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Encyclopedia > Madame de Pompadour
Madame de Pompadour, portrait by François Boucher circa 1750, detail
Madame de Pompadour, portrait by François Boucher circa 1750, detail

Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Marquise (later Duchesse) de Pompadour, also known as Madame de Pompadour (December 29, 1721April 15, 1764) was a well-known courtesan and the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1267, 288 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt der Madame de Pompadour Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 36 × 44 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland Other... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1267, 288 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt der Madame de Pompadour Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 36 × 44 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Edinburgh Current location (gallery): de: National Gallery of Scotland Other... François Boucher The Toilet of Venus (1751) typifies the superficially pleasing elegance of Bouchers mature style. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A courtesan in mid-16th century usage was a high-class prostitute or mistress, especially one associated with rich, powerful, or upper-class men who provided luxuries and status in exchange for her services. ... Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ...

Contents

Early life

Madame de Pompadour was born Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson on December 29, 1721 in Paris. It is suspected that her biological father was the rich financier Le Normant de Tournehem, who became her legal guardian when her official father Francois Poisson, a steward to the Paris brothers--foremost financiers of the French economy--was forced to leave the country in 1725 after a scandal over a series of unpaid debts--a crime at that time punishable by death. He was cleared eight years later and allowed to return to France. Her younger brother was Abel-François Poisson de Vandières (who would later become the Marquis de Marigny). She was intelligent, beautiful, and educated; she also learned to dance, engrave, play the clavichord and was an accomplished actress and singer. is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Financier (IPA: /ËŒfi nãn ˈsjei/) is an elegant term for a person who handles large sums of money, usually involving money lending, financing projects, large-scale investing, or large-scale money management. ... Charles François Paul Le Normant de Tournehem (1684—1751) was a French financier, a fermier-général, or tax-farmer. ... A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. ... A scandal is a widely publicized incident involving allegations of wrong-doing, disgrace, or moral outrage. ... Abel-François Poisson de Vandières, marquis de Marigny and marquis de Menars, often referred to simply as the Marquis de Marigny (1727, Paris - May 1781, Paris) was a French nobleman who served as the director general of the Kings Buildings. ... Large five-octave unfretted clavichord by Paul Maurici, after J.A. Haas The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. ...


She later claimed that at the age of nine, she was taken to a fortune teller by her mother and told that she would someday reign over the heart of a king. Apparently her mother believed the prophecy and accordingly nicknamed her "Reinette". She spent a year in a convent upon the wish of her father to be exposed to the Roman Catholic religion. Then her education at home resumed, and she learned to recite entire plays by heart, learned about botany, learned to paint, charm men, and to effectively run a household. Much of this education was paid for by Le Normant de Tournehem, a close friend of her mother's and it may have been this in particular that sparked rumours of his paternity to little Jeanne-Antoinette. The greatest expense of her education was undoubtedly the employment of famous singers and actors, such as Pierre Jelyotte.


Her parents initially found it hard to make her a good match, probably due to their own notoriety rather than any defect in their daughter for besides her father's exile, her mother was a well-known femme galante.


Marriage

At last, she was married in 1741 (at the age of 19) to Charles-Guillaume Le Normant d'Étiolles, nephew of her guardian, who accepted the match and the large financial incentives that came with it. These included the estate at Étoilles, a wedding gift from her guardian, which was situated on the edge of the royal hunting ground of the forest of Sénart. With her husband, she had two children, a boy who died the year after his birth in 1741 and Alexandrine-Jeanne (nicknamed "Fanfan"), born August 10, 1744. Contemporary opinion supported by artwork from the time considered Poisson to be quite beautiful, with her small mouth and oval face enlivened by her wit. Her young husband was soon infatuated with her and she was celebrated in the fashionable world of Paris. She founded her own salon, at Étoilles outside Paris, and the great philosophes, Voltaire among them, soon circled her flame. // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Charles-Guillaume Le Normant dÉtiolles (8 May 1717 - 18 March 1799) is best known as being the husband of Madame de Pompadour or Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, the illustrious mistress of King Louis XV of France. ... Alexandrine-Jeanne dÉtiolles, also called Alexandrine Le Normant dÉtoilles, was born on August 10, 1744, during the Scenes of Metz. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ...

