FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Magdeburg Rights

The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were a set of city laws regulating the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted with it by a local ruler. Modelled and named after the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg developed during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, it was possibly the most important set of Germanic mediæval city laws. Adopted by numerous monarchs in Central and Eastern Europe, the law was a milestone in urbanization of the region and prompted the development of thousands of villages and cities. Apart from Magdeburg itself, notable towns located on Magdeburg Law (or its local variants) were Biecz, Frysztak, Sandomierz, Kraków, Poznań, Wrocław, Kiev, Lvov, Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Sanok, Sniatyn, and Nizhyn. Town privileges were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial free city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... View of Magdeburg with the cathedral, from the tower of the Johanniskirche Magdeburgs center has numerous Stalinist neo-classicist buildings Interior of the Cathedral of Magdeburg, looking towards the Grave of Otto I. The cathedrals twin spires, seen from the courtyard Unser Lieben Frauen Monastery Magdeburg, the capital... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Biecz - town and gmina in powiat gorlicki, in Lesser Poland Voivodship. ... Sandomierz is a city in south-eastern Poland with 27,000 inhabitants (1995). ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ... Motto: none Voivodship Greater Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Poznania Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area 261,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 578 900 (2002) 850 000 2215/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1253 Latitude Longitude 52°1734 N - 52°3027 N 16°4408 E - 17°04... WrocÅ‚aw, (Polish pronunciation: (?), Czech: , German: ( (help· info)), Latin: Wratislavia or Vratislavia) is the capital of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... A monument to St. ... Lviv ( Львів in Ukrainian; Львов, Lvov in Russian; Lwów in Polish; Leopolis in Latin; Lemberg in German—see also cities alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine with 830,000 inhabitants (an additional 200,000 commute daily from suburbs). ... Volodymyr-Volynsky (Володимир-Волинський; Polish: Włodzimierz Wołyński, Russian: Vladimir Volynski) is a city in Volyn region, northwestern Ukraine, with a population of 38,000 (2004). ... Coat of arms legendary Czech soldier Josef Åœvejk Sanok , latin Sanocum, Saanig, yidish Sonik,(in full The Royal Free City of Sanok, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok) Ziemia Sanocka is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,400 inhabitants (1995). ... Sniatyn is a town in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ukraine. ... Nizhyn (Ukrainian: ), sometimes referred to by its Russian name Nezhin (Russian: ), is a city and the local capital of Nizhyn Raion (district) in Chernihiv Oblast (province) in the north of Ukraine. ...


Spread of the law

Among the most advanced systems of old Germanic law of the time, in the 13th and 14th centuries, the Magdeburg rights were granted to more than a hundred cities, in the north and east towards Russia, including Schleswig, Bohemia, Poland, especially in Pomerania and Province of Prussia, where they were known as German or Teutonic law. Since the local tribunal of Magdeburg thus also became the superior court for these towns, Magdeburg, together with Lübeck, practically defined the law of northern Germany and Poland for centuries, being the heart of the most important "family" of city laws. This role remained until the old Germanic laws were successively replaced with Roman law under the influence of the Reichskammergericht, in the centuries after its establishment during the Imperial Reform of 1495. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Bohemia. ... Historic Western Pomerania (outlined in yellow) on the background of modern country borders. ... The Province of Prussia was a province of Poland from the 15th century until 1660, consisting of Royal Prussia and Ducal Prussia. ... A court is an official, public forum which a sovereign establishes by lawful authority to adjudicate disputes, and to dispense civil, labour, administrative and criminal justice under the law. ... Lübeck ( pronunc. ... Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... The Reichskammergericht was the highest judicial institution in the Holy Roman Empire, founded in 1495 by the Reichstag in Worms. ... In 1495, an attempt was made at a Reichstag in the city of Worms to give the disintegrating Holy Roman Empire a new structure, commonly referred to as Imperial Reform (in German: Whether this reform can be considered successful depends on how one defines its goals; today, many scholars believe... 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Contents

As with most medieval city laws, the Rights were primarily targeted at regulating trade to the benefit of the local merchants and artisans, who formed the most important part of the population of many such cities. In medieval Poland, Jews were invited along with German merchants to settle in cities as part of the royal city development policy.


Jews and Germans were sometimes competitors in those cities. Jews lived under privileges that they carefully negotiated with the king or emperor. They were not subject to city jurisdiction. These privileges guaranteed that they could maintain communal autonomy, live according to their laws, and be subjected directly to the royal jurisdiction in matters concerning Jews and Christians. One of the most interesting provisions of the settlement privileges granted to Jews was that a Jew could not be made Gewährsmann, that is, he could not be compelled to tell from whom he acquired any object which had been sold or pledged to him and which was found in his possession. This effectively amounted to permission to buy stolen property. Other provisions frequently mentioned were a permission to sell meat to Christians, or employ Christian servants.


External merchants coming into the city were not allowed to trade on their own, but instead forced to sell the goods they had brought into the city to local buyers, if any wished to buy them.


Being a member of the Hanseatic league, Magdeburg thus was one of the most important trade cities also, maintaining commerce with the west (towards Flanders), with the countries of the Baltic Sea, and the interior (for example Braunschweig). Carta marina of Baltic Sea (1539). ... Flanders (Flemish, Fleming) (Dutch: Vlaanderen (Vlaams, Vlaming)) has two main designations: a geographical region in the north of Belgium, corresponding to the Flemish Region, a consituent part of the federal Belgian state. ... The Baltic Sea The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... Map of Germany showing Braunschweig Braunschweig [ˈbraunʃvaik] (English & French: Brunswick) is a city of 245,500 people (as of December 31, 2004), located in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


See also

  • Chełmno law
  • Lübeck law

  Results from FactBites:
 
Magdeburg rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (488 words)
The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were a set of city laws regulating the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted with it by a local ruler.
Since the local tribunal of Magdeburg thus also became the superior court for these towns, Magdeburg, together with Lübeck, practically defined the law of northern Germany and Poland for centuries, being the heart of the most important "family" of city laws.
Being a member of the Hanseatic league, Magdeburg thus was one of the most important trade cities also, maintaining commerce with the west (towards Flanders), with the countries of the Baltic Sea, and the interior (for example Braunschweig).
Magdeburg (1566 words)
The so-called Magdeburg Rights were also adopted by many towns in eastern and north- eastern Germany in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (in Pomerania, Schleswig, and Prussia).
Magdeburg was also a member of the Hanseatic league of towns, and as such was first mentioned in 1295.
The Diocese of Magdeburg itself was small; it comprised the Slavonic districts of Serimunt, Nudizi, Neletici, Nizizi, and half of northern Thuringia, which Halberstadt resigned.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m