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Encyclopedia > Magadh

Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. It was also one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha, having risen to power during the reigns of Bimbisara (c. 544-491 BCE) and his son Ajatashatru (c. 491-460 BCE). The core of the kingdom was that portion of Bihar lying south of the Ganges, with its capital at Rajagriha (modern Rajgir). Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and parts of Bengal with the conquest of Anga, and then expanded up the Ganges valley annexing Kosala and Kashi. Magadha formed one of the sixteen so-called Mahājanapadas (Sanskrit, 'great country'). The Magadha empire included republican communities such as Rajakumara. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Their administrations were divided into executive, judicial, and military functions. Bimbisara was friendly to both Jainism and Buddhism and suspended tolls at the river ferries for all ascetics after the Buddha was once stopped at the Ganges River for lack of money. Lord Ram, Laxman, Sita and Hanuman(crouching) The Ramayana (Sanskrit: march (ayana) of Rama) is part of the Hindu smriti, written by Valmiki (c. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major literary, religious and philosophical epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ... A stone image of the Buddha. ... Bimbisara (ruled 544-491 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC - 491 BC - 490 BC 489 BC... Ajatashatru (ruled 491-461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 465 BC 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC - 460 BC - 459 BC 458 BC... Bihar (बिहार in Devanagri) is a state situated in the eastern part of India. ... Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ... Rajgir is a town in Bihar, India, about 10 KMs from Nalanda. ... A database query syntax error has occurred. ... Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Siddhartha redirects here. ... Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ...


History

There is little certain information available on the early rulers of Magadha. The most important sources are the Buddhist Chronicles of Sri Lanka, the Puranas, and various Buddhist and Jain holy texts. Based on these sources, it appears that Magadha was ruled by the Śiśunāga dynasty for some 200 years, c. 550 - 350 B.C.E. The Śiśunāga dynasty was overthrown by Ugrasena Mahāpadma Nanda, the first of the so-called nine Nandas (a.k.a. the Nanda or Nava Nanda dynasty). He was followed by his eight sons, whose names were (according to the Mahābodhivamsa) Panduka, Pandugati, Bhūtapāla, Ratthapāla, Govisānaka, Dasasiddhaka, Kevatta, and Dhana Nanda. According to the Sri Lankan Chronicles, the Nanda dynasty was in power for mere 22 years, while the Puranas state that Mahāpadma ruled for 28 years and his eight sons for only 12. The Puranas (Sanskrit purāṇá ancient) are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC - 350 BC - 349 BC 348 BC 347... The Puranas (Sanskrit purāṇá ancient) are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ...


King Bimbisara of the Shishunaga dynasty led an active and expansive policy, conquering Anga in what is now West Bengal. Bimbisara (ruled 544-491 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire. ... West Bengal (পশ্চিম বঙ্গ, Pôścim Bôngô) is a state in the northeast of India. ...


Gautama Buddha himself was born a prince of Kapilavastu in Magadha around 563 BCE. As the scene of many incidents in his life, Magadha was a holy land. Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Siddhartha redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC Events and Trends 562 BC - Amel-Marduk succeeds Nebuchadnezzar as king of Babylon 560 BC - Neriglissar succeeds...


After the death of Bimbisara at the hands of his son, Ajatashatru, the widowed princess of Kosala also died of grief, causing King Prasenajit to revoke the gift of Kashi and triggering a war between Kosala and Magadha. Ajatashatru was trapped by an ambush and captured with his army; but in a peace treaty he, his army, and Kashi were restored to Magadha, and he married Prasenajit's daughter. Ajatashatru (ruled 491-461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... There are multiple meanings of Kashi: Benares (a. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Ajatashatru (ruled 491-461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India. ...


Accounts differ slightly as to the cause of Ajatashatru's war with the Licchavi republic. It appears that Ajatashatru sent a minister, who for three years worked to undermine the unity of the Licchavis at Vaishali. To launch his attack across the Ganga River (Ganges), Ajatashatru had to build a fort at a new capital called Pataliputra, which the Buddha prophesied would become a great center of commerce. Torn by disagreements the Licchavis were easily defeated once the fort was constructed. Jain texts tell how Ajatashatru used two new weapons – a catapult and a covered chariot with swinging mace that has been compared to modern tanks. Early morning on the Ganges The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ... ... A stone image of the Buddha. ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ...


In 326 BCE, the army of Alexander the Great approached the boundaries of Magadha. The army, exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing another giant Indian army at the Ganges River, mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas) and refused to march further East. Alexander, after the meeting with his officer, Coenus, was convinced that it was better to return, and turned south, conquering his way down the Indus to the Ocean. Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 331 BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC - 326 BC - 325 BC 324 BC 323... Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompei mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original, now lost). ... Indias Beas River, known as Vipas to Indians in Vedic times and the Hyphasis to Greeks, marks the most easterly extent of the conquests of Alexander the Great in 326 BC. The river begins at the Rohtang Pass in Himachal Pradesh, and eventually joins the Sutlej River in India... Indias Beas River, known as Vipas to Indians in Vedic times and the Hyphasis to Greeks, marks the most easterly extent of the conquests of Alexander the Great in 326 BC. The river begins at the Rohtang Pass in Himachal Pradesh, and eventually joins the Sutlej River in India...


