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Encyclopedia > Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu

Trần Lệ Xuân (born 1924 in Hanoi, Vietnam), popularly known as Madame Nhu but more properly Madame Ngô Đình Nhu, was considered the First Lady of South Vietnam from 1955 to 1963. Since her brother-in-law President Ngo Dinh Diem was a bachelor, she was considered to be the First Lady and lived with her husband Ngo Dinh Nhu, Diem's chief adviser, in the Independence Palace. Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... This article is about the use of the term first lady internationally. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... President is a title held by many leaders of nothing, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... Ngô Ðình Nhu Ngô Ðình Nhu  , born in Vietnam, was the younger brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnams first President, Ngô Ðình Diệm. ... Reunification Palace Reunification Palace (Vietnamese: Dinh Thống Nhất) formerly known as Independence Palace (Dinh Độc Lập) or Norodom Palace, is a historic landmark in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. ...

Madame Nhu (l) and US Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, May 1961.
Madame Nhu (l) and US Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, May 1961.

Contents

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Early years

Trần Lệ Xuân was born into a wealthy aristocratic family in Hanoi.[1] Her paternal grandfather was close to the French colonial administration, while her father, Tran Van Chuong, studied law in France,[2] before marrying into the ruling imperial dynasty. Her mother, Tran Than Trong Nam, was a granddaughter of Emperor Dong Khanh and a cousin of Emperor Bao Dai.[3] Madame Nhu's mother was widely reputed to have had a series of lovers, among them her future son-in-law Ngo Dinh Nhu. Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Tran Van Chuong was born in Vietnam. ... Emperor Đồng Khánh (同慶帝; [unknown] - 1889) was the 9th Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty of Vietnam. ... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Ngô Ðình Nhu Ngô Ðình Nhu  , born in Vietnam, was the younger brother and chief political advisor of South Vietnams first President, Ngô Ðình Diệm. ...


A mediocre student, Madame Nhu dropped out of Lycée Albert Sarraut, a prestigious French school. She spoke French at home and could not write in Vietnamese; as an adult, she drafted her speeches in French and had them translated into Vietnamese.[2] She gained a reputation in her youth as a tomboy who loved ballet and piano, once dancing solo at Hanoi's National Theatre.[4] She had an older sister and a younger brother and was known for beating him up in their childhood.[5]


When she became an adult, her mother introduced her to a series of eligible young men, but she insisted on Nhu.[6] He was twice her age and referred to her as "little niece" in accordance with Vietnamese custom.[6] In 1943, she married Nhu and converted from Mahayana Buddhism to Roman Catholicism, her husband's religion. After an uprising by the Vietminh in December 1946, her brother-in-law Ngo Dinh Khoi was buried alive, and Nhu and another brother, Ngo Dinh Can, were forced to flee. Madame Nhu, her mother-in-law and her eldest daughter, at the time a baby, were captured. Thinking that her piano was a radio for communicating with French colonialists, the Vietminh blew it up and then exiled her to a remote village for four months, where she was forced to live on two bowls of rice a day.[4] The French dismissed Nhu from his post at the National Library due to Diem’s nationalist activities, and he moved to Da Lat and lived comfortably, editing a newspaper, where his wife bore three more children.[2] Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Ngô Ðình Khôi was a brother of Ngô Ðình Diệm. ... This is a Vietnamese name; the family name is Ngô Cẩn Ngô Đình Cẩn (1911–1964) was a younger brother, confidant and subordinate of South Vietnams first president Ngô Đình Diệm and an important member of his government. ... Dalat ((pop. ...


Rise to power

Madame Nhu's brother-in-law, Diệm, had been appointed Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam by her distant cousin, Emperor Bao Dai, after the French had been defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. At the start of 1955, French Indochina was dissolved, leaving Diem in temporary control of the south.[7] The 1955 South Vietnamese election was a referendum held to determine the future leadership of the nation that was to become Republic of Vietnam. ... Motto: None Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon First Chief Emperor Bao Dai Last Chief Ngo Dinh Diem Rule Area South Vietnam (1954-) Independence  - Provisional  - Declared  - Recognised  - Dissolved From Franch rule May 27, 1948 June 14, 1949 1954 October 26, 1955 Currency Piastre National anthem Call to the Citizens Caution: The... Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency...


