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Encyclopedia > Mafia

The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian criminal secret society which first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily. An offshoot emerged on the East Coast of the United States and in Australia[1] during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration (see also Italian diaspora). In North America, the Mafia often refers to Italian organized crime in general, rather than just traditional Sicilian organized crime. According to historian Paolo Pezzino: "The Mafia is a kind of organized crime being active not only in several illegal fields, but also tending to exercise sovereignty functions – normally belonging to public authorities – over a specific territory..."[2] Mafia may mean: Mafia, a criminal organization Mafia Island off the coast of Tanzania Mafia (game), a parlour game Mafia: The City of Lost Heaven, a video game Jane Austens Mafia!, a movie Mafia, an album by Black Label Society B.U.G. Mafia or simply Mafia is a... The Calabrian Ndrangheta (from the Greek word andragathía for heroism and virtue — The Honoured Society), IPA: , are one of the most powerful and ruthless organized crime organizations in Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle in another country. ... The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of World War I in 1914. ...


The Sicilian Cosa Nostra is a loose confederation of about one hundred Mafia groups, also called cosche or families, each of which claims sovereignty over a territory, usually a town or village or a neighborhood of a larger city, though without ever fully conquering and legitimizing its monopoly of violence. For many years, the power apparatuses of the single families were the sole ruling bodies within the two associations, and they have remained the real centers of power even after superordinate bodies were created in the Cosa Nostra beginning in the late 1950s (the Sicilian Mafia Commission).[3] The word cosca (pl. ... The Sicilian Mafia Commission, known as Commissione or Cupola, is a body of leading Mafia members to decide on important questions concerning the actions of, and settling disputes within the Sicilian Mafia or Cosa Nostra. ...


Some observers have seen "mafia" as a set of attributes deeply rooted in popular culture, as a "way of being", as illustrated in the definition by the Sicilian ethnographer, Giuseppe Pitrè, at the end of the 19th century: "Mafia is the consciousness of one's own worth, the exaggerated concept of individual force as the sole arbiter of every conflict, of every clash of interests or ideas."[4] Giuseppe Pitrè (December 21, 1841 – April 10, 1916) was an Italian folklorist credited with extending the realm of folklore to include all the manifestations of popular life. ...


Many Sicilians did not regard these men as criminals but as role models and protectors, given that the state appeared to offer no protection for the poor and weak. As late as the 1950s, the funeral epitaph of the legendary boss of Villalba, Calogero Vizzini, stated that "his 'mafia' was not criminal, but stood for respect of the law, defense of all rights, greatness of character. It was love." Here, "mafia" means something like pride, honour, or even social responsibility: an attitude, not an organization. Likewise, in 1925, the former Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando stated in the Italian senate that he was proud of being mafioso, because that word meant honourable, noble, generous.[5][6] Image:Calogero Vizzini. ... Vittorio Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (May 19, 1860 - December 1, 1952) was an Italian diplomat and political figure. ...

Contents

Etymology

There are several theories about the origin of the term. The Sicilian adjective mafiusu may derive from the Arabic mahyas, meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or marfud meaning "rejected". Roughly translated, it means "swagger", but can also be translated as "boldness, bravado". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta.[7] Sicilian (Lu Sicilianu, Lingua Siciliana) is the Romance language spoken in Sicily, Italy. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


Another, less colorful etymology is the Arabic morfiyeh, meaning simply "group" (cf. Mafia Island, a Tanzanian possession where Islamic culture was once predominant, and where the Arabic word resulted in precisely the same term.) Though the characteristics suggested by the former etymology do conform to the ideals of mafiusu behavior, the latter reflects the strategic nature of the Sicilian underground group in defiance of central authority (though not likely stretching as far back, conceptually, as the actual Emirate of Sicily). In fact, because of the Arabic language's derivation of vocabulary from basic trilateral roots (e.g. K-T-B, kataba), the latter two Arabic words, marfud and morfiyeh (as also the related term mufrad, "singular"), are related. Thus, the likeliest candidate for the actual origin of mafia would be the most basic morpheme of this Arabic root.[citation needed] Mafia Island (Chole Shamba) is part of the Tanzanian Spice Islands, together with Zanzibar and Pemba. ... Italy in 1000. ...


According to the Sicilian ethnographer Giuseppe Pitrè, the association of the word with the criminal secret society was made by the 1863 play I mafiusi di la Vicaria (The Beautiful (people) of Vicaria) by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca, which is about criminal gangs in the Palermo prison.[8] The words Mafia and mafiusi (plural of mafiusu) are never mentioned in the play, and were probably put in the title because it would add local flair. Giuseppe Pitrè (December 21, 1841 – April 10, 1916) was an Italian folklorist credited with extending the realm of folklore to include all the manifestations of popular life. ... Gaetano Mosca (April 1, 1858 Palermo, Italy – November 8, 1941 Rome, Italy) was an Italian political scientist, journalist and public servant. ...


The association between mafiusi and criminal gangs was made by the association the play's title made with the criminal gangs that were new to Sicilian and Italian society at the time. Consequently, the word "mafia" was generated from a fictional source loosely inspired by the real thing and was used by outsiders to describe it. The use of the term "mafia" was subsequently taken over in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon. The word "mafia" made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo, Filippo Antonio Gualterio.


Leopoldo Franchetti, an Italian deputy who travelled to Sicily and who wrote one of the first authoritative reports on the mafia in 1876, saw the Mafia as an "industry of violence" and described the designation of the term "mafia": "the term mafia found a class of violent criminals ready and waiting for a name to define them, and, given their special character and importance in Sicilian society, they had the right to a different name from that defining vulgar criminals in other countries."[9] He saw the Mafia as deeply rooted in Sicilian society and impossible to quench unless the very structure of the island's social institutions were to undergo a fundamental change.[10] Leopoldo Franchetti (Livorno, May 31, 1847 – Rome, November 4, 1917), was an Italian publicist and politician. ...


The real name: Cosa Nostra

According to some mafiosi, the real name of the Mafia is "Cosa Nostra" ("Our thing"). Many have claimed, as did the Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta, that the word "mafia" was a literary creation. Other Mafia defectors, such as Antonio Calderone and Salvatore Contorno, said the same thing. According to them, the real thing was "cosa nostra". To men of honour belonging to the organization, there is no need to name it. Mafiosi introduce known members to other known members as belonging to "cosa nostra" (our thing) or la stessa cosa (the same thing), meaning "he is the same thing, a mafioso, as you". Only the outside world needs a name to describe it, hence the capitalized form "Cosa Nostra".[citation needed] Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo, July 13, 1928- New York, April 4, 2000) was a Sicilian mafioso. ... Catania Mafia boss and pentito Antonino Calderone Antonino Calderone (b. ... Mafia turncoat Salvatore Totuccio Contorno Salvatore Totuccio Contorno (Palermo, May 28, 1946) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia who turned into a state witness against Cosa Nostra in October 1984, following the example of Tommaso Buscetta. ...


Cosa Nostra was first used, in the early 1960s, in the United States by Joseph Valachi, a mafioso turned state witness, during the hearings of the McClellan Commission.[11][12][13] At the time, it was understood as a proper name, fostered by the FBI and disseminated by the media. The designation gained wide popularity and almost replaced the term Mafia. The FBI even added an article to the term, calling it 'La Cosa Nostra'. In Italy the article 'la' is never used when the term refers to the Mafia. Joseph Joe Valachi (September 22, 1904 - April 3, 1971) was the first person to acknowledge the existence of the Mafia. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Other Names

The Mafia has used many other names to describe itself throughout its history, such as The Honoured Society. Mafiosi are known among themselves as Men of Honour.