Mme de Pompadour, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour, shown at the Paris Salon, 1755 (Louvre Museum)
Mme de Pompadour, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour, shown at the Paris Salon, 1755 (Louvre Museum)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (648x768, 162 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (648x768, 162 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Self-portrait, 1751, pastel on paper Maurice Quentin de La Tour (1704-1788) was a French portrait painter of the Rococo style, who worked primarily with pastels. ... Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ...

Versailles

As Reinette became known in society, even the King came to hear of her. Madame Poisson, ever ambitious for the prophecy to succeed, numerous times took Reinette in their carriage to the royal forest in the hope of 'accidentally' encountering the King. At last, Reinette caught the eye of King Louis XV in 1745. A group of courtiers, including her father-in-law, promoted her acquaintance with the monarch, who was still mourning the death of his second official mistress, Duchesse de Châteauroux. In February 1745, Antoinette was invited to a royal masked ball at Versailles celebrating the marriage of the King's son. Louis XV King of France and Navarre Louis XV (February 15, 1710 - May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was king of France from 1715 to 1774. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Marie-Anne de Mailly-Nesle duchesse de Châteauroux (October 5, 1717 – December 8, 1744) was a mistress of Louis XV of France, and the youngest of four sisters who served as courtesans in the royal court of France. ...


At the chosen moment in the Grand Ballroom, eight costumed figures appeared, comically dressed as yew-tree hedges, one of which was the King in disguise. By chance or design, Reinette dressed as Diana, goddess of the Hunt, had found her prey and soon the King removed his headdress and engaged her in courtly conversation. By March, she was a regular visitor and King's mistress, installed at Versailles. Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ...


He also bought her the estate of Pompadour, a marquisate with title and coat-of-arms, for in order to be presented at court she required a title. In July, Louis created her a marquise and she was legally separated from her crestfallen husband; on September 14 she was formally presented at court, and quickly mastered the highly-mannered court etiquette, although initially it is said the king joked to his close friends that he would have much to teach her (clearly referring to her bourgeois roots). Unfortunately her mother had died too early to see the prophecy come true but come true it had and at 23 she was undisputed royal mistress, commanding considerable power and the attention of the court. She was soon to become embroiled in the world of alliances, conspiracies, politics, and frivolity. A marquise is a French noblewoman ranking above a countess and below a duchess, and is usually the wife of a marquis. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Political role

Contrary to popular belief, she never had much direct political influence, but supported the Maréchal de Belle-Isle and endorsed the Duke of Choiseul to the king. However, she did wield considerable power and control behind the scenes, which was highlighted when another of the king's mistresses, Marie-Louise O'Murphy, attempted to replace her around 1754. The younger, less experienced O'Murphy was arranged to be married off to a lesser noble and out of the royal court's inner circle. Étiennte-François, duc de Choiseul, French diplomat and statesman Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul (June 28, 1719 — May 8, 1785) was a French statesman. ... Louise OMurphy by Francois Boucher c. ...


She had many enemies among the royal courtiers, who felt it a disgrace that the king would thus compromise himself with a commoner. She was very sensitive to the unending libels called poissonnades, a word meaning something like "fish stew", a pun on her family name, Poisson, which means "fish" in French. Only with great reluctance did Louis take punitive action against known enemies such as the Duc de Richelieu. Louis François Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (March 13, 1696 - August 8, 1788) was a marshal of France and a grandnephew of Cardinal Richelieu. ...


