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Encyclopedia > Madder
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Madder

Common Madder (Rubia tinctorum)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Rubia
Species

See text. Image File history File links Rubia tinctorum - family Rubiaceae Downloaded from : [[1]] No aspect of EcoPort is subject to copyright or any other instrument of intellectual property management that prevents its data from being in the public domain. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Families Gentianaceae (gentian family) Apocynaceae (dogbane family) Gelsemiaceae Loganiaceae (logania family) Rubiaceae (coffee family) The Gentianales are an order of flowering plants, included within the asterid group of dicotyledons. ... Genera See text The Rubiaceae are a family of dicotyledon plants, variously called the madder, bedstraw, or coffee family. ...

Madder is the common name of the plant genus Rubia L., the type genus of the madder family Rubiaceae. Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Carolus Linnaeus ~Carl Linnaeus~, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné (   listen?), and in English usually under the Latinized name Carolus Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy. ... In scientific classification, a type is a specimen or description that corresponds to a taxon (a group of organisms), and helps to identify which organisms may be referred to with that name. ... Genera See text The Rubiaceae are a family of dicotyledon plants, variously called the madder, bedstraw, or coffee family. ...


The genus contains about 60 species of perennial scrambling or climbing herbs and sub-shrubs native to the Old World, Africa, temperate Asia and America. A herb (pronounced hurb in Commonwealth English and urb in American English) is a plant grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... A subshrub (Latin suffrutex) is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody perennial plant, distinguished from a shrub by variously its ground-hugging stems and lower height, with overwintering perennial woody growth typically less than 10-20 cm tall, or by being only weakly woody and/or only... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus: Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia) and the surrounding islands. ...


The best known species are Common Madder (Rubia tinctorum), Wild Madder (Rubia peregrina), and Indian Madder (Rubia cordifolia).


The Common Madder can grow to 1.5 m in height. The evergreen leaves are 5-10 cm long and 2-3 cm broad, produced in whorls of 4-7 starlike around the central stem. It climbs with tiny hooks at the leaves and stems. The flowers are small (3-5 mm across), with five pale yellow petals, in dense racemes, and appear from June to August, followed by small (4-6 mm diameter) red to black berries. The roots are between 20-30 cm long, up to 12 mm thick and the source of a red dye. It prefers loamy soils with a constant level of moisture. A Silver Fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant which retains its leaves year-round, with each leaf persisting for more than 12 months. ... In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Several types of berries from the market, but none of these are true berries. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. ...


Madders are used as food plants for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Hummingbird hawk moth. A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Super Families Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Micropterigoidea Heterobathmioidea Eriocranioidea Acanthopteroctetoidea Lophocoronoidea Neopseustoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Hepialoidea Nepticuloidea Incurvarioidea Palaephatoidea Tischeriodea Simaethistoidea Tineoidea Gracillarioidea Yponomeutoidea Gelechioidea Zygaenoidea Sesioidea Cossoidea Tortricoidea Choreutoida Urodoidea Galacticoidea Schreckensteinioidea Epermenioidea Pterophoroidea Aluctoidea Immoidea Axioidea Hyblaeoidea Thyridoidea Whalleyanoidea Pyraloidea Mimallonoidea Lasiocampoidea Geometroidea Drepanoidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidae Hedyloidea Noctuoidea Families About... Binomial name Macroglossum stellatarum Linnaeus, 1758 The hummingbird hawk moth, Macroglossum stellatarum, is a species of hawk moth with a long proboscis, and is capable of hovering in place. ...

Species
  • Rubia akane
  • Rubia alaica Pachom.
  • Rubia angustifolia L.
    • Rubia angustifolia ssp. angustifolia
    • Rubia angustifolia ssp. caespitosa
  • Rubia chinensis Regel & Maack
  • Rubia chitralensis Ehrend.
  • Rubia cordata Thunb
  • Rubia cordifolia L. : Indian Madder
  • Rubia cretacea Pojark.
  • Rubia deserticola Pojark.
  • Rubia dolichophylla Schrenk
    A madder plant in the open air museum Asparn, Austria
    A madder plant in the open air museum Asparn, Austria
  • Rubia florida Boiss.
  • Rubia fruticosa
  • Rubia jesoensis (Miq.) Miyabe & Miyake
  • Rubia komarovii Pojark.
  • Rubia krascheninnikovii Pojark.
  • Rubia laevissima Tscherneva
  • Rubia laxiflora Gontsch.
  • Rubia pavlovii Bajtenov & Myrz.
  • Rubia peregrina L. : Wild Madder
  • Rubia rechingeri Ehrend.
  • Rubia regelii Pojark.
  • Rubia rezniczenkoana Litv.
  • Rubia rigidifolia Pojark.
  • Rubia schugnanica B.Fedtsch. ex Pojark.
  • Rubia sikkimensis Kurz
  • Rubia syrticola Miq.
  • Rubia tatarica (Trevir.) F.Schmidt
  • Rubia tibetica Hook.f.
  • Rubia tinctorum L. : Common Madder
  • Rubia transcaucasica Grossh.
  • Rubia yunnanensis (Franch. ex Diels) Diels

Madder, Archaeological open air museum Asparn, ca. ... Madder, Archaeological open air museum Asparn, ca. ...

