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Encyclopedia > Maghreb
The Maghreb
The Maghreb

The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī), also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb), meaning "place of sunset" or "western" in Arabic, is a region in North Africa. The term is generally applied to all of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, but in older Arabic usage pertained only to the area of the three countries between the high ranges of the Atlas Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea. Historically, some writers also included Spain, Portugal, Sicily and Malta in the definition, especially during the periods of Arab and Muslim domination. Malta, in particular, still speaks its own Maghrebi Arabic variety: Maltese. Partially isolated from the rest of the continent by the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara, the Maghreb has long been closely tied in terms of climate, landforms, population, economy, and history to the Mediterranean basin. Because sea transportation dominated people's lives for so long, peoples joined by waters shared more than those joined by land. Maghrib is an Arabic term for of the setting (sun); from the root ghuroob (to set; to be hidden). It is also used in a manner similar to the metaphorical use of to be eclipsed, which is used in the English language. ... Maghrib (Arabic: of the setting (sun)) may refer to one of the following. ... A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Italy in 1000. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ... For other uses, see History (disambiguation). ...


The region was united as a single political entity only during the first years of Arab rule (early 8th century), and again for several decades under the Almohads (1159–1229). The Arab states of North Africa established the Arab Maghreb Union in 1989 to promote cooperation and economic integration. Its members are Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania. Envisioned initially by Muammar al-Gaddafi as an Arab superstate, organization members expect eventually to function as a North African Common Market. Economic and political unrest, especially in Algeria, have hindered progress on the union’s joint goals.[1] The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Arab Maghreb Union is a Pan-Arab trade agreement aiming for economic and political unity in northern Africa. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...

Contents

Population

Night view from Tunis
Night view from Tunis

A majority of the current population in the Maghreb consider themselves generally Arab in identity, regardless of mixed ethnic or linguistic heritage. There are significant non-Arab or non-Arab identifying populations in the region. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 272 KB) La côte dAlger (Algérie), vue depuis la basilique Notre-Dame dAfrique. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 272 KB) La côte dAlger (Algérie), vue depuis la basilique Notre-Dame dAfrique. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Image File history File links Tunis. ... Image File history File links Tunis. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ...


Most important of the non-Arab populations found throughout the Maghreb, particularly in Morocco and Algeria, are the Berbers. They represented the majority of the pre-Islamic population. After the arrival of Islamic Arabs, Berbers assimilated in large numbers to Arab or mixed Arab-Berber ethnic identities. Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...


Various other influences are also prominent throughout the Maghreb. In particular in northern coastal towns, several waves of European immigrants have influenced the population. Most notable were the moriscos and muladies, that is, indigenous Spaniards who had earlier converted to the Muslim faith and were fleeing, together with ethnic Arab and Berber Muslims, from the Catholic Reconquista. Other European contributions included French, Italians, and others captured by the corsairs. Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... A Muladi (pl: Muladies) is a term used to describe a sect of Moslems living in Spain with mostly Christian origins. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ...


Historically the Maghreb was home to significant Jewish communities, including the Berber Jews, who predated the 7th century introduction and conversion of the majority of Berbers to Islam. Later Spanish Sephardic Jews fleeing the Spanish Catholic Reconquista, established a presence in North Africa, chiefly in the urban trading centers. They have contributed to the wider population through conversion and assimilation. Many Sephardic Jews emigrated to North America in the early 20th century or to France and Israel later in the 20th century. For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Language(s) •Liturgical: Mizrahi Hebrew •Traditional: Judeo-Berber Modern: typically the language of whatever country they now reside in, including Modern Hebrew in Israel Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Jews Mizrahi Jews Sephardi Jews Other Jewish groups Berbers Berber Jews are the Berber Jewish communities inhabiting the region of... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from...


Among West Asians are Turks who came over with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. A large Turkish descended population exists, particularly in Tunisia and Algeria. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Kouloughli (from Ottoman Turkish) means children of slaves. It is equivalent to köleoÄŸlu, the contraction of köle (slave) and oÄŸul (son) in modern Turkish. ...