Her importance was such that she was even approached in 1755 by Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz, a prominent Austrian diplomat, asking her to intervene in the negotiations which led to the 1756 Treaty of Versailles. This was the beginning of the so-called Diplomatic Revolution, which temporarily lessened the long antagonism between France and Austria. This alliance eventually brought on the Seven Years' War, with all its disasters, like the loss of New France in Canada to the British and the defeat at the hands of the Prussians in Battle of Rossbach, in 1757. After Rossbach, she is alleged to have comforted the king saying this now famous by-word: "au reste, après nous, le déluge" ("After us, the Deluge"). France emerged from the war diminished and virtually bankrupt. Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz (Count Anton von Kaunitz), (Václav Antonín hrabě Kounic-Rietberg) (February 2, 1711 - June 27, 1794), born into old Bohemian noble family settled in Moravia, was an Austrian statesman. ... The Diplomatic Revolution refers to the alliances formed in 1756 as a result of the outbreak of the Seven Years War. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Combatants Prussia France Holy Roman / Austrian Empire Commanders Frederick II Charles, prince de Soubise Joseph Frederick William, duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen Strength 22,000 79 guns 42,000 45 guns Casualties 169 dead, 379 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded 5,000 captured The Battle of Rossbach (November 5, 1757... Noah or Nóach (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ Nóaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew × Ö¹×—Ö· Nōªḥ; Arabic نوح Nūḥ), son of Lamech and the grandson of Methuselah, built an ark to save his family and a selection of the worlds animals from the Deluge. ...


However, Pompadour persisted in her support of these policies, and when Cardinal de Bernis failed her, brought Choiseul into office and supported him in all his great plans: the Pacte de Famille, the suppression of the Jesuits and the peace of Versailles, sealing the loss of Canada. The Pacte de Famille (Family Compact in English) is one of two seperate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


Position at court

Madame de Pompadour was an accomplished woman with a good eye for Rococo interiors. She was responsible for the development of the manufactory of Sèvres, which became one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers in Europe and which provided skilled jobs to the region. She had a keen interest in literature. She had known Voltaire before her ascendancy, and the playwright apparently advised her in her courtly role. She also discreetly endorsed Diderot's Encyclopédie project. After the War of the Austrian Succession, when economy was the thing the French state needed most, she drew more and more resources into the lavish court. Her influence over Louis increased markedly through the 1750s, to the point where he allowed her considerable leeway in the determination of policy over a whole range of issues, from military matters to foreign affairs. A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... This article is about the 18th-century French encyclopaedia. ... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles...

Her memorial portrait finished in 1764 after her death, but begun while she was alive, by her favorite portraitist, François-Hubert Drouais
Her memorial portrait finished in 1764 after her death, but begun while she was alive, by her favorite portraitist, François-Hubert Drouais

Pompadour was a woman of verve and intelligence. She planned buildings like the Place de la Concorde and the Petit Trianon with her brother, the Marquis de Marigny. She employed the stylish marchands-merciers, trendsetting shopkeepers who turned Chinese vases into ewers with gilt-bronze Rococo handles and mounted writing tables with the new Sèvres porcelain plaques. Numerous other artisans, sculptors and portrait painters were employed, among them the court artist Jean-Marc Nattier, in the 1750s Francois Boucher, Jean-Baptiste Réveillon and Francois-Hubert Drouais (illustration, right). Download high resolution version (853x1202, 143 KB)Mme de Pompadour, François-Hubert Drouais 1763-64 (National Gallery, London) a memorial portrait, part from life, finished after her death The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in... Download high resolution version (853x1202, 143 KB)Mme de Pompadour, François-Hubert Drouais 1763-64 (National Gallery, London) a memorial portrait, part from life, finished after her death The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in... Francois-Hubert Drouais (Paris, December 14, 1727 – Paris, October 21, 1775) was a French painter and Jean-Germain Drouaiss father. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... The Petit Trianon, Versailles The Petit Trianon, situated at a short distance from the Grand Trianon in Versailles, France, was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel by order of Louis XV for his long-term mistress, Madame de Pompadour, and was constructed between 1762-1768. ... Abel-François Poisson de Vandières, marquis de Marigny and marquis de Menars, often referred to simply as the Marquis de Marigny (1727, Paris - May 1781, Paris) was a French nobleman who served as the director general of the Kings Buildings. ... Road to Sèvres, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, 1855-1865. ... Battle of Lesnaya by Jean-Marc Nattier, 1717 Thalia Jean-Marc Nattier (1685 - 1766), French painter, was born in Paris, the son of Marc Nattier, a portrait painter, and of Marie Courtois, a miniaturist. ... Rinaldo and Armida gained Bouchers admission to the Académie royale François Boucher (1703 in Bordeaux - May 30, 1770) was a French painter, a proponent of Rococo taste, known for his idyllic and voluptuous paintings on classical themes, decorative allegories representing the arts or pastoral occupations, and several... Jean-Baptiste Réveillon, (Paris, 1725 - Paris, 1811) was a French wallpaper manufacturer. ... Francois-Hubert Drouais (Paris, December 14, 1727 – Paris, October 21, 1775) was a French painter and Jean-Germain Drouaiss father. ...