Rituals of Sicilian Cosa Nostra

The orientation ritual in most families happens when a man becomes an associate, and then, a soldier. As described by Tommaso Buscetta to judge Giovanni Falcone, the neophyte is brought together with at least three "men of honor" of the family and the oldest member present warns him that "this House" is meant to protect the weak against the abuse of the powerful; he then pricks the finger of the initiate and spills his blood onto a sacred image, usually of a saint. The image is placed in the hand of the initiate and lit on fire. The neophyte must withstand the pain of the burning, passing the image from hand to hand, until the image has been consumed, while swearing to keep faith with the principles of "Cosa Nostra," solemnly swearing "may my flesh burn like this saint if I fail to keep my oath." Joseph Valachi was the first person to mention that in court. Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo, July 13, 1928- New York, April 4, 2000) was a Sicilian mafioso. ... Giovanni Falcone during the Maxi Trial Giovanni Falcone, (May 18, 1939 – May 23, 1992) was an Italian magistrate who specialised in prosecuting Cosa Nostra crimes. ...


The Sicilians also have a law of silence, called omertà; it forbids the common man, woman or child to cooperate at all with the police or the government, upon pain of death. Omertà is a popular attitude, common in areas of southern Italy, such as Sicily, Calabria and Campania, where the criminal organizations like the Mafia, Ndrangheta, and Camorra are strong. ...


History of Sicilian Cosa Nostra

Origins

It has long been debated whether the mafia has medieval origins. Deceased pentito Tommaso Buscetta thought so, whilst modern scholars now believe otherwise. It is possible that the "original" mafia formed as a secret society sworn to protect the Sicilian population from the threat of Catalan marauders in the fifteenth century. However, there is very little historical evidence to suggest this. It is also feasible that the "Robin Hood" myth was perpetuated by the earliest known mafiosi as a means of gaining goodwill and trust from the Sicilian people. Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo, July 13, 1928- New York, April 4, 2000) was a Sicilian mafioso. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...


After the Revolution of 1848 and the revolution of 1860, Sicily had fallen to complete disorder. The earliest mafiosi, at that time separate, small bands of outlaws, offered their guns in the revolt. Author John Dickie claims that the main reasons for this were the chance to burn police records and evidence, and to kill off police and pentiti in the chaos. However, once a new government was established in Rome and it became clear that the mafia would be unable to execute these actions, they began refining their methods and techniques over the latter half of the nineteenth century. Protecting the large lemon groves and estates of local nobility became a lucrative but dangerous business. Palermo was initially the main area of these activities, but the Sicilian mafia's dominance soon spread over all of western Sicily. In order to strengthen the bond between the disparate gangs and so ensure greater profits and a safer working environment, it is possible that the mafia as such was formed at this time in about the mid-19th century. // The Italian states in 1848 As with Germany, there was no Italy at the time of the Revolutions of 1848, but a hodge-podge of states. ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ...


Mafia after the unification of Italy

From 1860, the year when the new unified Italian state first took over both Sicily and the Papal States, the Popes were hostile to the state. From 1870, the Pope declared himself besieged by the Italian state and strongly encouraged Catholics to refuse to cooperate with the state. Broadly speaking, in mainland Italy, this took a peaceful character. Sicily was strongly Catholic, but in a strongly tribal sense rather than in an intellectual and theological sense, and had a tradition of suspicion of outsiders. The friction between the Church and the state gave a great advantage to violent criminal bands in Sicily who could claim to peasants and townspeople that cooperating with the police (representing the new Italian state) was an anti-Catholic activity. It was in the two decades following the 1860 unification that the term Mafia came to the attention of the general public, although it was considered to be more of an attitude and value system than an organization. Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


The first mention in official law documentation of the 'mafia' came in the late 1800s, when a Dr. Galati was subject to threats of violence from a local mafioso, who was attempting to oust Galati from his own lemon grove in order to move himself in. Protection rackets, cattle rustling and bribery of state officials were the main sources of income and protection for the early mafia. Cosa Nostra also borrowed heavily from masonic oaths and rituals, such as the now famous initiation ceremony.


Fascist era

During the Fascist period in Italy, Cesare Mori, prefect of Palermo, used special powers granted to him to prosecute the Mafia, forcing many Mafiosi to flee abroad or risk being jailed.[14][15] Many of the Mafiosi who escaped fled to the United States, among them Joseph Bonanno, nicknamed Joe Bananas, who came to dominate the U.S. branch of the Mafia. However, when Mori started to persecute the Mafiosi involved in the Fascist hierarchy, he was removed, and the Fascist authorities proclaimed that the Mafia had been defeated. Though the mafia was weakened, it had not been defeated as claimed. Despite his assault on their brethren, Mussolini had his admirers in the New York Mafia, notably Vito Genovese (although he was from Naples and not from Sicily). Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Cesare Mori was born in 1872 and was raised in an orphanage. ... Giuseppe Joseph/Joe Bonanno (January 18, 1905 – May 12, 2002) was a Sicilian-born American Mafioso who became the boss of one of the infamous five families crime families of New York City. ... Vito Don Vitone Genovese (November 27, 1897 – February 14, 1969) was a mafioso who rose to power in America during the Castellammarese War to later become leader of the Genovese crime family. ...


The post-war revival

After Fascism, the Mafia did not become powerful in Italy again until after the country's surrender in World War II and the U.S. occupation. The United States used Italian connections of American Mafiosi during the invasion of Italy and Sicily in 1943. Lucky Luciano and other Mafiosi, who had been imprisoned during this time in the U.S., provided information for U.S. military intelligence and used Luciano's influence to ease the way for advancing troops. Furthermore, Luciano's control of the ports prevented sabotage by agents of the Axis powers.[16] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Charles Lucky Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania) (November 24, 1897 – January 26, 1962) was a Sicilian-American mobster. ...


Some say that the U.S. Office of Strategic Services, precursor to the CIA, deliberately allowed the mafia to recover its social and economic position as the "anti-State" in Sicily, and with the U.S.-mafia alliance forged in 1943, this became the true turning point of mafia history and the new foundation for its subsequent 60-year career.[citation needed] Others, such as the Palermitan historian Francesco Renda, have argued that there was no such alliance. Rather, the mafia exploited the chaos of post-fascist Sicily to reconquer its social base. The OSS indeed, in its 1944 "Report on the Problem of Mafia" by the agent W. E. Scotten, pointed to the signs of mafia resurgence and warned of its perils for social order and economic progress. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


An alleged additional benefit (from the American perspective) was that many of the Sicilian-Italian Mafiosi were hard-line anti-communists. They were therefore seen as valuable allies by the anti-communist Americans, who allegedly used them to root out socialist and communist elements in the American shipping industry as well as wartime resistance movements and postwar local and regional governments in areas where the Mafia held sway.[citation needed] This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ...


