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Encyclopedia > Madras Presidency

Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. George, was a province of British India. At its greatest extent, Madras Presidency included much of southern India, including the present-day Indian State of Tamil Nadu,the Malabar region of North Kerala, the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, and the Bellary, Dakshina Kannada, and Udupi districts of Karnataka. The capital was at Madras, now known as Chennai. The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Bekal Fort Beach Malabar is a region along the southwest coast of the Indian peninsula, which forms the northern part of present-day Kerala state. ... ... Coastal Andhra is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... Rayalaseema is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశం in Telugu) (Ä€ndhra Prādesh), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... Bellary is a city and district in Karnataka state, India. ... Dakshina Kannada, also called South Kannada, South Kanara, or South Canara, is a district of Indias Karnataka state. ... Udupi is a district and temple town located in Karnataka state near the city of Mangalore on the south west coast of India. ... Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ in Kannada) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Chennai (சென்னை in Tamil), formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is Indias fourth largest city. ...

Contents


Early history

The first British settlement on India's east coast, known as the Coromandel Coast, was in 1611, at Machilipatnam (Masulipatam), even then celebrated for its fabrics. Farther south Fort St George, the nucleus of Madras city, was erected in 1640. Pondicherry was purchased by the French in 1762. For many years the English and French traders lived peacefully side by side, and with no ambition for territorial aggrandisement. The War of Austrian Succession in Europe lit the first flame of hostility on the Coromandel Coast. In 1746 Madras was forced to surrender to La Bourdonnais, and Fort St David remained the only English possession in southern India. By the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle Madras was restored to the English; but from this time the rivalry of the two nations was keen, and found its opportunities in the disputed successions of Indian politics. British influence was generally able to secure the favor of the rulers of the Carnatic and Tanjore, while the French succeeded in placing their own nominee on the throne at Hyderabad. At last Joseph François Dupleix rose to be the temporary arbiter of the fate of southern India, but he was overthrown by Robert Clive, whose defence of Arcot in 1751 forms the turning point in Indian history. In 1760 the crowning victory of Vandavasi (Wandiwash) was won by Colonel (afterwards Sir Eyre) Coote, over Lally, and in the following year, despite help from Mysore, Pondicherry was captured. This article is about the Coromandel Coast of India. ... Events November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Machilipatnam, also known as Masulipatnam or Bandar, is a city on the southeastern or Coromandel Coast of India. ... Fort St George is the name of the first British fortress in India, built in 1644 at the coastal city of Madras (modern city of Chennai. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ... World map showing location of Europe When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... Events January 8 - Bonnie Prince Charlie occupies Stirling April 16 - Battle of Culloden brings an end to the Jacobite Risings October 22 - The College of New Jersey is founded (it becomes Princeton University in 1896) October 28 - An earthquake demolishes Lima and Callao, in Peru Catharine de Ricci (born 1522... Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais (comte de La Bourdonnais) (Saint-Malo, 11 February 1699 – Paris, 10 November 1753) was a French naval officer and administrator, in the service of the French East India Company. ... Carnatic may mean: Carnatic, a region of Southern India Carnatic music SS Carnatic, a shipwrecked steamer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Thanjavur, also known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Hyderabad and Berar, 1903 Hyderābād was an autonomous princely state of south-central India from 1724 until 1948, ruled by a hereditary Nizam, and an Indian state from 1948 to 1956. ... Joseph François Dupleix Joseph François Dupleix (January 1, 1697 — November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India, and was the great rival of Robert Clive. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... Arcot is a town in Vellore District of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Vandavasi or Wandiwash is a city in Tamil Nadu state of India. ... Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, baron de Tollendal (January, 1702 - 1766), French general, was born at Romans, Dauphin, being the son of Sir Gerard OLally, an Irish Jacobite who married a French lady of noble family, from whom the son inherited his titles. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, which was founded about 1400 by the Wodeyar dynasty, who ruled the state until Indian independence in 1947, when the kingdom became Mysore state of India, later renamed Karnataka. ...


Territorial growth

Madras Province in 1859. North Canara (Uttara Kannada) was transferred to Bombay Presidency in 1862.
Madras Province in 1859. North Canara (Uttara Kannada) was transferred to Bombay Presidency in 1862.