Pompadour suffered two miscarriages in 1746 and 1749, and she is said to have arranged lesser mistresses for the King's pleasure to replace herself. Although they did not sleep together after 1750, Louis XV remained devoted to her until her death in 1764 at the age of 43. Even her enemies admired her courage during the final painful weeks. Voltaire wrote: "I am very sad at the death of Madame de Pompadour. I was indebted to her and I mourn her out of gratitude. It seems absurd that while an ancient penpusher, hardly able to walk, should still be alive, a beautiful woman, in the midst of a splendid career, should die at the age of forty'. Yet, at the time of her death, many enemies were greatly relieved and she was publicly blamed for the Seven Years' War. Looking at the rain during the leaving of his mistress' coffin from Versailles, the King reportedly said: "La Marquise n'aura pas beau temps pour son voyage." ("The marquise won't have good weather for her journey."). Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... For the 1563–1570 war, see Northern Seven Years War. ...


In popular culture

  • The 56th (West Essex) Regiment of Foot, a unit of the British Army that existed from 1755 to 1881, was nicknamed "The Pompadours", as the purple facing of the regiment's uniform was allegedly de Pompadour's favourite colour.[1] Some soldiers of the regiment preferred to claim that it was the colour of her underwear.[1] Its successor, the Essex Regiment, kept the colour and the nickname.
  • The classic pink of Sèvres porcelain is rose de Pompadour.
  • The Pompadour haircut is named after her.
  • "Pompadour heels", (more commonly known as "Louis heels") are named after her.
  • The "Coupe de champagne" (French champagne glass) is sometimes claimed to have been modelled on the shape of her breast, although this is probably not the case.[2]
  • Madame de Pompadour has been depicted on screen in film and television on many occasions, beginning with Madame Pompadour in 1927, in which she was played by Dorothy Gish. Other actresses to have played her include:
    • Anny Ahlers (Die Marquise von Pompadour, 1931);
    • Jeanne Boitell, (Remontons les Champs-Élyssées, 1938);
    • Micheline Presle, (Si Versailles m'était conté, 1954);
    • Monique Lepage, (Le Courrier du roy, 1958);
    • Elfie Mayerhofer (Madame Pompadour, 1960);
    • Noemi Nadelmann (Madame Pompadour, 1996);
    • Katja Flint, (Il Giovane Casanova, 2002);
    • Sophia Myles (as adult) and Jessica Atkins (as child) (Doctor Who — "The Girl in the Fireplace", a science fiction story, 2006). She is a primary and titular character in the episode.[3]
    • Hélène de Fougerolles (Jeanne Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour, 2006).
  • Madame Pompadour, a German operetta with music by Leo Fall and book and lyrics by Rudolph Schanzer and Ernst Welisch that also had successful adaptations in London (1923) and Broadway (1924).
  • She was the subject of several portraits throughout her lifetime. [1] [2] [3]
  • Madame Pompadour is the name of PeeWee's rag doll in the Robert A. Heinlein juvenile novel Have Space Suit—Will Travel.
  • In My Name is Kim Sam Soon, the title character presents an ice cream confection named the "Marquise Glacée" in honor of Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour.
  • During the musical Evita by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice, she is mentioned by an Argentine senator, comparing Eva Perón to her.
  • In the anime "Le Chevalier D'Eon" she is used as a character that monitors the movements of D'eon and his men against the Revolutionary brethren.
  • Domaine Carneros, located in Napa, CA, makes a brut Rosé de la Pompadour in honor of the mistress and her contributions to literature and the arts.
  • According to legend, the navette-cut or marquis diamond was commissioned by Louis XV to resemble the mouth of Madame de Pompadour.
  • The skeleton held within the inner sanctum of the Tomb at Yale University's Skull & Bones senior society is nicknamed after her.[4]