According to drug trade expert Dr. Alfred W. McCoy, Luciano was permitted to run his crime network from his jail cell in exchange for his assistance. After the war, Luciano was rewarded by being released from prison and deported to Italy, where he was able to continue his criminal career unhindered. He went to Sicily in 1946 to continue his activities and according to McCoy's landmark 1972 book The Politics of Heroin in South-East Asia, Luciano went on to forge a crucial alliance with the Corsican Mafia, leading to the development of a vast international heroin trafficking network, initially supplied from Turkey and based in Marseille — the so-called "French Connection". Alfred W. McCoy is a noted historian and current Professor of History in the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... The French Connection was an infamous scheme through which the drug heroin was smuggled from Turkey to France and then to the United States, culminating in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when it provided the vast majority of the heroin consumed in the United States. ...


Later, when Turkey began to eliminate its opium production, he used his connections with the Corsicans to open a dialogue with expatriate Corsican mafiosi in South Vietnam. In collaboration with leading American mob bosses including Santo Trafficante Jr., Luciano and his successors took advantage of the chaotic conditions in Southeast Asia arising from the Vietnam War to establish an unassailable supply and distribution base in the "Golden Triangle", which was soon funneling huge amounts of Asian heroin into the United States, Australia and other countries.[17] This article is about the drug. ... The Unione Corse, also known as the Corsican mafia, is a highly secretive criminal organization operating primarily out of Corsica and Marseilles. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Santo Trafficante, Jr. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Golden Triangle is one of Asia’s two main illicit opium-producing areas. ...


Maxi Trial and war against the government

The Second Mafia War in the early 1980s was a large scale conflict within the Mafia that also led to the assassinations of several politicians, police chiefs and magistrates. Salvatore Riina and his Corleonesi faction ultimately prevailed in the war. The new generation of mafiosi placed more emphasis on "white-collar" criminal activity as opposed to more traditional racketeering enterprises. In reaction to these developments, the Italian press has come up with the phrase Cosa Nuova ("the new thing", a play on Cosa Nostra) to refer to the revamped organization. The Second Mafia War was a conflict within the Sicilian Mafia, mostly taking place in the early 1980s. ... Salvatore Riina, also known as Totò Riina (born November 16, 1930, Corleone) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia who became the most powerful member of the criminal organisation in the early 1980s. ... Luciano Leggio at a court appearance in 1974 Totò Riina, amidst tight security, appears in court following his capture in January 1993 The Corleonesi is the name given to a faction within the Sicilian Mafia that dominated Mafia in the 1980s and the 1990s. ...


The first major pentito (a captured mafioso to collaborate with the judicial system) was Tommaso Buscetta who had lost several allies in the war and began to talk to prosecutor Giovanni Falcone around 1983. This led to the Maxi Trial (1986-1987) which resulted in several hundred convictions of leading mafiosi. When the Italian Supreme Court confirmed the convictions in January 1992, Riina took revenge. The politician Salvatore Lima was killed in March 1992; he had long been suspected of being the main government connection of the Mafia (later confirmed by testimony of Buscetta), and the Mafia was clearly displeased with his services. Falcone and fellow anti-Mafia prosecutor Paolo Borsellino were killed a few months later. This led to a public outcry and a massive government crackdown, resulting in Riina's arrest in January 1993. More and more pentitos started to emerge. Many would pay a high price for their co-operation usually through the murder of relatives. For example, Cosa Nostra defector Francesco Marino Mannoia's, mother, aunt and sister were murdered. [18] Tommaso Buscetta (in sunglasses), the first important pentito of Italian Mafia, escorted in a court of law. ... Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo, July 13, 1928- New York, April 4, 2000) was a Sicilian mafioso. ... Giovanni Falcone during the Maxi Trial Giovanni Falcone, (May 18, 1939 – May 23, 1992) was an Italian magistrate who specialised in prosecuting Cosa Nostra crimes. ... Giovanni Falcone, one of the architects of the Maxi Trial. ... Salvatore Lima (January 23, 1928 - March 12, 1992) was an Italian politician from Sicily who was murdered by the Mafia, with whom he was alleged to have ties with. ... Paolo Borsellino (January 19, 1940 - July 19, 1992) was an Italian anti-Mafia magistrate. ... Francesco Mannoia (centre, foreground) in custody, circa 1986 Francesco Marino Mannoia (born 1951) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia who became a pentito. ...


The Corleonesi retaliated with a campaign of terrorism, a series of bombings against several tourist spots on the Italian mainland: the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan, and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome, which left 10 people dead and 93 injured and caused severe damage to cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. Bernardo Provenzano took over as boss of the Corleonesi and halted this campaign and replaced it with a campaign of quietness known as pax mafiosi. This campaign has allowed the Mafia to slowly regain the power it once had. He was arrested in 2006, after 43 years on the run. This article is about the city in Italy. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Late Baroque façade of the Basilica, completed, after a competition for the design, by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 St. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The Uffizi Gallery (Italian Galleria degli Uffizi) is a palace or palazzo in Florence, holding one of the most famous museums in the world. ... Bernardo Provenzano in 1959, aged 26. ...


The modern Mafia in Italy

The main split in the Sicilian Mafia at present is between those bosses who have been convicted and are now imprisoned, chiefly Salvatore 'Totò' Riina, and Capo di tutti i capi Bernardo Provenzano, and those who are on the run, or who have not been indicted. The incarcerated bosses are currently subjected to harsh controls on their contact with the outside world, limiting their ability to run their operations from behind bars under the Italian law 41 bis. Antonino Giuffrè – a close confidant of Provenzano, turned pentito shortly after his capture in 2002 – alleges that in 1993, Cosa Nostra had direct contact with representatives of Silvio Berlusconi who was then planning the birth of Forza Italia. Salvatore Riina Salvatore Riina, also known as Totò Riina (born November 16, 1930) is one of the most infamous members of the Sicilian Mafia. ... Capo di tutti i capi or capo dei capi is Italian for boss of all bosses or boss of bosses. It is a phrase used mainly by the media, public and the law enforcement community to indicate powerful bosses in the Sicilian and American Mafia (Cosa Nostra). ... Bernardo Provenzano in 1959, aged 26. ... Mafia turncoat Antonino Giuffrè Antonino Nino Giuffrè (Caccamo, July 21, 1945) is a Sicilian mafioso from Caccamo in the Province of Palermo. ... Tommaso Buscetta (in sunglasses), the first important pentito of Italian Mafia, escorted in a court of law. ... Charles Lucky Luciano, one of the most famous American bosses (La) Cosa Nostra (our thing or this thing of ours in Italian) is a worldwide alliance of criminals, linked through both familial and conspiratorial ties, that is dedicated to pursuing crime and protecting its members. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... Forza Italia (Forward Italy, FI) [1] is an Italian political party. ...


The deal that he says was alleged to have been made was a repeal of 41 bis, among other anti-Mafia laws in return for electoral deliverances in Sicily. Giuffrè's declarations have not been confirmed. The Italian Parliament, with the support of Forza Italia, extended the enforcement of 41 bis, which was to expire in 2002 but has been prolonged for another four years and extended to other crimes such as terrorism. However, according to one of Italy’s leading magazines, L'Espresso, 119 mafiosi – one-fifth of those incarcerated under the 41 bis regime – have been released on an individual basis. [1] The human rights group Amnesty International has expressed concern that the 41-bis regime could in some circumstances amount to "cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment" for prisoners. Forza Italia (Forward Italy, FI) [1] is an Italian political party. ... Lespresso is an Italian magazine. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ...