Sub-Saharan Africans joined the population mix during centuries of trans-Saharan trade. Traders and slaves went to the Maghreb from the Sahel region. On the Saharan southern edge of the Maghreb are small communities of black populations, sometimes called Haratine, who are apparently descended from black populations who inhabited the Sahara during its last wet period and then migrated north. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Haratin (also transliterated Haratins, Harratins or Haratine, etc, singular Hartani) is a Saharan / Sahelian word of obscure origin applied mainly in Mauritania, southern Morocco, Western Sahara, Algeria, Senegal and Mali to largely sedentary oasis-dwelling black populations speaking either Berber or Arabic dialects. ...


In Algeria especially, a large European minority, the "pied noirs", immigrated and settled under French colonial rule. The overwhelming majority of these, however, left Algeria during and following the war for independence. France maintains a close relationship with the Maghreb countries.[2] Albert Camus, an author, and famous pied-noir. ...


The Maghreb shares a common culinary tradition. Habib Bourguiba defined it as the part of the Arab world where couscous is the staple food, as opposed to Eastern Arab countries where white rice is the staple food. In terms of food, similarities beyond the starches are found throughout the Arab world. Habib Bourguiba (Arabic: حبيب بورقيبة Ḥabīb Būrqība) (August 3, 1903–April 6, 2000) was a Tunisian statesman and the Founder and First President of the Republic of Tunisia from July 25, 1957 to November 7, 1987. ... Couscous with vegetables and chickpeas Couscous or kuskus (pronounced in the US, in the UK; Berber Seksu - Arabic: ‎, called maftoul in Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine) is a food from the Maghreb of Berber origin. ...


Religion

Historic records of religion in the Maghreb region show its gradual inclusion in the Classical World, with coastal colonies established first by Phoenicians, some Greeks, and later extensive conquest and colonization by the Romans. By the second century common era, the area had become a center of Latin-speaking Christianity. Both Roman settlers and Romanized populations converted to Christianity. The region produced figures such as Christian Church writer Tertullian (c. 155 – c. 202); and Christian Church martyrs or leading figures such as St Cyprian of Carthage (+ 258); St. Monica; her son the philosopher St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo I (+ 430) (1); and St Julia of Carthage (5th century). Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Saint Monica of Hippo (333 - 387) is a Christian saint and mother of Saint Augustine. ... Augustine is the name of two important Saints: Augustine of Hippo (354-430) -- philosopher and theologian, author of The City of God, Confessions Augustine of Canterbury (d. ...


The domination of Christianity ended when Arab invasions brought Islam in 647. Carthage fell in 698 and the remainder of the region followed in subsequent decades. Gradual Islamization proceeded, although surviving letters showed correspondence from regional Christians to Rome up until the ninth century. Christianity was still a living faith. Christian bishoprics and dioceses continued to be active, with relations continuing with Rome. As late as Pope Benedict VII (974-983) reign, a new Archbishop of Carthage was consecrated. Evidence of Christianity in the region then faded through the tenth century.[citation needed] Benedict VI, Pope (972 - 974), was chosen with great ceremony and installed pope under the protection of the Emperor Otto the Great. ...


Islam

During the 7th century, the region's peoples began their nearly total conversion to Islam. There is a small but thriving Jewish community, as well as a small Christian community. Most Muslims follow the Sunni Maliki school. Small Ibadi communities remain in some areas. A strong tradition of venerating marabouts and saints' tombs is found throughout regions inhabited by Berbers. Any map of the region demonstrates the tradition by the proliferation of "Sidi"s, showing places named after the marabouts. Like some other religious traditions, this has substantially decreased over the twentieth century. A network of zaouias traditionally helped proliferate basic literacy and knowledge of Islam in rural regions. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... A marabout is a personal spiritual leader in the Islam faith as practiced in West Africa, and still to a limited extent in the Maghreb. ... Sidi is a title of respect in Western Arabic language (sayyid in other dialects) equivalent to Mr. ... Zaouia (Arabic زاوية corner), also spelled zawiya or zawiyah, is a Maghrebi and West African term for an Islamic religious school cum monastery, roughly corresponding to the Eastern term madrassa. In precolonial times, these were the primary sources for education in the area, and taught basic literacy to a large...


