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Encyclopedia > Macron
 Ā ā Ē ē Ḡ ḡ Ī ī Ḹ ḹ Ō ō Ṝ ṝ Ū ū Ǖ ǖ Ȳ ȳ
Diacritical marks

accent
A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...

acute accent ( ˊ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ˋ )

breve ( ˘ )
caron / háček ( ˇ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ˆ )
diaeresis / umlaut ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The double acute accent ( Ë ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The circumflex ( Ë† ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot (Â·), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ...

anunaasika ( ˙ )
anusvara (  ̣ )
chandrabindu (   ँ   ঁ   ઁ   ଁ ఁ )

hook / dấu hỏi (  ̉ )
horn / dấu móc
macron ( ˉ )
ogonek ( ˛ )
ring / kroužek ( ˚ )
rough breathing / spiritus asper (  ῾ )
smooth breathing / spiritus lenis (  ᾿ )
Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( &#2350;&#2305; ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with anunaasika. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ... Ogonek (Polish for little tail, the diminutive of ogon; the Lithuanian equivalent is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian (Ä…, Ä™, Ä¯, Å³), Creek, Navajo and Western Apache (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, Ä™Ä™, Ä¯, Ä¯Ä¯, , ), Chiricahua and Mescalero (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, Ä™Ä™, Ä¯, Ä¯Ä¯, Å³, Å³Å³), Tutchone and... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark &#730; (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, &#948;&#945;&#963;&#973;) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilÃ³n, ÏˆÎ¹Î»ÏŒÎ½) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ...

Marks sometimes used as diacritics

apostrophe ( )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( ˗ )
tilde ( ˜ )
titlo (  ҃ )
An apostrophe An apostrophe (French, from the Greek Î±Ï€Î¿ÏƒÏ„ÏÎ¿Ï†Î¿Ï‚ Ï€ÏÎ¿ÏƒÏ‰Î´Î¹Î±, the accent of elision) ( â€™ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... The colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A hyphen ( -, or â€ ) is a punctuation mark. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme with several uses. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...

A macron, from Greek μακρός (makros) meaning "large", is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. The opposite is a breve ˘, used to indicate a short vowel. These distinctions are usually phonemic. A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...

## Length

The following languages or transliteration systems use the macron to mark long vowels: In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ...

• Modern dictionaries of classical Greek and Latin, where the macron is sometimes used in conjunction with the breve, which marks short vowels. However, there is a frequent convention of indicating only (but all) the long vowels: it is then understood that a vowel with no macron is short.
• Hawaiian. The macron is called kahakō, and it indicates vowel length, which changes meaning and the placement of stress.
• The Hepburn romanization system of Japanese. Examples: kōtsū (交通) "traffic" as opposed to kotsu () "bone" or "knack" (fig.) The indigenous Japanese kana transcription of 交通, however, is こうつう, which character for character transliterates as koutsuu. Although not standard, this latter system is arguably the most commonly seen on the Internet, next to not marking vowel length at all.
• Latvian. "Ā", "ē", "ī", "ū" are considered separate letters that sort in alphabetical order immediately after "a", "e", "i", "u" respectively. For instance, baznīca comes before bārda in a Latvian dictionary.
• Lithuanian. "Ū" is considered a separate letter but given the same position in collation as the unaccented "u". It marks a long vowel; other long vowels are indicated with an ogonek (which used to indicate nasalization, but no longer does): "ą", "ę", "į", "ų", "o" being always long in Lithuanian words except for some recent loanwords. For the long counterpart of "i", the letter "y" is used.
• Māori. Early writing in Māori did not distinguish vowel length. Some — notably the late Professor Bruce Biggs[1] — have advocated that double vowels be written to mark long vowel sounds (e.g. Maaori), but even he was more concerned that they be marked at all than with the method. However, the Māori Language Commission (Te Taura Whiri o te Reo Māori) advocate macrons be used to designate long vowels. The use of the macron is now widespread in modern Māori writing, though some people fall back on a diaeresis mark instead (e.g. "Mäori" instead of "Māori") when a macron is not available, and this confuses people who are unfamiliar with either. The Māori words for macron are pōtae "hat", or tohuto.
• Tongan. Called the toloi, its usage is similar to that in Māori, including its substitution by a diaeresis.
• Modern transcriptions of Old English.
• Latin transliteration of Sanskrit.
• Transciptions of Nahuatl (spoken in Mexico). Since Nahuatl (Nāhuatl) (aztec's language) didn't have a writing system, when Spanish conquistadors arrived to Mexico, they wrote the language with their own alphabet without distinction on long vowels. Over a century later in 1645, Horacio Carochi defined macrons to mark long vowels ā, ē, ī and ō as well as short vowels with grave (`) accents. This is rare however nowadays since many people write Nahuatl in the modern way without any ortographic sign and the inclussion of letters /k/, /s/ and /w/, not present in the original alphabet. Some projects however have preferred to use the macron-based writing as can be seen on the Nahuatl Wikipedia.

Note: This article contains special characters. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... Hawaiian is the ancestral language of the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands, the Hawaiians, a Polynesian people. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana ManyÅgana Uses Furigana Okurigana RÅmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japaneseâ€“English dictionary, published... Japanese writing Kanji æ¼¢å­— Kana ä»®å Hiragana å¹³ä»®å Katakana ç‰‡ä»®å Manyogana ä¸‡è‘‰ä»®å Uses Furigana æŒ¯ã‚Šä»®å Okurigana é€ã‚Šä»®å RÅmaji ãƒ­ãƒ¼ãƒžå­— For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... Alphabetical redirects here. ... Ogonek (Polish for little tail, the diminutive of ogon; the Lithuanian equivalent is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian (Ä…, Ä™, Ä¯, Å³), Creek, Navajo and Western Apache (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, Ä™Ä™, Ä¯, Ä¯Ä¯, , ), Chiricahua and Mescalero (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, Ä™Ä™, Ä¯, Ä¯Ä¯, Å³, Å³Å³), Tutchone and... MÄori or Te Reo MÄori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... MÄori or Te Reo MÄori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Horacio Carochi (1586 - 1666) Jesuit priest and grammarian , born in Florence, Italy and died in Mexico. ...