In addition to Salvatore Lima, mentioned above, the politician Giulio Andreotti and the High Court judge Corrado Carnevale have long been suspected of having ties to the Mafia. Salvatore Lima (January 23, 1928 - March 12, 1992) was an Italian politician from Sicily who was murdered by the Mafia, with whom he was alleged to have ties with. ... Giulio Andreotti (born 14 January 1919 in Rome) is an Italian politician who served seven times as Prime Minister of Italy. ... Corrado Carnevale was an Italian High Court judge who colluded with the Mafia. ...


By the late 1990s, the weakened Cosa Nostra had to yield most of the illegal drug trade to the 'Ndrangheta crime organization from Calabria. In 2006, the latter was estimated to control 80% of the cocaine import to Europe.[19] The Calabrian Ndrangheta (from the Greek word andragathía for heroism and virtue — The Honoured Society), IPA: , are one of the most powerful and ruthless organized crime organizations in Italy. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...


Prominent Sicilian mafiosi

See also: List of Sicilian mafiosi

This is a list of organized crime figures within the Sicilian mafiosi and related organizations. ... Vito Cascio Ferro (1862 - 1943), known as Don Vito, was a prominent Sicilian gangster who also operated for a time in the United States, where he was a pioneer of sorts in the American Mafia. ... Cesare Mori was born in 1872 and was raised in an orphanage. ... Image:Calogero Vizzini. ... There are several places called Villalba (meaning white town in Spanish): Puerto Rico Villalba is a municipality in Puerto Rico. ... Stefano Magaddino (October 10, 1891 – July 19, 1974) was an American mafia boss in the Buffalo, New York area. ... National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was the first public national body to shape bioethics policy in the United States. ... Giuseppe Genco Russo, Mafia boss of Mussomeli Giuseppe Genco Russo (Mussomeli, January 26, 1893 – March 18, 1976) was the Mafia boss of Mussomeli in the Province of Caltanissetta. ... Mussomeli is a town in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicilia, Italy. ... Dr. Michele Navarra (1905 - August 2, 1958) was a powerful member of the Sicilian Mafia. ... Corleone is a small town of approximately 12,000 inhabitants in the province of Palermo in Sicily, Italy. ... Salvatore Ciaschiteddu Greco (January 13, 1923, Palermo – March 7, 1978, Caracas, Venezuela) was a powerful mafioso and boss of the Mafia Family in Ciaculli, an outlying suburb of Palermo famous for its citrus fruit groves. ... Ciaculli is an outlying suburb of Palermo, Sicily in Italy. ... The Sicilian Mafia Commission, known as Commissione or Cupola, is a body of leading Mafia members to decide on important questions concerning the actions of, and settling disputes within the Sicilian Mafia or Cosa Nostra. ... Gaetano Badalamenti (Cinisi, September 14, 1923 – Devens Federal Medical Center, Ayer, Massachusetts, April 29, 2004) was a powerful member of the Sicilian Mafia. ... Cinisi is a comune in the province of Palermo in Sicily. ... Angelo La Barbera (Palermo, July 3, 1924 – Perugia, July, 1975) was a powerful member of the Sicilian Mafia. ... Michele Greco (born May 12, 1924) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia, currently incarcerated for multiple murder. ... Croceverde is an outlying suburb of Palermo, Sicily in Italy. ... Luciano Leggio at his murder trial in 1974 Luciano Leggio (1925 - January 16, 1993) was a powerful member of the Sicilian Mafia. ... Corleone is a small town of approximately 12,000 inhabitants in the province of Palermo in Sicily, Italy. ... Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo, July 13, 1928- New York, April 4, 2000) was a Sicilian mafioso. ... Tommaso Buscetta (in sunglasses), the first important pentito of Italian Mafia, escorted in a court of law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Never before in the history of the Mafia has so many men of honour faced trial at the same time. ... Salvatore Riina, also known as Totò Riina (born November 16, 1930, Corleone) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia who became the most powerful member of the criminal organisation in the early 1980s. ... Bernardo Provenzano in 1959, aged 26. ... Luciano Leggio at a court appearance in 1974 Totò Riina, amidst tight security, appears in court following his capture in January 1993 The Corleonesi is the name given to a faction within the Sicilian Mafia that dominated Mafia in the 1980s and the 1990s. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stefano Bontade (April 23, 1939 - April 23, 1981) was a powerful member of the Sicilan Mafia. ... Leoluca Bagarella (born 1941) is an Italian criminal and member of the Sicilian Mafia. ... Corleone is a small town of approximately 12,000 inhabitants in the province of Palermo in Sicily, Italy. ... Salvatore Lo Piccolo (Palermo, July 20, 1942) is a Sicilian mafioso and one of the most powerful bosses of Palermo, Sicily. ... Salvatore Inzerillo (died May 11, 1981) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia. ... Giovanni Brusca (born 1957 in San Giuseppe Jato) is a former member of the Sicilian Mafia. ... Giovanni Falcone during the Maxi Trial Giovanni Falcone, (May 18, 1939 – May 23, 1992) was an Italian magistrate who specialised in prosecuting Cosa Nostra crimes. ... Matteo Messina Denaro AKA Diabolik (April 26, 1962 - ) is a Sicilian mafioso. ... Michele Cavataio (died December 10, 1969, Palermo), also known as The Cobra was a member of the Sicilian Mafia. ... Catania Mafia boss Nitto Santapaola Benedetto Santapaola (Catania, June 4, 1938), better known as Nitto is a prominent mafioso from Catania, the main city and industrial centre on Sicilys east coast. ... The Roman Odeon. ...

Structure of the Sicilian Cosa Nostra

Known as the Honored Society among Mafiosi, the chain of command is organized in a pyramid similar to a modern corporate structure.[citation needed]


Traditional terminology

  1. Capo di Tutti Capi (the "Boss of All Bosses", namely Matteo Messina Denaro for the Sicilian Mafia and Renato Gagliano for the Sacra Corona Unita)[citation needed]
  2. Capo di Capi Re (a title of respect given to a senior or retired member, equivalent to being a member emeritus, literally, "King Boss of Bosses")[citation needed]
  3. Capo Crimine ("Crime Boss", known as a Don - the head of a crime family)[citation needed]
  4. Capo Bastone ("Club Head", known as the "Underboss" is second in command to the Capo Crimine)[citation needed]
  5. Consigliere (an advisor)[citation needed]
  6. Caporegime ("Regime head", a captain who commands a "crew" of around ten Sgarriste or "soldiers")[citation needed]
  7. Sgarrista or Soldato ("Soldier", made members of the Mafia who serve primarily as foot soldiers)[citation needed][citation needed]
  8. Picciotto ("Little man", a low ranking member who serves as an "enforcer")[citation needed]
  9. Giovane D'Onore (an associate member, usually someone not of Italian ancestry)[citation needed]

This does not cite its references or sources. ... Matteo Messina Denaro AKA Diabolik (April 26, 1962 - ) is a Sicilian mafioso. ... Emeritus (IPA pronunciation: or ) is an adjective that is used in the title of a retired professor, bishop or other professional. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... A capo in the Mafia is a ranking member of a Family who heads a crew (or group) of soldiers; a skipper, short for capodecina. ... For the 2006 computer game, see Made Man (computer game). ...