A referendum was scheduled for October 23, 1955 to determine the future direction of the south. It was contested by Bao Dai, the Emperor, advocating the restoration of the monarchy, while Diem ran on a republican platform. The elections were held, with Nhu and the family's Can Lao-Nhan Vi Party, which supplied Diem's electoral base, organising and supervising the elections.[8][9] Campaigning for Bao Dai was prohibited, and the result was rigged, with Bao Dai's supporters attacked by Nhu's workers. Diem recorded 98.2% of the vote, including 605,025 votes in Saigon, where only 450,000 voters were registered. Diem's tally also exceeded the registration numbers in other districts.[10][8] Emperor Bao Dai Bảo Đại (保大帝、22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the last Emperor of Vietnam, the 13th and last Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty. ...


Post-elections

After the election, the couple moved into the Presidential Palace. Madame Nhu was influential on government policy and, since her brother-in-law Ngô Đình Diệm was unmarried, was regarded as the "First Lady" of Vietnam. Madame Nhu attempted to combine Catholicism with herself as a modern reincarnation of Vietnam's fabled Trưng Sisters, who temporarily defeated the invading Han Dynasty Chinese troops in AD 40.[2] In 1962, she had a statue erected in Saigon to the memory of the Trưng Sisters, with the facial features modelled on herself, and also established the "Women's Solidarity Movement," a female paramilitary organization. Under the nepotistic regime, her father became the ambassador to the United States while her mother, a former beauty queen,[2] was South Vietnam's observer at United Nations. Two of her uncles were cabinet ministers.[11] Madame Nhu's parents resigned their posts in 1963, in protest over the treatment of Buddhists under the regime of President Diem.[12] This article is about the use of the term first lady internationally. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... A beauty contest, or beauty pageant, is a competition between people, based largely, though not always entirely, on the beauty of their physical appearance. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Advocacy

During her brother-in-law's presidency Madame Nhu pushed for the passing of 'morality laws'. These included such things as outlawing abortion, adultery, divorce, contraceptives, dance halls, beauty pageants, boxing matches, and animal fighting, and closed down the brothels and opium dens. Many people did not appreciate the imposition of Madame Nhu's values on their lives. She was also widely mocked by the public who regarded her as hypocritical, with older Vietnamese believing her décolleté gowns to be sexually suggestive, as well as widespread rumours of her own infidelity.[2] Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behaviour) has three principal meanings. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... A beauty contest, or beauty pageant, is a competition between people, based largely, though not always entirely, on the beauty of their physical appearance. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution, providing the prostitutes a place to meet and to have sex with the clients. ... This article is about the drug. ...


Her family also received further scorn since her sister, Le Chi, had a French lover, and critics alleged that Madame Nhu introduced the laws so that her sister's husband could not get a divorce. Since he was extremely wealthy, the Ngo family would have lost highly valuable assets. In addition, her brother Khiem used the government connections to bilk rich entrepreneurs.[2]


Diem had stated before becoming President: "The history of China bears witness to the grave crises brought on by the empresses and their relatives". In Madame Nhu, Diem had a first lady who was a part of the period of decay leading up to his downfall.[2] According to A. J. Langguth, she exerted influence with her fiery attitude, often abusing Diem and Nhu, who bowed to her angry tirades. Madame Nhu was sometimes called the "Dragon Lady".[13] She had a message to Diem opponents, noting that "We will track down, neutralize and extirpate all these scabby sheep."[14] The U-2 is a single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude reconnaissance airplane flown by the United States Air Force. ...