The 56th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment in the British Army from 1755 to 1881. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... A pair of mens briefs Undergarments, also called underwear or sometimes intimate clothing, are clothes worn next to the skin, usually under other clothes. ... The Essex Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... A stone grinder for turning quartz, feldspar, kaolin and other stones into fine powder for making ceramic paste Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Manufacture nationale de Sèvres The Manufacture nationale de Sèvres is a porcelain factory located in Sèvres, France. ... A man wearing a pompadour hairstyle Pompadour is a style of haircut which takes its name from Madame de Pompadour. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into high-heeled shoe. ... The champagne coupe is a stemware saucer-shaped glass used for champagne and some cocktails. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Dorothy Gish photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1932 Dorothy Gish (March 11, 1898 - June 4, 1968) was an American actress. ... Micheline Presle, 1968 Micheline Presle (born August 22, 1922) in Paris, France is an actress also known in English language films as Micheline Prelle. ... Katja Flint (born November 11, 1960 in Stadthagen, Germany) is a German actress. ... Sophia Myles (IPA: ) (born March 18, 1980) is an English film and television actress. ... This article is about the television series. ... The Girl in the Fireplace is an episode in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Hélène de Fougerolles (born February 25, 1973) is a French actress. ... Madame Pompadour is an operetta in three acts, composed by Leo Fall with a libretto by Rudolf Schanzer and Ernst Welisch. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Have Space Suit—Will Travel is a juvenile science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, originally serialised in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (August, September, October 1958) and published by Scribners in hardcover in 1958 as the last of the Heinlein juveniles. ... My Name is Kim Sam Soon or Nae I-reum-eun Kim Sam-soon (Korean: 내 이름은 김삼순, Hanja: - 金三順) is a Korean drama series which was aired on MBC TV from June 1, 2005 to July 21, 2005. ... For other uses, see Evita (disambiguation). ... Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is a highly successful English composer of musical theatre, and also the elder brother of cellist Julian Lloyd Webber. ... Sir Timothy Miles Bindon Rice (born 10 November 1944) is an English Academy Award, Golden Globe Award, Tony Award and Grammy Award winning lyricist, author, radio presenter and television gameshow panelist. ... For other uses, see Evita. ... This article is about the anime series based on a historical figure. ...

See also

This page contains a listing of notable French royal mistresses. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Holmes, Richard (2002). Redcoat (paperback), London: HarperCollins, p. 43. ISBN 0-00-653152-0. 
  2. ^ Adams, Cecil. "Were champagne glasses modeled on the breasts of Madame de Pompadour?", Straight Dope, 1985-09-27. Retrieved on 2007-05-06. 
  3. ^ Pixley, Andrew (2006-11-06, cover date). "Episode 4: The Girl in the Fireplace". Doctor Who Magazine — Series Two Companion (Special Edition 14): pp. 44–50. 

Edward Richard Holmes CBE TD JP (born March 29, 1946), known as Richard Holmes, is a British soldier and noted military historian, particularly well-known through his many television appearances. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Cecil Adams is a name, generally assumed to be a pseudonym, which designates the unknown author or authors of The Straight Dope, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader since 1973. ... The Straight Dope is a popular question and answer newspaper column published in the Chicago Reader (an alternative weekly), syndicated in thirty newspapers in the United States and Canada, and available online. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Doctor Who Magazine (abbreviated as DWM) is a magazine devoted to the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ...

External links

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Madame de Pompadour
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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Madame de Pompadour - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (950 words)
Madame de Pompadour, (1721 – April 15, 1764) was a well known courtesan and the famous mistress of King Louis XV of France.
Madame de Pompadour was born Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson in 1721 in Paris.
Pompadour suffered two miscarriages in the 1750s, and she is said to have arranged lesser mistresses for the king's pleasure to replace herself.
Madame de Pompadour (1904 words)
Madame de Pompadour is one female whose contributions and authority in France have distinguished her as a historical figure.
Madame de Pompadour, the mistress and friend of the king, is briefly identified but sheds little detail on her role in history.
Madame de Pompadour is described as having an important role in foreign affairs, like the negotiations that led up to the reversal of alliances in 1756.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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