Italian Mafia structure

  1. Capofamiglia - (Don)
  2. Consigliere - (Counselor/Advisor)
  3. Sotto Capo - (Underboss)
  4. Capodecina - (Group Boss/Capo)
  5. Uomini D'onore - ("Men of Honor")

American Cosa Nostra

The Italian Mafia continues to dominate organized crime in the U.S. It uses this status to maintain control over much of both Chicago's and New York City's organized criminal activity, as well as criminal activity in other cities in the Northeast and across the country, such as Philadelphia, Las Vegas, New Orleans, and many others. The Mafia and its reputation have become entrenched in American popular culture, being portrayed in movies, TV shows, commercial advertising and video games. Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Vegas redirects here. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... “Advert” redirects here. ... This article is about computer and video games. ...


The American Mafia, specifically the Five Families of New York, has its roots in the Sicilian Mafia, but has been a separate organization in the United States for many years. Today, American Cosa Nostra cooperates in various criminal activities with the different Italian organized crime groups, such as Camorra, which are headquartered in Italy. It is wrongly known as the "original Mafia", although it was neither the oldest criminal organization, nor the first to act in the U.S. In 1986, according to government reports, it was estimated that there are 1,700 members of "La Cosa Nostra" and thousands of associate members. Reports also are said to include the Italian-American Mafia as the largest organized crime group in the United States and continues to hold dominance over the National Crime Syndicate, despite the increasing numbers of street gangs and other organizations of neither Italian nor Sicilian ethnicity. American Cosa Nostra is most active in the New York metropolitan area, Philadelphia, New England (see the Patriarca crime family), Detroit (see the Detroit Outfit, and Chicago (see the Chicago Outfit), but there are actually a total of 26 La Cosa Nostra family cities around the United States[2]. The Five Families are the major crime families of the Italian-American Mafia based in New York City which have dominated traditional organized crime in New York. ... Since their appearance in the mid of 1800s, the Italian criminal organizations have infiltrated the social and economic life of many regions in South Italy, to later expand in some foreign countries (mainly the U.S). ... The camorra is a mafia-like criminal organization, or secret society, in the region of Campania and the city of Naples in Italy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Organized crime. ... The National Crime Syndicate was the name given by the press to a supposed loosely-organized organized crime syndicate, set up in the 1930s, by Charles Lucky Luciano and based in New York City. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The Patriarca crime family is a criminal organization based in the region of New England, specifically Providence, Rhode Island and Boston, Massachusetts, that is part of a nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia or La Cosa Nostra. ... “Detroit” redirects here. ... The Detroit Partnership, also known as the Detroit Combination or the Zerilli crime family, is an organized crime organization within the national criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia or La Cosa Nostra. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


History

Origins: The Black Hand

Mafia groups in the United States first became influential in the New York City area, gradually progressing from small neighborhood operations in poor Italian ghettos to citywide and eventually international organizations. The American Mafia started with the La Mano Nera, "The Black Hand", extorting Italians (and other immigrants) around New York city. Black Hand gangsters would threaten them by mail if their extortion demands were not met. The threats were sometimes marked with a hand-print in black ink at the bottom of the page. As more Sicilian gangsters immigrated to the U.S., they expanded their criminal activities from extortion to loan-sharking, prostitution, drugs and alcohol, robbery, kidnapping, and murder. Black Hand was a type of extortion racket. ... Black Hand was a type of extortion racket. ...


Giuseppe Esposito was the first known Sicilian Mafia member to emigrate to the United States. He and six other Sicilians fled to New York after murdering eleven wealthy landowners as well as the chancellor and a vice chancellor of a Sicilian province. He was arrested in New Orleans in 1881 and extradited to Italy. Joseph Diamond Joe Esposito (d. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... This article is about the state. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


New Orleans was also the site of the first Mafia incident in the United States that received both national and international attention. On October 15, 1890, New Orleans Police Superintendent David Hennessey was murdered execution-style. Hundreds of Sicilians were arrested, and nineteen were eventually indicted for the murder. An acquittal followed, with rumors of bribed and intimidated witnesses. The outraged citizens of New Orleans organized a lynch mob and proceeded to kill eleven of the nineteen defendants. Two were hanged, nine were shot, and the remaining eight escaped[3]. New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... A photo of David Hennessey, courtesy of the Tulane Universitys Louisiana Collection. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Lynch may be: One of the fourteen tribes of Galway Colonel Charles Lynch, an officer on the Patriot side of the American Revolutionary War David Lynch, American film director David Lynch (musician), American Jazz musician Evanna Lynch, Irish actress Gerard Lynch, United States Federal Court judge Jessica Lynch (fl. ...


In the 1910s and 1920s in New York City, the Sicilian Mafia developed into the Five Points Gang. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Five Points Gang was a 19th-century criminal organization based in the Sixth Ward (The Five Points) of New York City. ...


The rising: the Prohibition

Charles "Lucky" Luciano, one of the most famous American bosses
Charles "Lucky" Luciano, one of the most famous American bosses

Mafia activities were restricted until 1920, when they exploded because of the introduction of the prohibition. Al Capone's Syndicate in the 1920s ruled Chicago. Image File history File links LuckyLucianoSmaller. ... Image File history File links LuckyLucianoSmaller. ... Charles Lucky Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania) (November 24, 1897 – January 26, 1962) was a Sicilian-American mobster. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Capone” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


By the end of the 1920s, two factions of organized crime had emerged, causing the Castellamarese war for control of organized crime in New York City. With the murder of Joseph Masseria, the leader of one of the factions, the war ended uniting the two sides back into one organization now dubbed Cosa Nostra. Salvatore Maranzano, the first leader of American Mafia, was himself murdered within six months and Charles "Lucky" Luciano became the new leader. Maranzano had established the code of conduct for the organization, set up the "family" divisions and structure, and established procedures for resolving disputes. Luciano set up the "Commission" to rule their activities. The Commission included bosses from six or seven families. Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Early Period Origins The Sicilian Mafia originated hundreds of years ago as a kind of protection society during the Spanish occupation of Sicily, although some claim that the term, if not the organization itself, can be traced back to the Sicilian Vespers in 1282, when the Sicilians threw off the... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Joe The Boss Masseria Giuseppe Joe The Boss Masseria (1879–April 15, 1931) was an early Mafia don in the United States. ... Salvatore Maranzano (1868-1931) Salvatore Maranzano (1868-September 10, 1931) was an organized crime figure from the town of Castellammare del Golfo, Sicily, and an early Mafia boss in the United States. ... Charles Lucky Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania) (November 24, 1897 – January 26, 1962) was a Sicilian-American mobster. ... Salvatore Maranzano (1868-1931) Salvatore Maranzano (1868-September 10, 1931) was an organized crime figure from the town of Castellammare del Golfo, Sicily, and an early Mafia boss in the United States. ... The Five Families are the major crime families of the Italian-American Mafia based in New York City which have dominated traditional organized crime in New York. ... Charles Lucky Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania) (November 24, 1897 – January 26, 1962) was a Sicilian-American mobster. ... The National Crime Syndicate was the name given by the press to a supposed loosely-organized organized crime syndicate, set up in the 1930s, by Charles Lucky Luciano and based in New York City. ...


After-war

In 1951, a U.S. Senate Committee, led by Democratic Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver, determined that a "sinister criminal organization", with ties to the USSR, also known as the Mafia operated around the United States. The issue of Time Magazine in which Kefauvers victory in the New Hampshire primary was reported. ...