The different territories which made up the Madras Presidency were acquired by the British at various dates. In 1763 the tract encircling Madras city, then known as the Jagir and later as Chingleput district, was ceded by the Nawab of Arcot. In 1765 the Northern Circars, out of which the French had recently been driven, were granted to the British East India Company by the Mughal emperor, but at the price of an annual tribute of 90,000 to the Nizam of Hyderabad. Full rights of dominion were not acquired till 1823, when the tribute was commuted for a lump payment. In 1792 Tipu Sultan of Mysore was compelled to cede the Baramahal (later part of Salem district), Malabar and Dindigul subdivision of Madurai. In 1799, after the defeat of Tipu Sultan, Coimbatore and Canara were appropriated from Mysore; in the same year the Maratha raja of Thanjavur (Tanjore) resigned the administration of his territory, though his descendant retained titular rank till 1855. In 1800 Bellary and Cuddapah were made over by the Nizam of Hyderabad to defray the expense of an increased subsidiary force. In the following year the dominions of the Nawab of the Arcot, extending along the east coast almost continuously from Nellore to Tirunelveli, were resigned into the hands of the British by a puppet who had been put upon the throne for the purpose. The last titular Nawab of Arcot died in 1855; but his representative still continued to bear the title of prince of Arcot, and was recognized as the first native nobleman in Madras. In 1839 the Nawab of Kurnool was deposed for misgovernment and suspicion of treason, and his territories annexed. In 1862 the district of Canara was split in two, and North Canara was transferred to Bombay Presidency. Download high resolution version (524x640, 246 KB)Nineteenth-century map. ... Download high resolution version (524x640, 246 KB)Nineteenth-century map. ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Uttara Kannada is a district in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A Jagir is a (small) region given by an ruler or king to a army chieftain (called a sardar in Marathi language, someone who leads a group of troops) as a reconisation of his services. ... Chingleput or Chengalpattu is a city in northern Tamil Nadu state of India. ... A Nawab was originally the provincial governor or viceroy of a province or region of the Mughal empire. ... Arcot is a town in Vellore District of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Circar is an Indian term applied to the component parts of a subah or province, each of which is administered by a deputy governor. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Tipu sultans summer palace Tipu Sultan, also known as Tipu Sahib (December 10, 1750, Devanhalli - May 4, 1799) was ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1782, and one of the primary native sources of resistance to the establishment of British rule in India. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, which was founded about 1400 by the Wodeyar dynasty, who ruled the state until Indian independence in 1947, when the kingdom became Mysore state of India, later renamed Karnataka. ... Salem is the 5th largest city of Tamil Nadu located in the central part of the southern most state of India. ... Bekal Fort Beach Malabar is a region along the southwest coast of the Indian peninsula, which forms the northern part of present-day Kerala state. ... Dindigul is a city in the Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... Madurai (மதுரை in Tamil) is situated on the banks of river Vaigai in Tamil Nadu, a southern Indian state. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Coimbatore (Tamil-Koyamutthur or Kovai) is a major industrial town in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India. ... The Kanara or Canara (called Kannada in Karnataka) districts comprise three districts of Karnataka - North Kanara (Uttara Kannada) whose administrative headquarters is Karwar, Udupi, and South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada), whose administrative headquarters is Mangalore. ... Maratha is a kshatriya (warrior) caste of Marathi-speaking people primarily residing in the plains and hills of Indias western state of Maharashtra. ... A Raja (sometimes spelled Rajah) is a king, or princely ruler. ... Thanjavur, also known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Bellary is a city and district in Karnataka state, India. ... Cuddapah, or Kadapa, as it is known now, is one of the districts of Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Map showing nellore district Nellore is the headquarters of the Nellore district, the southern most coastal district in the state Andhra Pradesh, in India. ... Tirunelveli is a city in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Kurnool is a city in Andhra Pradesh state of southern India. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Uttara Kannada is a district in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ...


Geography

The northern boundary of Madras Presidency was extremely irregular. It was bounded on the extreme northeast by Orissa; then the highlands of the Central Provinces; next the dominions of the Nizam of Hyderabad; then Dharwar district of Bombay Presidency, and lastly the Kingdom of Mysore and the province of Coorg. The presidency also included the Laccadive Islands, off the Malabar coast, in the Indian Ocean. Its total area, including princely states, was 151,695 sq. mi., and its population in 1901 was 42,397,522. Orissa (2001 provisional pop. ... A British Raj province comprising British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India. ... Dharwad, also known as Dharwar, is a town in Indias Karnataka state. ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Introduction The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, which was founded about 1400 AD by the Wodeyar dynasty, who ruled the state until the independence of India in 1947, when the kingdom was merged with the Union of India. ... A coffee plantation in Coorg Kodagu (previously called Coorg) is a district of Karnataka state, India. ... Lakshadweep is a Union Territory of India. ... Bekal Fort Beach Malabar is a region along the southwest coast of the Indian peninsula, which forms the northern part of present-day Kerala state. ... A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ...


Demography

Madras Presidency in 1909, northern portion.
Madras Presidency in 1909, northern portion.

The population in 1901 was divided into Hindus (37,026,471), Muslims (2,732,931), and Christians (1,934,480). Broadly speaking, the entire population of Madras Presidency belonged to the five linguistic offshoots of the great Dravidian language family, dominant throughout southern India. Of the five Dravidian languages in the presidency Telugu was spoken by over 14,000,000 persons; Tamil by over 15,000,000 persons; Kannada by over 1,500,000 persons; Malayalam by nearly 3,000,000 persons; and Tulu by about 500,000 persons. Oriya was the native tongue in the extreme north of Ganjam district, bordering on Orissa; and various languages and dialects of Dravidian origin were used by the hill tribes of the Eastern Ghats. Download high resolution version (1000x816, 236 KB)Northern portion of Madras Presidency, British India. ... Download high resolution version (1000x816, 236 KB)Northern portion of Madras Presidency, British India. ... 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A Hindu is an adherent of Hinduism, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural system of Bharat (India). ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Dravidian may refer to: A group of people who came through Arabia to settle on the Asian mainland at the Straight of Hormuz and on the Indus river in what is now Afghanistan. ... Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... Telugu belongs to the family of Dravidian languages and is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Tamil may refer to: The Tamil language, which is one of the Dravidian languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം) is the major language of the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Tulu is one of the minor languages of India with under 2,000,000 speakers. ... Oriya is the official language of the Indian state of Orissa. ... District of Orissa bordering the Andhra Pradesh border. ...