Uses

It has been used since ancient times as a vegetable red dye for leather, wool, cotton and silk. For dye production, the roots are harvested in the first year. The outer brown layer gives the common variety of the dye, the lower yellow layer the refined variety. The dye is fixed to the cloth with help of a mordant, most commonly alum. Madder can be fermented for dyeing as well (Fleurs de garance). In France, the remains were used to produce a spirit as well. Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... A mordant is a substance used to set dyes. ... For alum meaning graduate, see Alumn. ...


The roots contain the acid ruberthyrin. By drying, fermenting or a treatment with acids, this is changed to sugar, alizarin and purpurin. Purpurin is not coloured, but is red when dissolved in alcalic solutions. Mixed with clay and treated with alum and ammonic, it gives a brilliant red colourant (madder lake). Alizarin, or 1,2_dihydroxyanthraquinone, is the red dye originally derived from the root of the madder plant. ... Purpurin is a naturally occuring red/yellow dye in the roots of the plant madder (or known as Rubia tinctorum L). ... Alizarin, or 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone, is the red dye originally derived from the root of the madder plant. ...

Common Madder (Rubia tinctorum), from Thomé, Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885.
Common Madder (Rubia tinctorum), from Thomé, Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885.

The pulverised roots can be dissolved in sulfuric acid, which leaves a dye called garance (the French name for madder) after drying. Another method of increasing the yield consisted of dissolving the roots in sulfuric acid after they had been used for dyeing. This produces a dye called garanceux. By treating the pulverized roots with alcohol, colorin was produced. It contained 40-50 times the amount of alizarine of the roots. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1483x2319, 784 KB) Name Rubia tinctorum Family Rubiaceae Original book source: Prof. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1483x2319, 784 KB) Name Rubia tinctorum Family Rubiaceae Original book source: Prof. ...


The chemical name for the pigment is alizarin, of the Anthachrinone-group. In 1869, the German chemists Graebe and Liebermann synthesised artificial alizarin, which was produced industrially from 1871 onwards, which effectively put an end to the cultivation of madder. In the 20th century, madder was only grown in some areas of France. In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... Alizarin, or 1,2_dihydroxyanthraquinone, is the red dye originally derived from the root of the madder plant. ...


History

Dioscorides and Pliny the Elder (De Re Natura) mention the plant (Rubia passiva). In Viking age levels of York, remains of both woad and madder have been excavated. The oldest textiles dyed with madder come from the grave of the Merovingian queen Arnegundis in St. Denis near Paris (between 565 und 570 AD). In the "Capitulare de villis" of Charlemagne, madder is mentioned as "warentiam". The herbal of Hildegard of Bingen mentions the plant as well. The red coats of the British Redcoats were dyed with madder. Pedanius Dioscorides Pedanius Dioscorides (c. ... Á Gaius Plinius Secundus, (23–79) better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient author and Natural philosopher of some importance who wrote Naturalis Historia. ... The Viking Age is the name of the period between 793 A.D. and 1066 A.D. in Scandinavia, following the Germanic Iron Age and the Vendel Age in Sweden. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... Binomial name Isatis tinctoria L. Woad (or glastum) is the common name of the flowering plant Isatis tinctoria in the family Brassicaceae. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Charlemagne is also the name of a column in The Economist on European affairs. ... An herbal is a book, often illustrated, that describes the appearance, medical properties, and other characteristics of plants used in herbal medicine. ... A medieval illumination showing Hildegard von Bingen and the monk Volmar Blessed Hildegard of Bingen (or von Bingen) (September 16, 1098 – September 17, 1179) was a German abbess, monastic leader, mystic, author, and composer of music. ...


According to Culpeper's herbal, the plant is ruled by Mars and has an opening quality, and will bind and strengthen afterwards. It was used in the treatment of jaundice, obstruction of the spleen, melancholy, palsy, haemorrhoids, sciatica, and of bruises. The root should be boiled in wine, and sugar or honey added. The seed of madder, drunk with vinegar and honey is used for the swelling of the spleen. Leaves and stems are used when the monthly bleeding is late. Leaves and roots are squashed and put on freckles and other discolorations of the skin. Nicholas Culpeper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... An herbal is a book, often illustrated, that describes the appearance, medical properties, and other characteristics of plants used in herbal medicine. ... Mars, with polar ice caps visible. ... Jaundice, technically known as icterus, is yellowing of the skin, sclera (the white of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body. ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is not necessary for life but is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and removal of other debris from the bloodstream, and also in holding a reservoir of blood. ... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ... Palsy is a medical term derived from the word paralysis and meaning paralysis of a body part often accompanied by loss of feeling and uncontrolled body movements such as shaking. ... Sciatica is a pain in the leg due to irritation of the sciatic nerve. ...


References

  • R. Chenciner, Madder red: a history of luxury and trade (Richmond 2000).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Madder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (669 words)
Madder is the common name of the plant genus Rubia L.
Madders are used as food plants for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Hummingbird hawk moth.
The seed of madder, drunk with vinegar and honey is used for the swelling of the spleen.
CU Herb Society Herb of the Month - MADDER (Rubia tinctoria) (631 words)
Madder is mentioned in the Bible and the dye has been used on linen from tombs in the Nile Valley.
Madder was used to dye fabric for soldiers’ uniforms and hunting "pink" coats.
Madder has been used as an animal feed and, as the dye colors bone (as well as milk and urine), it has been used in experiments in bone growth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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