In 1957, the New York State Police uncovered a meeting of major American Cosa Nostra figures from around the country in the small upstate New York town of Apalachin. This gathering has become known as the Apalachin Conference. Many of the attendees were arrested and this event was the catalyst that changed the way law enforcement battles organized crime. This article is about the state. ... This article is about the state. ... Apalachin is a hamlet (and census-designated place) located in Tioga County, New York. ... The Apalachin Meeting was a historic summit of the American mafia held on November 14, 1957 at the home of mobster Joseph Joe the Barber Barbara in Apalachin, New York. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ...


In 1963, Joseph Valachi became the first American Cosa Nostra member to provide a detailed look at the inside of the organization. Having been recruited by FBI Special Agents, and testifying before the US Senate McClellan Committee, Valachi exposed the name, structure, power bases, codes, swearing-in ceremony, and members of this organization. All of this had been secret up to this point. Joseph Valachi Joseph Joe Cargo Valachi (September 22, 1903 – April 3, 1971) was the first Mafia member to publicly acknowledge the existence of the Mafia. ...


Today Cosa Nostra is involved in a broad spectrum of illegal activities. These include murder, extortion, drug trafficking, corruption of public officials, gambling, infiltration of legitimate businesses, labor racketeering, loan sharking, prostitution, pornography, tax fraud schemes, and most notably today, stock manipulation schemes. Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... Usury (from the Latin usus meaning used) was defined originally as charging a fee for the use of money. ... Whore redirects here. ... Porn redirects here. ... Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the tax regime to ones own advantage, in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law. ... Stock manipulation is a practice whereby owners of a company take actions to increase or decrease the value of that stock, solely so they can buy or sell shares at a profit. ...


Union corruption

Jimmy Hoffa
Jimmy Hoffa

In the mid-20th century, the Mafia was reputed to have infiltrated many labor unions in the United States, notably the Teamsters, whose president Jimmy Hoffa disappeared and is widely rumored to have been killed by Matteo Bari, enforcer for the Mafia. In the 1980s, the United States federal government made a determined effort to remove Mafia influence from labor unions. Image File history File links Jimmy_riddle_hoffa. ... Image File history File links Jimmy_riddle_hoffa. ... The International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT), formerly known by the name International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America, is one of the largest labor unions in the United States. ... For other uses, see Hoffa (disambiguation). ...


Structure

The Mafia had eventually expanded to twenty-six crime families nationwide in the major cities of the United States, with the center of organized crime based in New York. After many turf wars, the Five Families ended up dominating New York, named after prominent early members: the Bonanno family, the Colombo family, the Gambino family, the Genovese family, and the Lucchese family. These families held underground conferences with other mafia notables like Joe Porrello from Cleveland, and other gang leaders, such as Al Capone. The Five Families are the major crime families of the Italian-American Mafia based in New York City which have dominated traditional organized crime in New York. ... The Bonanno family is one of five mafia families said to be in control of organized crime in New York City. ... The Colombo crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... The Gambino Crime Family is a criminal organization based in New York City, New York, USA within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known familiarly as the Mafia (also known as La Cosa Nostra). ... The Genovese Family is one of the five Mafia Families in New York City. ... The Lucchese crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... Cleveland redirects here. ... “Capone” redirects here. ...

  • Boss—The head of the family, usually reigning as a dictator, sometimes called the don or "godfather". The Boss receives a cut of every operation taken on by every member of his family. Depending on the Family, the Boss may be chosen by a vote from the Caporegimes of the family. In the event of a tie, the Underboss must vote. In the past, all the members of a Family voted on the Boss, but by the late 1950s, any gathering such as that attracted too much attention.[21]
  • Underboss—The Underboss, usually appointed by the Boss, is the second in command of the family. The Underboss is in charge of all of the Capos, who are controlled by the Boss. The Underboss is usually first in line to become Acting Boss if the Boss is imprisoned or dies.
  • Consigliere—The Consigliere is an advisor to the family. They are often low profile gangsters that can be trusted. They are used as a mediator of disputes or representatives or aides in meetings with other Families. They often keep the Family looking as legitimate as possible, and are, themselves, legitimate apart from some minor gambling or loan sharking. Often Consiglieres are lawyers or stock brokers, are trusted and have a close friendship or relationship with the Don. They usually do not have crews of their own, but still wield great power in the Family. They are also often the liaison between the Don and important 'bought' figures, such as politicians or Judges.
  • Caporegime (or Capo)—A Capo (sometimes called a Captain) is in charge of a crew. There are usually four to six crews in each family, possibly even seven to nine crews, each one consisting of up to ten Soldiers. Capos run their own small family, but must follow the limitations and guidelines created by the Boss, as well as pay him his cut of their profits. Capos are nominated by the Underboss, but typically chosen by the Boss himself.
  • Soldier—Soldiers are members of the family, and can only be of Italian background. Soldiers start as Associates that have proven themselves. When the books are open, meaning that there is an open spot in the family, a Capo (or several Capos) may recommend an up-and-coming Associate to be a new member. In the case that there is only one slot and multiple recommendations, the Boss will decide. The new member usually becomes part of the Capo's crew that recommended him. Sometimes a soldier will be called a button man, because, in theory, when a capo presses a button, someone dies. They are also caled made men, who have made their bones, by committing a murder in front of Mafia witnesses. This ensures the soldier's reliability: he will never testify against a man who could testify against him. Being made is the beginning but not the end of a Mafia career. (The definitions of made man and making one's bones are inferred: Most books on the Mafia—fiction or nonfiction—assume these terms but never define them.) [citation needed]
  • Associate—An Associate is not a member of the mob, and an Associate's role is more similar to that of an errand boy. They are usually a go-between or sometimes deal in drugs to keep the heat off the actual members. In other cases, an associate might be a corrupt labor union delegate or businessman.[22] Non-Italians will never go any further than this. However, occasionally an associate will become powerful within his own family, for example Joe Watts, a close associate of John Gotti.

The American Mafia's organizational structure and system of control were created by Salvatore Maranzano (who became the first "capo di tutti capi" in the US, though he was killed after holding the position for only six months, by Lucky Luciano). It has been suggested that List of godfathers be merged into this article or section. ... The term Don may refer to Donald, a Western name Don (honorific), a Spanish, Portuguese and Italian title, given as a mark of respect A crime boss Don, Nord, a commune of the Nord département in northern France Don (TN), a comune in the province of Trento, in northern... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ... A caporegime (sometimes shortened to capo) is a term used in the Mafia for a high ranking member of a crime family who heads a crew (or group) of soldiers. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... This article is about a military rank. ... To join as a partner, ally, or friend. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Most recently there have been two new positions in the family leadership: the family messenger and Street Boss. These positions were created by former Genovese leader Vincent Gigante. Vincent the Chin Gigs Gigante (March 29, 1928– December 19, 2005) was an Italian-American Mafioso who headed the Genovese crime family for years, at times while in prison. ...