History

After the end of the Ice Age about ten thousand years ago, when the Sahara dried up, contact between the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa was extremely limited. Arab expansion and the spread of Islam pushed the development of trans-Saharan trade. While restricted due to the cost and dangers, the trade was important and highly profitable. Peoples traded in such goods as salt, gold, ivory, and slaves available from the Sahel regions. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Great Mosque of Djenné, founded in 800, an important trading base, now a World Heritage Site Trans-Saharan trade, refers to trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. ... The slave trade means a trade in human beings treated as objects of commerce. ...


Paleo-anthropological evidence suggests that originally most of the Maghreb was inhabited by "Caucasoid" Cro-Magnoids (Iberomaurusians) in the north. Later, about 8000 BC, "Caucasoid" speakers of northern Afro-Asiatic languages, such as Berber, came from the east, at least since the Capsian culture.[citation needed] Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... The Capsian culture (named after the town of Gafsa) was a Mesolithic culture of the Maghreb, which lasted from about 10000 BC to 6000 BC. It was concentrated mainly in modern Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, with some sites attested in Cyrenaica (Libya). ...


Many ports along the Maghreb coast were occupied by Phoenicians, particularly Carthaginians. With the defeat of Carthage, Rome took over many of these ports, and ultimately it took control of the entire Maghreb north of the Atlas Mountains. Remaining outside its control were only some of the most mountainous regions like the Moroccan Rif. Phoenicia (nonstandardly, Phenicia; pronounced [1], Greek: : Phoiníkē, Latin: ) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... RIF may refer to: Reading Is Fundamental, an organization promoting childrens literacy Reconnaissance in Force, a type of military operation used specifically to probe an enemys disposition Reduction in Force, a large-scale ending of employment Renju International Federation, Renju is the professional variant of board game Gomoku...


The Arabs reached the Maghreb in early Umayyad times. Their control over it was quite weak. Various Islamic "heresies", such as the Ibadis and the Shia, adopted by some Berbers, quickly threw off Caliphal control in the name of their interpretations of Islam. Flag Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent Capital Damascus Capital-in-exile Córdoba Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - Established 660  - Disestablished 750 Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first... Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...


The Arabic language became widespread only later, as a result of the invasion of the Banu Hilal (unleashed, ironically, by the Berber Fatimids in punishment for their Zirid clients' defection) in the 1100s. Throughout this period, the Maghreb most often was divided into three states roughly corresponding to modern Morocco, western Algeria, and eastern Algeria and Tunisia. The region was occasionally briefly unified, as under the Almohads, and briefly under the Hafsids). The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya (1229-1574) Significant Rulers: Abu Zakariyya Yahya I. (1229-1249) Muhammad I. al-Mustansir (1249-1277) Yahya II. al-Watiq (1277-1279) Ibrahim I. (1279-1283) Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284) Abu Hafs Umar I. (1284-1295) Abu Bakr II. (1318-1346) Ishaq II. (1350-1369...


After the Middle Ages, the Ottoman Empire loosely controlled the area east of Morocco. After the 19th century, areas of the Maghreb were colonized by France, Spain and later Italy. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Today more than two and a half million Maghrebin immigrants live in France, especially from Algeria. In addition, there are many more French of Maghrebin origin.[citation needed]


Maghrebi traders in Jewish history

In the tenth century, as the social and political environment in Baghdad became increasingly hostile to Jews, many Jewish traders emigrated to the Maghreb, especially Tunisia. Over the following two (three?) centuries, such Jewish traders became known as the Maghribis, a distinctive social group who traveled throughout the Mediterranean World. They passed this identification on from father to son.[3] Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Ecoregions of the Maghreb

The Maghreb is divided into a Mediterranean climate region in the north, and the arid Sahara to the south. The Magreb's variations in elevation, rainfall, temperature, and soils give rise to distinct communities of plants and animals. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) identifies several distinct ecoregions in the Maghreb.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


Mediterranean Maghreb

The portions of the Maghreb between the Atlas Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea, along with coastal Tripolitania and Cyrenaica in Libya, are home to Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub. These ecoregions share many species of plants and animals with other portions of Mediterranean Basin. The southern extent of the Mediterranean Maghreb corresponds with the 100 mm isohyet, or the southern range of the European Olive (Olea europea)[4] and Esparto Grass (Stipa tenacissima).[5] Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... A Mediterranean forest. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Binomial name Stipa tenacissima L. - Esparto grass Esparto, or esparto grass, also known as halfah grass or needle grass, Stipa tenacissima, is a perennial grass grown in northwest Africa and southern Spain for fiber production for paper making. ...

  • Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets (Morocco, Canary Islands (Spain), Western Sahara)
  • Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia)
  • Mediterranean woodlands and forests (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia)
  • Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Spain)
  • Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe (Morocco)

Saharan Maghreb

The Sahara extends across northern Africa from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. Its center is hyper-arid and supports little plant or animal life, but the northern portion of the desert receives occasional winter rains, while the strip along the Atlantic coast receives moisture from marine fog, which nourish a greater variety of plants and animals. The northern edge of the Sahara corresponds to the 100 mm isohyet, which is also the northern range of the Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera).[5] Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ...

  • North Saharan steppe and woodlands: This ecoregion lies along the northern edge of the Sahara, next to the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub ecoregions of the Mediterranean Maghreb and Cyrenaica. Winter rains sustain shrublands and dry woodlands that form a transition between the Mediterranean climate regions to the north and the hyper-arid Sahara proper to the south. It covers 1,675,300 square kilometers (646,800 square miles) in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, and Western Sahara. [6]
  • Atlantic coastal desert: The Atlantic coastal desert occupies a narrow strip along the Atlantic coast, where fog generated offshore by the cool Canary Current provides sufficient moisture to sustain a variety of lichens, succulents, and shrubs. It covers 39,900 square kilometers (15,400 square miles) in Western Sahara and Mauritania.[7]
  • Sahara desert: This ecoregion covers the hyper-arid central portion of the Sahara where rainfall is minimal and sporadic. Vegetation is rare, and this ecoregion consists mostly of sand dunes (erg), stone plateaus (hamada), gravel plains (reg), dry valleys (wadi), and salt flats. It covers 4,639,900 square kilometers (1,791,500 square miles) of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sudan.[8]
  • Saharan halopytics: Seasonally-flooded saline depressions in the Maghreb are home to halophytic, or salt-adapted, plant communities. The Saharan halophytics cover 54,000 square kilometers (20,800 square miles), including Tunisian salt lakes of central Tunisia, Chott Melghir in Algeria, and other areas of Egypt, Algeria, Mauritania, and Western Sahara.[9]

A Mediterranean forest. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... The Canary Current branches south from the North Atlantic Current and flows toward the South West about as far as Senegal where it turns West. ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... Succulent plants, such as this Aloe, store water in their fleshy leaves Succulent plants, also known as succulents or fat plants, are water-retaining plants adapted to xerophilic climatic or soil conditions. ... Several ecoregions cover the Sahara. ... Issaouane Erg, Algeria. ... Cyclists crossing hamada, approaching Erg Chebbi sand dunes, Morocco A hamada (ara. ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ... Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass), a halophyte. ...

Modern territories of the Maghreb

Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ...

Medieval regions of the Maghreb

In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. ... el-Djerid or al-Jarid (Arabic الجريد, meaning palm leaf) is the medieval name for the semidesert region comprising southern Tunisia and adjacent parts of Algeria and Libya, including several chotts or salt lakes (notably Chott el Djerid in Algeria). ... A solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a gold coin issued by the Romans. ... The Zab (also known as the Zawa in Syriac) is a river that splits from the Tigris and flows from northern Iraq into southeastern Turkey. ... RIF may refer to: Reading Is Fundamental, an organization promoting childrens literacy Reconnaissance in Force, a type of military operation used specifically to probe an enemys disposition Reduction in Force, a large-scale ending of employment Renju International Federation, Renju is the professional variant of board game Gomoku... Tamesna can refer to: Tamesna, a historical region in North Africa, that is currently the area between the Moroccan cities of Kenitra and Safi. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ...