Buddhist crisis

She often caused controversy because of her strong anti-Buddhist, pro-Catholic ideology. When she heard that Diem was to sign a statement offering compensation to the families of Buddhist protestors shot by the police of his brother Ngo Dinh Can, Madame Nhu was reported to have thrown a bowl of soup at him.[15] Notably she mocked the protest by Thích Quảng Đức, who performed a self-immolation in a crowded Saigon street in response to the shooting of Buddhists by Diem's regime. Madame Nhu called it a "barbecue" and stating "let them burn and we shall clap our hands".[16] Her parents disowned her because of her role in the persecution of Buddhists, with her father resigning as ambassador to the United States and criticising her brother-in-law's regime.[17] This occurred after special forces loyal to Nhu raided the Xa Loi Pagoda in Saigon in August. The pagoda was vandalised, monks beaten, the cremated remains of Thích Quảng Đức, which included a heart which had not disintegrated, were confiscated.[18] Simultaneous raids were carried out across the country, with the Tu Dam Pagoda in Huế being looted, the statue of Gautama Buddha demolished, and a body of a deceased monk stolen.[19] When the populace came to the defence of the monks, the resulting clashes saw 30 civilians killed and 200 wounded.[20] Through her paramilitary organisation, Madame Nhu claimed that the Buddhists were "controlled by communism" and that they were manipulated by the Americans, calling on Diem to "expel all foreign agitators whether they wear monks' robes of not".[21] When William Trueheart warned that aid might be withheld if the repression orchestrated by the Nhus continued, Madame Nhu denounced it as "blackmail". Nhu and Diem, fearing a cut in aid, sent Madame Nhu to the United States on a speaking tour. She denounced American liberals as "worse than communists" and Buddhists as "hooligans in robes". Her father did not share the same beliefs and followed her around the country, denouncing the "injustice and oppression" and stating that his daughter had "become unwittingly the greatest asset to the communists." Madame Nhu also defiantly predicted that Buddhism would become extinct in Vietnam.[22] This is a Vietnamese name; the family name is Ngô Cẩn Ngô Đình Cẩn (1911–1964) was a younger brother, confidant and subordinate of South Vietnams first president Ngô Đình Diệm and an important member of his government. ...   (born Lâm Văn Tức in 1897 – June 11, 1963) was a Vietnamese Buddhist monk who burned himself to death at a busy Saigon intersection on June 11, 1963. ... Thích Quảng Đức pictured during his self-immolation. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... The Xa Loi Pagoda raids were a series of synchronised attacks on the Buddhist pagodas in South Vietnam shortly after midnight on August 21, 1963. ...   (born Lâm Văn Tức in 1897 – June 11, 1963) was a Vietnamese Buddhist monk who burned himself to death at a busy Saigon intersection on June 11, 1963. ... Huế (化 in Vietnamese Chữ nôm, 順化 in Chinese characters) is the former modern capital of Vietnam. ... Image:StandngBuddha. ...


In the wake of the tumultuous events, Madame Nhu appeared on NBC-TV's "Meet the Press" on 13 October 1963, defending her actions and those of the South Vietnamese government. "I don't know why you Americans dislike us," she said. "Is it because the world is under a spell called liberalism? Your own public, here in America, is not as anti-Communistic as ours is in Vietnam. Americans talk about my husband and I leaving our native land permanently. Why should we do this? Where would we go? is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


To say that 70 percent of my country's population is Buddhistic is absolutely true. [See the next paragraph: True or False?]


My father, who was our Ambassador to the United States until two months ago, has been against me since my childhood."


True or False?

http://www.giaodiem.com/mluc/mluc_IV05/1105_hvy_hess.htm


Madame Nhu is reported to have said 'To say that 70 percent of my country's population is Buddhistic is absolutely false.'


Downfall

On November 1, 1963 her brother-in-law, President Ngô Đình Diệm, and her husband, Ngô Đình Nhu, were assassinated in a coup d'état led by General Dương Văn Minh with the understanding that the United States would not intervene. At the time of the assassinations, Madame Nhu had been in Beverly Hills, California since October, with her daughter Ngô Le Thuy.[23] When she learned of the coup d'état, she immediately suspected the United States, saying "Whoever has the Americans as allies does not need enemies." She went on to predict a bleak future for Vietnam and said that, by being involved in the coup, the troubles of the United States in Vietnam were just beginning.[23] is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... DÆ°Æ¡ng Văn Minh (February 16, 1916 – August 6, 2001), known popularly as Big Minh, led the South Vietnamese army under Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem. ... “Beverly Hills” redirects here. ... Ngo Dinh Le Thuy (Ngô Đình Lệ Thủy) was the daughter of South Vietnams First lady Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu and Ngo Dinh Nhu, the National Secret Police Chief. ...


Life in Exile

The military government of Vietnam under General Dương Văn Minh confiscated all of the property in Saigon that belonged to Madame Nhu and her family, and she was not allowed to return to South Vietnam. She went to Rome briefly before moving permanently to France with her children. Her daughter Le Thuy died in 1967, at age 22, in an automobile accident in Longjumeau, France.[1] Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


In 1964, she attempted to get a visa to re-enter South Vietnam on security grounds from the United States Department of State, but it was denied. Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... “Department of State” redirects here. ...


On October 16, 1971, Madame Nhu was robbed of more than $132,000 worth of jewelry in Rome, Italy, which reported by the New York Times.[2] [3] is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


On November 2, 1986, Madame Nhu charged the United States for hounding her family during the arrest of her younger brother, Tran Van Khiem, who was charged in the strangling deaths of their parents, Tran Van Chuong and Nam Tran Chuong in their Washington D.C. home.[4] is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Tran Van Chuong was born in Vietnam. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


In the 1990s, the former first lady of South Vietnam was reportedly living on the French Riviera and charging the press for interviews. She has been listed in biographical publications as recently as 2001. Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Quai des États-Unis in Nice on the French Riviera at night. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Influence on Vietnamese fashion

In the early 1960s, Madame Nhu popularized a tight-fitting version of the traditional Áo dài (long dress) that was considered controversial in its day, due to its tight fit and low-cut neckline. According to a scholar of Vietnamese visual arts, "To foreigners, this collar made sense, given the tropical conditions, but conservatives saw it as too suggestive for Vietnamese women."[5] World Leaders attending the APEC 2006 Summit in Hanoi dressed in áo dài. ...