Each faction was headed by a caporegime, who reported to the boss. When the boss made a decision, he never issued orders directly to the soldiers who would carry it out, but instead passed instructions down through the chain of command. In this way, the higher levels of the organization were effectively insulated from incrimination if a lower level member should be captured by law enforcement. This structure is depicted in Mario Puzo's famous novel The Godfather. In The Godfather: Part II, These links are called "buffers": they provide what the intelligence community calls plausible deniability. Mario Gianluigi Puzo (October 15, 1920 – July 2, 1999) was an American author known for his novels about the Mafia, especially The Godfather (1969). ... The Godfather is a novel written by American author Mario Puzo originally published in 1969 by G. P. Putnams Sons. ... Al Pacino as Don Michael Corleone in The Godfather Part II The Godfather, Part II is the 1974 sequel to The Godfather. ... The Intelligence Community of the United States is an organization of several executive branch agencies within the federal government that are responsible for foreign and domestic intelligence, military planning, and espionage. ... Plausible deniability also Deniability is the term given to the creation of loose and informal chains of command in government, which allow controversial instructions given by high-ranking officials to be denied if they become public. ...


Rituals

The initiation ritual emerged from various sources, such as Catholic confraternities and Masonic Lodges in mid-nineteenth century Sicily[23] and has hardly changed to this day. The Chief of Police of Palermo in 1875 reported that the man of honor to be initiated would be led into the presence of a group of bosses and underbosses. One of these men would prick the initiate's arm or hand and tell him to smear the blood onto a sacred image, usually a saint. The oath of loyalty would be taken as the image was burned and scattered, thus symbolising the annihilation of traitors. This was confirmed by the first pentito, Tommaso Buscetta. “Freemasons” redirects here. ... Tommaso Buscetta (in sunglasses), the first important pentito of Italian Mafia, escorted in a court of law. ... Tommaso Buscetta (Palermo, July 13, 1928- New York, April 4, 2000) was a Sicilian mafioso. ...


A hit, or assassination, of a "made" man had to be preapproved by the leadership of his family, or retaliatory hits would be made, possibly inciting a war. In a state of war, families would go to the mattresses — rent vacant apartments and have a number of soldiers sleeping on mattresses on the floor in shifts, with the others ready at the windows to fire at members of rival families. Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... For the 2006 computer game, see Made Man (computer game). ...


Symbolism in murders

  • There are many symbolic deeds done during certain gangland executions that are requested by the don. For allowing Joseph Pistone into the Bonanno crime family caporegime Dominick Napolitano had his hands severed. Later during the attempted murder of Joseph Ianuzzi this is what Tommy Agro attempted to do.
  • As in the murder of Lucchese crime family soldier Bruno Facciola, a dead canary was stuffed inside his mouth after he was shot to death.
  • A mobster who was thought to be skimming from gambling profits was shot dead and found with a twenty-dollar bill shoved into his rectum.
  • Frank Abbandando Jr. gave a powerful capo in the Colombo crime family the middle finger and although his life was spared, his middle fingers were severed by a dull knife and sent to him preserved in vinegar.

Joseph Pistone as Donnie Brasco (left) with Dominick Sonny Black Napolitano (right) in Florida. ... The Bonanno crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... External links An Archetypal Mob Trial: Its Just Like in the Movies, The New York Times, May 23, 2004. ... Joseph Joe Dogs Iannuzzi (b. ... The Lucchese crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... Binomial name Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) The Canary (Serinus canaria) sometimes called the Island Canary, Wild Canary or Atlantic Canary, is a small bird in the finch family. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Colombo crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ...

American Mafia Families by city

Note that the Mafia has members, associates, and families in others cities as well. The organization is not limited to these cities. Many of these families have influence in other cities also.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Cleveland crime family family is a crime syndicate that is part of the phenomenon known as the Mafia or Cosa Nostra. ... The Kansas City crime family is a Mafia family based in Kansas City, Missouri. ... The Los Angeles Mafia is a criminal organization based in Los Angeles County, California, as part of the American Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... The Patriarca crime family is a criminal organization based in the region of New England, specifically Providence, Rhode Island and Boston, Massachusetts, that is part of a nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia or La Cosa Nostra. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... The DeCavalcante crime family is a crime family based in Elizabeth, New Jersey and Newark, New Jersey, despite having members on the other side of the Hudson River in New York. ... The New Orleans Crime Family is a criminal organization based in New Orleans and parts of southern Louisiana in the United States. ... The Five Families are the major crime families of the Italian-American Mafia based in New York City which have dominated traditional organized crime in New York. ... This article is about the state. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Former Gambino crime family Boss Carlo Gambino taken sometime in the early to mid 1970s, shortly before Gambinos death. ... The Lucchese crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... The Bonanno crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... The Colombo crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... This mountainous area of Pennsylvania includes the Pocono Mountains, the Endless Mountains and former anthracite coal mining cities and towns, including Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Hazleton, Pittston and Carbondale. ... The Bufalino Crime Family is a criminal organization based in Scranton, Pittston and Wilkes-Barre in Pennsylvania USA within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known familiarly as the Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... The Scarfo crime family is the name of the South Philadelphia based crime family once controlled by Nicodemo Scarfo. ... The Pittsburgh crime family is a criminal organization based in Pittsburgh and parts of northeastern Pittsburgh in the United States. ...

Prominent American mafiosi

See also: List of Italian American mobsters. This is an alphabetical list of Italian-American mobsters in the United States. ...

“Capone” redirects here. ... Charles Luciano (11 November 1896_ 26 January 1962), better known as Lucky Luciano, was a legendary mobster with a long criminal history. ... The Genovese Family is one of the five Mafia Families in New York City. ... Joseph Bonanno Joseph Bonanno (January 18, 1905 – May 11, 2002) was an American Mafioso who became the boss of one of the most prominent crime families in the world, the Bonanno crime family. ... The Bonanno crime family is one of the Five Families that controls organized crime activities in New York City, USA, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the Mafia (or Cosa Nostra). ... Tommy Gagliano Gaetano Tommy Gagliano was the head of the Lucchese crime family between 1931 and 1953. ... The Lucchese Family, also known as the Melquist Family, formed one the most powerful organized crime families in the United States. ... Vincent Mangano (1888-1951) was the head of what would become known as the Gambino crime family from 1931 to 1951. ... The Gambino Crime Family is a criminal organization based in New York City, New York, USA within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known familiarly as the Mafia (also known as La Cosa Nostra). ... Joe Profaci (October 2, 1897–June 7, 1962) was a New York Mafia boss who was the founder and head of the Profaci crime family, known today as the Colombo crime family, for over three decades. ... Joseph Joe Colombo Sr. ... Joseph Valachi Joseph Joe Cargo Valachi (September 22, 1903 – April 3, 1971) was the first Mafia member to publicly acknowledge the existence of the Mafia. ... Constantino Paul Castellano (June 26, 1915 – December 16, 1985), better known as Paul Castellano (or PC to his family), was a mafia boss in New York. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... FBI mugshot of Henry Hill taken in 1980. ... Goodfellas (also spelled GoodFellas) is a 1990 film directed by Martin Scorsese, based on the book Wiseguy by Nicholas Pileggi, the true story of mob informer Henry Hill. ... Joe Big Joey Massino (known in the media as The Last Don) was a Queens, New York restaurateur and head of the Bonanno crime family. ...