Magadha was also the seat of the Mauryan Empire, founded by Chandragupta, which extended over nearly all India under Asoka; and, later, of the powerful Gupta Empire. The capital of the Mauryan Empire, Pataliputta (modern Patna), was begun as a Magadhan fortress and became the capital sometime after Ajatashatru's reign. Chandragupta destroyed the Nanda dynasty around 321 BCE, and became the first king of the great Mauryan Empire. The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan Empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire in India. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455 CE). ... ... Patna is the capital of the state of Bihar, in north-eastern India. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC 322 BC - 321 BC - 320 BC 319 BC 318...


Kings of Magadha

A list of kings according to the Sri Lankan Chronicles follows:

  1. Bimbisāra (ruled for 52 years)
  2. Ajātaśatru (32 years; The Buddha is thought to have died in the 8th year of Ajātaśatru's reign.)
  3. Udāyin or Udāyibhadra (16 years)
  4. Anuruddha (c. 4 years)
  5. Munda (c. 4 years)
  6. Nāgadāsaka (24 years)
  7. Śiśunāga (18 years)
  8. Kālāśoka (28 years)
  9. Ten sons of Kālāśoka, Nandivardhana being the most prominent (22 years). The names for the other eight are given in the Mahābodhivamsa as follows: Bhaddasena, Korandavanna, Mangura, Sabbañjaha, Jālika, Ubhaka, Sañjaya, Korabya, and Pañcamaka.

The Puranas give a rather different list with long reigns, making the Śiśunāga dynasty 321 years long: Bimbisara (ruled 544-491 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire. ... Ajatashatru (ruled 491-461 BCE) was a king of the Magadha empire that ruled north India. ... A stone image of the Buddha. ... The Puranas (Sanskrit purāṇá ancient) are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period...

  1. Śiśunāga (ruled for 40 years)
  2. Kākavarna (26 years)
  3. Ksemadharman (36 years)
  4. Ksemajit or Ksatraujas (24 years)
  5. Bimbisāra (28 years)
  6. Ajātaśatru (27 years)
  7. Darśaka (24 years)
  8. Udāyin (33 years)
  9. Nandivardhana (40 years)
  10. Mahānandin (43 years)

This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...




MIDDLE KINGDOMS OF INDIA
Timeline: Northern empires Southern Kingdoms Foreign kingdoms

6th century BCE
5th century BCE
4th century BCE

3rd century BCE
2nd century BCE

1st century BCE
1st century CE


2nd century CE
3rd century CE
4th century CE
5th century CE
6th century CE
7th century CE
8th century CE
9th century CE
10th century CE
11th century CE Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India in the 6th century BC through the 6th century AD. Kingdoms and Empires The following account relies on the accuracy of the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) which believes that a nomadic race known as the Aryans invaded India from... Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ...






Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan Empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates are of... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...



Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455 CE). ... The Pratiharas, also called the Gurjara-Pratiharas were an Indian dynasty who ruled kingdoms in Rajasthan and northern India from the sixth to the eleventh centuries. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... The Solanki were a Hindu Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled much of the area that of the present-day state of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...





Kalinga was an ancient kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern tip of the peninsula of India for most of its early history. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ...


(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... Persia and Persian can refer to: the Western name for Iran. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greek kingdom



(First islamic conquests)
Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 CE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Coin of the Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II, riding on horseback (c. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka ( Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. ...

(Islamic invasion of India) The Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, and northwestern India from the mid-ninth century to the early eleventh century. ... The recorded history of Islam in connection with India begins in the 8th century, when the Arabs began invading north India and present day Pakistan, on the orders of Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef, the governor of Iraq. ...



See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
(52) The dynasties of Magadh after the Mahabharat war and the important historical personalities (Gautam Buddh, ... (1909 words)
The dynastic dates of the kings of Hastinapur are the actual historic records, but the dynasties of Magadh given in the Bhagwatam or Bhavishya Puran are the predictions by the descended Divine personality Ved Vyas who reproduced all the Vedas and Puranas before 3102 BC.
The dynastic periods of both, Hastinapur and Magadh, (up to Vikramaditya) coincide with only a difference of 24 years in 3,000 years of records which is almost negligible.
After the downfall of Gupt dynasty the kingship of Magadh ended and it went under the subordination of Vikramaditya of Ujjain (Malva).
(40) Descriptions of the kings of Magadh in the Puranas were fabricated, historic records were destroyed, false ... (1949 words)
So it was fully possible to get the correct version of the names and the ruling period of the kings of the dynasties of Magadh by comparing all the available manuscripts of those Puranas which describe the dynasties of Magadh.
Thus, it is clear that these fabrications to distort the dynastic dates and the pronunciation of the names of the kings of Magadh were done in the early 19th century.
There were two kings in Magadh dynasties: Ashokvardhan, the grandson of Chandragupt Maurya, who was in the 15th century BC, and Samudragupt Ashokaditya (Priyadarshin), the son of Chandragupt of Gupt dynasty, who was in 4th century BC.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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