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Encyclopedia > Madura

Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java, near the port of Surabaya. Map of Java Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Surabaya (formerly Soerabaja) is Indonesias second-largest city, and the capital of the province of East Java. ...


It has an area of approximately 4,250 kmĀ² and a population of about four million, most of whom are ethnically Madurese. The main language of Madura is Madurese, which is also spoken on many of the 66 outlying islands. Madura is administered as part of the East Java province. This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... The Madurese are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. ... Madurese is the spoken language of people from Madura island in Indonesia; it is also spoken on Kangean Islands, Sapudi Islands, and in parts of province of East Java. ... Map showing East Java within Indonesia East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is one of Indonesias 32 provinces. ...

Bull racing in Sumenep, Madura
Bull racing in Sumenep, Madura

Contents

Download high resolution version (4198x2700, 4409 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (4198x2700, 4409 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Economy

On the whole, Madura is one of the poorer regions of the East Java province. Unlike Java, the soil is not fertile enough to make it a major agricultural producer. Limited other economic opportunities has lead to chronic unemployment and poverty. These factors have lead to long-term emigration from the island, such that most ethnically Madurese people do not now live on Madura. People from Madura were some of the most numerous participants in government transmigration programs, moving to other parts of Indonesia. Indonesias Transmigration program was an initiative to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the archipelago. ...


Subsistence agriculture is a mainstay of the economy. Maize is a key subsistence crop, on island's many small landholdings. Cattle-raising is also a critical part of the agricultural economy, providing extra income to peasant farmer families, in addition to being the basis for Madura's famous bull-racing competitions. Small-scale fishing is also important to the subsistence economy. Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular usage) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...


Among export industries, tobacco farming is a major contributor to the island's economy. Madura's soil, while unable to support many food crops, helps make the island an important producer of tobacco and cloves for the domestic kretek (clove cigarette) industry. Since the Dutch era, the island has also been a major producer and exporter of salt. Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, or to the dried and cured leaves of such plants. ... Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry Cloves are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree (Syzygium aromaticum, sometimes included in the genus Eugenia) in the family Myrtaceae. ... A popular brand of kreteks. ... A magnified crystal of salt In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ...


Bangkalan, on the western end of the island, has industrialized substantially since the 1980s. This region is within a short ferry ride of Surabaya, Indonesia's second-largest city, and hence has gained a role as a suburb for commuters to Surabaya, and as a location for industry and services that need to be near the city. The long-planned Surabaya-Madura (Suramadu) Bridge, now under construction, is expected to further increase the Bangkalan area's interaction with the regional economy. The Suramadu Bridge (Jembatan Suramadu), also known as the Surabaya-Madura Bridge, is a cable-stayed bridge currently under construction between Surabaya on the island of Java and the town of Bangkalan on the island of Madura in Indonesia. ...


Culture

Bull racing

Madura is famous for is bull-racing competitions, where a jockey, usually a young boy, rides a simple wooden sled pulled by a pair of bulls over a course of about 100 meters in ten to fifteen seconds. Several towns on the island hold races in August and September of each year, with a large final for the Presidential Trophy held in Pamekasan in late September or October. Bull or bull has various meanings: Look up bull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Music and theater

Several forms of music and theater are popular on Madura, particularly among poorer people for whom they provide an inexpensive form of entertainment and community-building. The topeng theater, which involves masked performances of classical stories such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata, is the Madurese performance art best known outside the island, due to its role as a representative Madurese art form at exhibitions of regional cultures from all over Indonesia. However, performances of it are rare on Madura, and are generally restricted to entertainment at large official functions. The less formal loddrok theater, where performers do not wear masks and perform a wider range of themes, is more popular on the island. Similar is the drama theater set to modern Malay music, and where women perform alongside men. Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity which involves organized and audible sound, though definitions vary. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle — indeed... Masks in a Guatemalan Market A teenager reading a book, while wearing a dinosaur mask A mask is a piece of material or kit worn on the face. ... The Rāmāyana (Sanskrit: रामायण, march or journey (Ä€yana) of Rāma) is part of the Hindu smriti, written by Valmiki. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ...


The gamelan orchestra, best known as a classical Javanese instrument, is also played on Madura, where several of the former royal courts, such as at Bangkalan and Sumenep, possess elaborate gamelans. Tongtong music, more exclusive to Madura, is played on several wooden or bamboo drums, and often accompanies bull-racing competitions. Saron - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring metallophones, xylophone(s), drums, and gongs. ...


References

  • Kees van Dijk, Huub de Jonge, and Elly Touwen-Bouswsma, eds. 1995. Across Madura Strait: the dynamics of an insular society. Leiden: LITLV Press. ISBN 9067180912.

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Madura Mission (815 words)
At the outset it may be remarked that the districts comprised under the Madura Mission were totally removed from Portuguese political or state influence, so that even the prestige of the Portuguese name can hardly be regarded as having reached there, to say nothing of the machinery of the State.
In 1846 the Madura Mission was in turn made into a vicariate Apostolic with Mgr Alexis Canoz as its first vicar Apostolic; but the portion north of the Cauvery was retained by Pondicherry.
In 1886, on the establishment of the hierarchy, the Madura Vicariate was made the Diocese of Trichinopoly.
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