## Tone

The following languages or alphabets use the macron to mark tones: It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ...

• In Pinyin, macrons are used over a, e, i, o, u, ü (ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ǖ) to indicate the first tone of Mandarin Chinese.

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the â€œInternational Phonetic Alphabetâ€. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally speech of officials), or Beifanghua (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Northern Dialect(s)), is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and south-western China. ...

## Other uses

• In the French comic books which are hand-lettered all in capitals, the macron replaces the circumflex.
• In some German handwriting styles, a macron is used to distinguish u from n.
• In older handwriting styles, such as the German schrift, the macron over an m or an n meant that the letter was doubled. This continued into print in English in the sixteenth century. Over a u at the end of a word, the macron indicated um as a form of scribal abbreviation.
• In Russian handwriting, a lowercase Т looks like a lowercase m, and a macron is often used to distinguish it from Ш, which looks like a lowercase w. Some writers also underline the letter ш, to further reduce ambiguity.
• In music, the tenuto marking bears resemblance to the macron

The circumflex ( Ë† ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... Sample of German kurrent handwriting Was iÅ¿t AufklÃ¤rung? AufklÃ¤rung iÅ¿t der Ausgang des MenÅ¿chen aus Å¿einer Å¿elbÅ¿t verÅ¿chuldeten UnmÃ¼ndigkeit. ... Scribal abbreviations were used by medieval scribes writing in Latin. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by a wide variety of Slavic languagesâ€”Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainianâ€”as well as many other languages of the... Te (Ð¢, Ñ‚) is the letter representing the consonant /t/ in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Sha (Ð¨, Ñˆ) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant sound /Êƒ/ or /ÊƒÊ²/. It is equivalent to sh in English, ch in French, sch in German, ÅŸ in Turkish, or sz in Polish. ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... A tenuto marking on an individual note Tenuto (Italian, past participle of tenere to hold) is a direction used in musical notation. ...

## Non-diacritical usage

• In medical prescriptions and other handwritten notes, a macron over a c can mean with, as an abbreviation for the Latin word cum; similarly, a macron over an s can mean without, abbreviating sine, and a macron over a q means every.
• In mathematics, and especially statistics the macron is often used to indicate a mean (e.g $bar{x}$ as the average value of xi).

A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... A graph of a normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... In statistics, mean has two related meanings: Look up mean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

## Technical notes

Pre-composed characters
Upper Case Lower Case
Character HTML Code Character HTML Code
Ā &#256; ā &#257;
Ē &#274; ē &#275;
Ī &#298; ī &#299;
Ō &#332; ō &#333;
Ū &#362; ū &#363;
Ǖ &#469; ǖ &#470;
Ȳ &#562; ȳ &#563;

In Unicode, "combining macron" is one of the combining diacritical marks, its code is U+0304 (in HTML, &#x304; or &#772;). This should be distinguished from the "macron" at U+00AF ¯, from the "modifier letter macron" at U+02C9 ˉ and from the combining overline at U+0305 ̅. There are also several precomposed characters; their HTML/Unicode numbers are as in the table to the right. In LaTeX a macron is created with the command "=" for example: M=aori. Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... Overline is a neologism coined in analogy to underline, referring to the typographical feature of a line drawn immediately above the text, for example used to indicate mediaval sigla. ... Precomposed character is a Unicode entity that can be decomposed into a canonically equivalent string of several other characters. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document markup language and document preparation system for the TeX typesetting program. ...

If the last two rows of the table do not display properly, the row before the last is the letter Uu with diaeresis (Ü ü) and macron, used in pinyin. The final row is the letter Yy with macron, used sometimes in teaching Latin. In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

## References

1. ^ Yearbook of the Academy Council - 2000, Royal Society of New Zealand

### Letters with a macron

Ä€ or Ä, is a letter, representing a vowel, in the Latvian alphabet. ... A macron (from Gr. ...

### Related topics

An Overline or overbar (a neologism coined in analogy to underline), refers to the typographical feature of a line drawn immediately above the text, for example used to indicate medieval sigla. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme with several uses. ... The circumflex ( Ë† ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... Combining macron below (U+0331) is a Unicode combining diacritical mark used in various orthographies, see the precomposed characters á¸‡, á¸, áº–, á¸µ, á¸», á¹‰, á¹Ÿ. Not to be confused are combining minus below (U+0320), combining low line (U+0332) and low line (underscore) _ ). The difference between macron below and low line is that the...

Results from FactBites:

 Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Macron (406 words) In Latvian A-macron, E-macron, I-macron and U-macron are considered separate letters that sort in alphabetical order immediately after A, E, I, U respectively. It is often used in modern Latin dictionaries to mark vowel length, in conjuction with the breve. The final row is the letter Yy with macron, used sometimes in teaching Latin.
 Macron - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (874 words) In pinyin, macrons are used over a, e, i, o, u, ü (ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ǖ) to indicate the first tone of Mandarin Chinese. The macron is often used in modern Latin (and modern old Greek) dictionaries and textbooks to mark long vowels, sometimes in conjunction with the breve, which marks short vowels. In older handwriting styles, such as the German schrift, the macron over an m or an n meant that the letter was doubled.
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