magician who performs nationwide. ...

Misuse of magic

In modern conjuring, it is not considered ethical to give a performance which claims to be anything other than a clever and skillful deception.


Fraudulent psychics or mediums have long capitalised on the popular belief in ESP and other paranormal phenomena for financial gain. Controversy still surrounds the hugely successful 1970s illusionist Uri Geller and his ability to bend spoons, for instance. During the height of the vogue for spiritualism and the wave of popularity for séances from the 1840s to the 1920s, many fraudulent mediums used conjuring methods to perform illusions such as table-knocking, slate writing and telekinesis effects. The great escapologist and illusionist Harry Houdini devoted much of his time to exposing such fraudulent operators. Magicians James Randi, and Penn and Teller are involved in similar debunking today. Randi has, for example, shown how people have been taken advantage of by unscrupulous faith healers who, using simple sleight-of-hand, remove chicken-giblet "tumors" from the patient's abdomen. Extra-sensory perception (ESP) is defined in parapsychology as the ability to aquire information by paranormal means. ... Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Uri Geller (‎, born Gellér György[1] December 20, 1946 in Tel Aviv, British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli-British performer and celebrity famous for claiming to have psychic powers. ... // By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was an object of intense curiosity. ... Look up séance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Houdini” redirects here. ... James Randi (born August 7, 1928), stage name The Amazing Randi, is a stage magician and scientific skeptic best known as a challenger of paranormal claims and pseudoscience. ... Penn (left) & Teller Penn and Teller are a two-man magic and comedy team, comprised of Penn Jillette and Teller. ... Faith healing, also called divine healing or spiritual healing, is the use of spiritual means in treating disease, It is purportedly a supernatural manifestation that brings healing and deliverance from all kinds of diseases whether organic, functional, or psychological. ...


Con men and grifters often use techniques of conjuring for fraudulent goals. Cheating at card games is an obvious example. Other scams continue to defraud the innocent, despite having been exposed and debunked. The card trick known as "Find the Lady" or "Three-card Monte" is an old favourite of street hustlers who sucker the victim into betting on what seems like an easy and obvious win. Another example is the shell game, in which a pea is hidden under one of three walnut shells, then shuffled around the table (or sidewalk) so slowly as to make the pea's position seemingly obvious. Although these are well-known as frauds, people are still fooled enough to lose money on them. Grifter redirects here. ... // For the game on The Price Is Right, see Card Game (pricing game). ... The Real Hustle is a BBC television series made by Objective Productions demonstrating confidence and magic tricks and distraction scams performed on members of the public by presenters, Alexis Conran, Paul Wilson and Jessica-Jane Clement. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A shell game is performed with bottle caps on a cardboard box, on Fulton Street in New York City The Conjurer by Hieronymus Bosch. ...


References

  1. ^ Henning Nelms. Magic and Showmanship: A Handbook for Conjurers, page 1 (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc, 2000).
  2. ^ Jim Steinmeyer. "A New Kind of Magic," in Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible and Learned to Disappear (New York, NY: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2003).
  3. ^ Bill Herz with Paul Harris. Secrets of the Astonishing Executive (New York, NY: Avon Books, 1991).

Bibliography


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