See also

The Arab Maghreb Union is a Pan-Arab trade agreement aiming for economic and political unity in northern Africa. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... For other uses, see moor. ... The fertile coastal plain of North Africa, especially west of Tunisia, is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib). ... The present day Republic of Tunisia, al Jumhuriyah at-Tunisiyah, has over ten million people, almost all Arab-Berber. ... The place names of the Maghreb come from a variety of origins, mostly Arabic and Berber, but including a few derived from Phoenician, Latin, and several other languages. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Tamazgha is a recent Tamazight neologism for the area more often known as the Maghreb or North Africa, covering the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Niger River, from the west bank of the Nile river to the Atlantic Ocean. ... Mashriq or Mashreq is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... A map showing Northwest Africa Northwest Africa is the northwestern part of Africa. ... Maghrebi script from 13th century northern African Quran Maghrebi script is a cursive form of the Arabic alphabet influenced by Kufic letters that developed in the Maghreb and later in Spain, particularly Andalusia. ... Since Biblical times, the Jewish people have had close ties with Africa, going back to Abrahams sojourns in Egypt, and later the Israelite captivity under the Pharaohs. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ Maghreb (html). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  2. ^ France and Maghreb - An enhanced partnership with the Maghreb (March 20, 2007). French ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  3. ^ Avner Greif (June 1993). "Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders' Coalition". . American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Review Retrieved on 2007-07-11.. See also Greif's "Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade: Evidence on the Maghribi Traders" in the Journal of Economic History Vol. XLIX, No. 4 (Dec. 1989) pp.857-882
  4. ^ Dallman, Peter R. (1998) Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. California Native Plant Society/University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-20809-9
  5. ^ a b Wickens, Gerald E. (1998) Ecophysiology of Economic Plants in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands. Springer, Berlin. ISBN 978-3-540-52171-6
  6. ^ "North Saharan steppe and woodlands" WWF Scientific Report [1]. Accessed December 31, 2007.
  7. ^ "Atlantic coastal desert" WWF Scientific Report [2]. Accessed December 31, 2007.
  8. ^ "Sahara desert" WWF Scientific Report [3]. Accessed December 31, 2007.
  9. ^ "Saharan halophytics" WWF Scientific Report [4]. Accessed December 31, 2007.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Avner Greif is an economics professor at Stanford University, Stanford, California. ... The American Economic Association, or AEA, is the oldest and most important professional organization in the field of economics. ... The American Economic Review (AER) is a quarterly journal of economics published by the American Economic Association. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ... Image File history File links Blason_France_moderne. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Algerian bay (view from the west). ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... Arguin is an island off the west coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin, at 20° 36 N., 16° 27 W. It is 6 km long by 2 broad. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... French Sudan (Fr. ... French Togoland was a France Mandate territory in West Africa, which later became the Togolese Republic. ... James Island is an island in the Gambia River, 30 km from the river mouth and near Juffure, The Gambia. ... Location of French Equatorial Africa. ... // First settled by Mbuti, Congo was later settled by Bantu groups that also occupied parts of present-day Angola, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of the Congo, forming the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those states. ... Oubangui-Chari, or Ubangi-Shari, was a French territory in central Africa which later became the independent country of the Central African Republic on August 13, 1960. ... Capital (and largest city) Mutsamudu Official languages Comorian (Shindzuani dialect), Arabic, French Government Autonomous Island  -  President Dhoihirou Halidi Area  -  Total 424 km²  163 sq mi   -  Water (%) negligible Population  -  2006 estimate 277,500   -  2003 census 259,100  Currency Comorian franc or Comoran franc (KMF) Time zone EAT  -  Summer (DST) not observed... Map of Grand Comore Grand Comore (off-white) in relation to Comoros (light brown) Grande Comore (also known as Ngazidja and Ngasidja, and erroneously as Njazidja) is an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Map of Mohéli Mohéli, also known as Mwali, is one of the three islands which make up the nation of Comoros. ... The Republic of Djibouti gained its independence on June 27, 1977. ... Motto: Stella Clavisque Maris Indici(Latin) Star and Key of the Indian Ocean Anthem: Motherland Capital (and largest city) Port Louis Official languages English1 Recognised regional languages Mauritian Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Tamil, Chinese (Mandarin), Telugu, Mauritian Bhojpuri Demonym Mauritian Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Anerood Jugnauth  -  Prime Minister Navinchandra Ramgoolam... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Inini (1941 pop. ... Berbice is the Second largest of the three counties in Guyana and is known as the ancient county. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Islands were first settled by Arawak Indians from South America in around 100 BC. They settled the Islands until the 15th century when they were removed by the more aggressive Caribs, a tribe from the Lesser Antilles islands, after whom the Caribbean Sea is named. ... France Antarctique was the name of the failed French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567. ... Equinoxial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before tropical had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin of equal nights, i. ... In the history of French trade, the French West India Company was a chartered company established in 1664. ... For the French colonial postage stamps, see French Colonies. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Chandannagore Strand: A unique place along the bank of Ganga Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar (French: Chandernagor), is a small city located 30 kilometers north of Kolkata, in West Bengal, India. ... Districts along the Coromandel Coast Map of the coast (French) The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... The Kapaleeshwarar temple in Mylapore was built by the Pallava kings in the 7th century Chennai (ெசன்னை in Tamil), formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is Indias fourth largest city. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... History related to Union Territory of Puducherry means, Colonial History of Pondicherry, History. ... Karaikal, also Karikal, is one of the four regions of the Union Territory of Pondicherry. ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Cochinchina, from Cochin-China (see note below) (known locally as Nam Kỳ, meaning southern region), in French: Cochinchine) is a name used for various southern regions of Vietnam. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... French colonial flag of the Alawite State The Alawite State (Arabic: ‎), also known in French as Alaouites, after the locally dominant Alawite sect of Shia Islam, was a French mandate territory in the coastal area of present-day Syria after World War I.[1] // The collapse of the Ottoman... Flag of the Republic of Hatay. ... Kwang-Chou-Wan (廣州灣), or Kwangchowan, was a small enclave on the south coast of China conceded by China to France as a leased territory. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ... French and other European settlements in India. ... The French Overseas Departments and Territories (French: départements doutre-mer and collectivités doutre-mer or DOM-COM) consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of Europe. ... Image File history File links Ministre-DOMTOM.gif‎ autorisation accordée par lauteur : © Pierre Gay  : [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): French Navy ensigns and pennants ... A collectivité doutre-mer (in English Overseas Community) or COM, is an administrative division of France. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Marigot Official languages French Government  -  President of France Jacques Chirac  -  Prefect Dominique Lacroix  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Albert Fleming is the mayor of Saint-Martin Overseas Collectivity of France   -  Island divided between France and the Netherlands 23 March 1648... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité Click on map to enlarge Capital Port-aux-Français Official languages French Government  -  Prefect Michel Champon Territoire doutre-mer  -  Date 1955  Population  -   estimate 140 hab. ... ÃŽle Amsterdam IPA: (meaning Amsterdam island, after the Dutch capital) is a French island in the Indian Ocean located at . ... Map of St. ... Orthographic projection centred over the Iles Crozet The Crozet Islands (French: ÃŽles Crozet or officially Archipel Crozet) are a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean, part of the French Southern Territories. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Adélie Land is the portion of the Antarctic coast between Pourquoi Pas Point at 66°12S, 136°11E and Point Alden at 66°48S, 142°02E, with a shore length of 350 km and with its hinterland extending as a sector about 2600 km toward... Location of the Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean: • 1 : Bassas da India • 2 : Europa Island • 3 : Glorioso Islands • 4 : Juan de Nova Island • 5 : Tromelin Island (KM : Comoros, MG : Madagascar, MU : Mauritius, MZ : Mozambique, RE : Réunion, YT : Mayotte) The Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean (French: ÃŽles Éparses...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Maghreb - Drumdojo - By Drummers For Drummers (1813 words)
The Maghreb is the name given to the five Northern African states, namely Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania and Libya.
This music then became the classical music of Maghreb, and is the style of music in which one is most likely to find odd timings.
The drums of the Maghreb come in many shapes and sizes, and bear a lot more resemblance to their Middle Eastern counterparts than they do to their African.
Interactions between French and Islamic Cultures in the Maghreb (2743 words)
The inclusion of the Maghreb - North Africa - in a seminar about Europe is due to enlargements in the colonial past but also to the ambitions of at least parts of the Maghreb to belong to an enlarged Europe in the future.
The Maghreb is an Arabic word meaning ‘where the sun sets’ and it represents the Far West of the Arab world.
Television is primarily state-controlled in all three countries of the Maghreb, and the national channels therefore aim to implement Arabisation, yet a relatively large percentage of programmes are either in French or contain elements of French.
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