Law enforcement in the United States

Joint projects of the U.S. government and the Mafia

On very rare occasions, the United States government has conspired with organized crime figures to assassinate foreign heads of state. In August 1960, Colonel Sheffield Edwards, director of the CIA's Office of Security, proposed the assassination of Cuban head of state Fidel Castro by mafia assassins. Between August 1960 and April 1961, the CIA, without the help of the Mafia (who had taken the money and done nothing), pursued a series of plots to poison or shoot Castro (CIA, Inspector General's Report on Efforts to Assassinate Fidel Castro, p. 3, 14). Those allegedly involved included Sam Giancana, Carlos Marcello, Santo Trafficante, Jr., and John Roselli. assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Sam Momo Giancana ((born Salvatore Guingano) June 15, 1908 — June 19, 1975) was a famous and powerful mafioso and boss of the Chicago Outfit from 1956-66. ... Carlos Marcello (born Calogero Minacore Tunis 6 February 1910 – Metairie 3 March 1993) was born to Sicilian parents in Tunis. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... John Handsome Johnny Roselli (sometimes spelled Rosselli) (July 4, 1905 - August 9, 1976) was an influential Mafia soldier, one who had helped to control Hollywood and Las Vegas for the Chicago Mafia and who had allegedly been involved with the CIA plot to kill Cuban dictator Fidel Castro in the...


Law Enforcement and the Mafia

In several Mafia families, killing a state authority is forbidden due to the possibility of extreme police retaliation. In some rare strict cases, conspiring to commit such a murder is punishable by death. The Jewish mobster Dutch Schultz was reportedly killed by his Italian peers out of fear that he would carry out a plan to kill New York City prosecutor Thomas Dewey. The Mafia has been known to carry out hits on law enforcement in its earlier history. New Orleans police officer Joe Petrosino was shot by Sicilian mobsters in the United States. A statue of him was later erected across the street from a Luchhese hangout.[24] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (b. ... Lt. ...


The RICO Act of the 1960s made it a crime to belong to an organization that performed illegal acts, and it created programs such as the witness protection program. The Act only began to come into frequent use during the late 70's and early 80's. Charges of racketeering convicted scores of mobsters including 2 of New York's Godfathers (Anthony Corallo and Carmine Persico) during the Commission Case in 1985 (Although one of the convicted Anthony 'Fat Tony' Salerno was thought of as the Genovese Godfather he was only the Underboss). The Act continued to be used to great effect up to the end of the 20th century and hurt the Mob severely. The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (commonly referred to as RICO) is a United States federal law which provides for extended penalties for criminal acts performed as part of an ongoing criminal organization. ... In the United States, the Witness Protection Program (also known as WITSEC) is established by the Witness Protection Act, which in turn sets out the manner in which the U.S. Attorney General may provide for the relocation and protection of a witness or potential witness of the federal government... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... Antonio Corallo also know as Tony Ducks served some jail time for trafficking narcotics as a kid and then became a big shot in the Gagliano-Lucchese crime family in New York. ... Carmine John Persico (born in Brooklyn on August 8, 1937) is known as The Snake, Junior and Immortal because he has been shot a record of 20 times. ... Anthony Salerno (1911 - July 27, 1992) was a member of the US Mafia and headed the Genovese family during the 1980s. ... Genovese may refer to: The Genovese family, the New York Mafia Family once ruled by Vito Genovese. ...


However the Mafia is still the dominant organized crime group in the United States, despite the success of RICO. According to Selwyn Raab, author of Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires, after 9/11 the FBI has redirected most of its attention to finding terrorists, which contributed to a resurgence of Mafia activity in the U.S. The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ...


See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This page is a List of Criminal organizations. ... The camorra is a mafia-like criminal organization, or secret society, in the region of Campania and the city of Naples in Italy. ... The Mafia-Camorra War was a war fought between of course the mafia which was the Sicilian Morello crime family and the Camorra, the Neapolitan Navy Street gang and Coney Island gang. ... The Five Families are the major crime families of the Italian-American Mafia based in New York City which have dominated traditional organized crime in New York. ... For other uses, see Gang (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gangster (disambiguation). ... Since their appearance in the mid of 1800s, the Italian criminal organizations have infiltrated the social and economic life of many regions in South Italy, to later expand in some foreign countries (mainly the U.S). ... Omertà is a popular attitude, common in areas of southern Italy, such as Sicily, Calabria and Campania, where the criminal organizations like the Mafia, Ndrangheta, and Camorra are strong. ... A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... This is a timeline of the history of organized crime. ... Crime in New York City is the lowest among the 25 largest cities in the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ Omerta in the Antipodes, Time, January 31, 1964
  2. ^ The mafia, by Domenico Airoma
  3. ^ Review of Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods by Klaus Von Lampe
  4. ^ Giuseppe Pitrè, Usi e costumi, credenze e pregiudizi del popolo siciliano, Palermo 1889
  5. ^ Arlacchi, Mafia Business, p. 181
  6. ^ Dickie, Cosa Nostra, p. 183
  7. ^ This etymology is based on the books Mafioso by Gaia Servadio; The Sicilian Mafia by Diego Gambetta; and Cosa Nostra by John Dickie (see Books below).
  8. ^ Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 136
  9. ^ Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 137
  10. ^ Servadio, Mafioso, p. 42-43
  11. ^ Their Thing, Time, August 16, 1963
  12. ^ Killers in Prison, Time, October 4, 1963
  13. ^ "The Smell of It", Time, October 11, 1963
  14. ^ Mafia Trial, Time, October 24, 1927
  15. ^ Mafia Scotched, Time, January 23, 1928
  16. ^ "The wartime collaboration of Sicilian-born Salvatore "Lucky" Luciano with the United States Navy may have made the Allied invasion of Sicily smoother than it otherwise would have been, but the Iron Prefect's enforcement of the Duce's laws had already made most mafiosi sympathetic to the American cause, or at least hostile to the Fascist one." The Mafia from bestofsicily.com
  17. ^ The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia, by Alfred W. McCoy with Cathleen B. Read and Leonard P. Adams II, 1972, ISBN 0060129018
  18. ^ Cosa Nostra by John Dickie
  19. ^ Move over, Cosa Nostra, The Guardian, 8 Juni 2006
  20. ^ 'Top Mafia boss' caught in Italy
  21. ^ Capeci, Jerry. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Mafia. Indianapolis: Alpha Books, 2002
  22. ^ Capeci, Jerry. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Mafia. Indianapolis: Alpha Books, 2002
  23. ^ "Mafia's arcane rituals, and much of the organization's structure, were based largely on those of the Catholic confraternities and even Freemasonry, colored by Sicilian familial traditions and even certain customs associated with military-religious orders of chivalry like the Order of Malta." The Mafia from bestofsicily.com
  24. ^ Five Families: The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires
  • Arlacchi, Pino (1988). Mafia Business. The Mafia Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-285197-7
  • Chubb, Judith (1989). The Mafia and Politics, Cornell Studies in International Affairs, Occasional Papers No. 23.
  • Dickie, John (2004). Cosa Nostra. A history of the Sicilian Mafia, London: Coronet ISBN 0-340-82435-2
  • Gambetta, Diego (1993).The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection, London: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-80742-1
  • Servadio, Gaia (1976), Mafioso. A history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day, London: Secker & Warburg ISBN 0-436-44700-2

The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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From this, the Mafia began to spread its roots among the landowners and politicians of Sicily.
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Mafia (also known under the variant Werewolf or Village) is a party game modelling a battle between an informed minority and an uninformed majority.
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Mafia is considered to be one of "The 50 most historically and culturally significant games published since 1800" by about.com.
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