Quotes

Referring to the practice of self-immolation of Buddhist monks:

  • "If one has no courage to denounce, if one bows to madness and stupidity, how can one ever hope to cope with the other wrongs of humanity exploited in the same fashion by Communists?"[24]
  • "I may shock some by saying 'I would beat such provocateurs ten times more if they wore monks robes,' and 'I would clap hands at seeing another monk barbecue show, for one can not be responsible for the madness of others.'"[25]
  • "Whoever has the Americans as allies does not need enemies."[26]
  • "Let them burn and we shall clap our hands."[16]

Speculating on US involvement in the assassinations of her husband and brother-in-law:

  • "I cannot stay in a country whose government stabbed me in the back. I believe all the devils in hell are against us."[26]
  • "My family has been treacherously killed with either official or unofficial blessing of the American Government, I can predict to you now that the story is only at its beginning."[23]
  • "Judas has sold the Christ for 30 pieces of silver. The Ngo brothers have been sold for a few dollars."[23]

References

  1. ^ Robert Trumbull, "First Lady of Vietnam", The New York Times, 18 November 1962, page SM33
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Karnow (1997) p.280-284
  3. ^ http://www.4dw.net/royalark/Vietnam/annam9.htm
  4. ^ a b Jones, p.117-119
  5. ^ Warner, p.93
  6. ^ a b Prochnau, p.122-123
  7. ^ Maclear (1981) pp.65-68
  8. ^ a b Karnow (1997) p239
  9. ^ Langguth (2000) p.99
  10. ^ Jacobs (2006) p95
  11. ^ Tucker (2000) pp. 293.
  12. ^ The couple were found strangled to death in Washington, D.C. in 1986, killed by their only son, Tran Van Khiem, after he was cut from his parents' will, according to "Change in Will Linked to Saigon Aide's Death", The New York Times, 8 August 1986
  13. ^ Langguth, pp.109-111
  14. ^ Joan or Lucrezia TIME Magazine - Mar. 23, 1962
  15. ^ Langguth, p.216
  16. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  17. ^ Karnow, p.301
  18. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,940704-1,00.html
  19. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,940704-2,00.html
  20. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,940704-2,00.html
  21. ^ Jacobs, p.146
  22. ^ Karnow (1997) p.296-320
  23. ^ a b c d Jones, p.433
  24. ^ "Letters to the Times: Mrs. Nhu Defends Stand", The New York Times, 14 August 1963
  25. ^ "Letters to the Times: Mrs. Nhu Defends Stand", The New York Times, 14 August 1963
  26. ^ a b Jones, p.423

For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

See also

  • Tran Van Chuong - Her father served as South Vietnam's Ambassador to the United States

Tran Van Chuong was born in Vietnam. ...

External links

  • Madame Ngô Đình Nhu, sister-in-law of President Diệm audio of her speech also available
  • Madame Nhu, Sounds, Images & Videos The wife of the Chief of Secret Police Ngô Đình Nhu gives a startling response to the spectacle of Buddhist monks setting fire to themselves to protest the Diem government in 1963.
Preceded by:
Empress Nam Phuong
First Ladies of South Vietnam Succeeded by:
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu Summary (1297 words)
Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu, a notorious and feared member of South Vietnam's presidential family (1955–1963), was born Tran Le Xuan in 1924 to a wealthy family that served the French colonial administration.
Madame Nhu attempted to combine Catholicism with herself as a modern reincarnation of Vietnam's fabled Trưng Sisters, who temporarily defeated the invading Han Dynasty Chinese troops in AD In 1962, she had a statue erected in Saigon to the memory of the Trưng Sisters and also established the "Women's Solidarity Movement," a female paramilitary organization.
Madame Nhu was said to be called the "Dragon Lady" because she said she would "clap hands at seeing another monk barbecue show." (She was referring to Thích Quảng Đức, who poured flammable liquids over himself and meditated calmly while burning himself to death).
Ngo Dinh Nhu (65 words)
Younger brother and chief political advisor of Ngo Dinh Diem.
Ngo Dinh Nhu ran his brother's regime of secret political movements, the Can Lao.
Nhu's wife, Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu[?] or "Madame Nhu", was also influential on government policy and, since her brother-in-law leader was unmarried, was regarded as the "First Lady" of Vietnam.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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