Administration

Madras Presidency in 1909, southern portion.
Madras Presidency in 1909, southern portion.

The Madras presidency was administered by a governor and a council, consisting of two members of the civil service, which number may be increased to four. There was also a board of revenue of three members. For legislative purposes the council of the governor was augmented by additional members, numbering 45 in all, of whom not more than 17 may be nominated officials, while 19 were elected by various representative constituencies. Members of the legislative council enjoyed the right of interpellation, of proposing resolutions on matters of public interest, and of discussing the annual financial statement. Download high resolution version (1000x1246, 429 KB)Southern portion of Madras Presidency, British India. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1246, 429 KB)Southern portion of Madras Presidency, British India. ... 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1911 the province was divided into 24 districts: Ganjam, Vizagapatam (Visakhapatnam), Godavari, Krishna, Kurnool, Nellore, Cuddapah, Anantapur, Bellary, North Arcot, South Arcot, Chingleput, Madras, Salem, South Canara, Malabar, Coimbatore, Tiruchirappalli, Tanjore, Madurai, Tirunelveli, The Nilgiris, and Guntur. Each under the charge of a collector, with sub-collectors and assistants. The districts were not grouped into divisions or commissionerships, as in other provinces. District of Orissa bordering the Andhra Pradesh border. ... Map showing visakhapatnam district Visakhapatnam (విశాఖపట్నం) (Also Vishākhapatnam, shortened and Anglicized: Vizag or Vizagapatnam) is a Port city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Krishna District is a district of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... Kurnool is a city in Andhra Pradesh state of southern India. ... Map showing nellore district Nellore is the headquarters of the Nellore district, the southern most coastal district in the state Andhra Pradesh, in India. ... Cuddapah, or Kadapa, as it is known now, is one of the districts of Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Anantapur is a district and its administrative city in the southwest of the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, on the border of the state of Karnataka. ... Bellary is a city and district in Karnataka state, India. ... South Arcot is a former district of British India, located in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Chingleput or Chengalpattu is a city in northern Tamil Nadu state of India. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Salem is the 5th largest city of Tamil Nadu located in the central part of the southern most state of India. ... Dakshina Kannada, also called South Kannada, South Kanara, or South Canara, is a district of Indias Karnataka state. ... Bekal Fort Beach Malabar is a region along the southwest coast of the Indian peninsula, which forms the northern part of present-day Kerala state. ... Coimbatore (Tamil-Koyamutthur or Kovai) is a major industrial town in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India. ... Tiruchirapalli (also spelled Tiruchchirappalli, commonly known as Tiruchi or Trichy, formerly known as Trichinopoly under British rule) is a city situated on the banks of the Kaveri river, centrally located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Thanjavur, also known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Madurai (மதுரை in Tamil) is situated on the banks of river Vaigai in Tamil Nadu, a southern Indian state. ... Tirunelveli is a city in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... Map of The Nilgiris district The Nilgiris or Blue Mountains, often called The Queen of Hills are a range of mountains and a district in the south-Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. ... Guntur is a city and district in Andhra Pradesh state of southern India. ...


The principle of local devolution was carried somewhat further in Madras than in other Raj provinces. At the bottom are union panchayats or village committees, whose chief duty is to attend to sanitation. Above them came taluk or subdivisional boards. At the head of all were district boards, a portion of whose members are elected by the taluk boards. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A Tehsil is an administrative subdivision or tier of local government in some South Asian countries. ...


Five princely states fell under the political authority of Madras Presidency: Banganapalle, Cochin, Pudukkottai, Sandur, and Travancore. A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... Banganapalle is a town in Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. ... Cochin can refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Pudukkottai is a city in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... Sandur is a town in Bellary district of Karnataka state, India. ... Travancore (originally called Thiruvithaamcoore or Thiruvitankur in Malayalam) was a princely state in India. ...


After India's independence

After India's independence in 1947, Madras Presidency was reconstituted as Madras state. In 1953 the Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra regions became the new state of Andhra Pradesh, and Bellary district became part of Mysore state. In 1956 South Kanara district was transferred to Mysore, the Malabar coast districts became part of the new state of Kerala, and Madras state, renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968, took its present shape. 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Rayalaseema is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... Coastal Andhra is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశం in Telugu) (Ä€ndhra Prādesh), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... Bellary is a city and district in Karnataka state, India. ... Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ in Kannada) is one of the four southern states of India. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dakshina Kannada, also called South Kannada, South Kanara, or South Canara, is a district of Indias Karnataka state. ... ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) represents, in many ways, the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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