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Encyclopedia > Macro photography
detail macro 1:1 — a macro photograph.
detail macro 1:1 — a macro photograph.

Macro photography refers to close-up photography; the classical definition that the image projected on the "film plane" (i.e film or a digital sensor) is close to the same size as the subject. On 35 mm film (for example), the lens is typically optimized to focus sharply on a small area approaching the size of the film frame. Most 35mm format macro lenses achieve at least 1:2, that is to say, the image on the film is 1/2 the size of the object being photographed. Many 35mm macro lenses are 1:1, meaning the image on the film is the same size as the object being photographed. Another important distinction is that lenses designed for macro are usually at their sharpest at macro focus distances and are not quite as sharp at other focus distances. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution‎ (830 × 616 pixels, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution‎ (830 × 616 pixels, file size: 417 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 135 Film Size, Kodak Tri-X 400 speed 135 (ISO 1007) is a film format for still photography. ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images...


In recent years, the term macro has been used in marketing material to mean being able to focus on a subject close enough so that when a regular 4×6 inch (102×152 mm) print is made, the image is life-size or larger. This requires a magnification ratio of only approximately 1:4, more easily attainable by lens makers. An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

Contents

Equipment

Vivitar Series 1 macro lens
Vivitar Series 1 macro lens
Extension tubes for SLRs
Extension tubes for SLRs
Bellows attached to an SLR and reversed lens
Bellows attached to an SLR and reversed lens

There are several kinds of equipment for making the image the required size. These include Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x933, 483 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Macro photography Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x933, 483 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Macro photography Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1322x900, 259 KB) Extension tubes for SLR camera lenses. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1322x900, 259 KB) Extension tubes for SLR camera lenses. ... This article is about SLR cameras in general. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2600x2000, 990 KB) Other versions Originally from de. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2600x2000, 990 KB) Other versions Originally from de. ...

  • Using a special-purpose lens called a macro lens (some manufacturers call it a micro), having a long barrel for close focusing. A macro lens might be optimized to provide its best performance at a magnification of 1:1. Some macro lenses, like the Canon MP-E 65 mm f/2.8, can achieve even better magnification— up to 5:1 macro, bringing the structure of small insect eyes, snowflakes, and other minuscule but detailed objects into striking focus. However, it is more common for a photographer to use a "standard" (1:1) macro lens. There are different categories of macro lenses, depending on the focal length:
    • 50–60mm range typically used for product photography and small objects
    • 90–105mm range the standard focal range used for insects, flowers, small objects
    • 150–200mm range gives more working distance — typically used for insects and small animals
    • a few zooms provide a macro option, but they generally do not allow a 1:1 magnification
  • Placing an extension tube between the camera body and the lens. The tube has no glass in it; its sole purpose is to move the lens farther from the film or digital sensor. The farther the lens is from the film or sensor, the closer the focusing distance (and the greater the magnification) and the darker the image. Tubes of various lengths can be stacked together, allowing for increasing levels of magnification while simultaneously decreasing working distance. With tubes attached, the camera will often lose the ability to focus to infinity.
  • Using a bellows attachment between the camera body and the lens to extend the lens to film plane distance. Similar to an extension tube, but adjustable.
  • Placing an auxiliary close-up lens in front of the camera's taking lens. Inexpensive screw-in or slip-on attachments provide close focusing at very low cost. The quality is variable, with some two-element versions being excellent. This method works with cameras that have built-in lenses. These lenses add diopters to the optical power of the lens, decreasing the minimum focusing distance, and allowing the camera to get closer to the subject.
  • Attaching a telephoto extender between the camera body and the lens. A 1.4× or 2× teleconverter gives a larger image, adding macro capabilities. As with an extension tube, less light will reach the film or sensor, and a longer exposure time will be needed. However, working distance remains the same as without the teleconverter.
  • Reversing the lens using a "reversing ring". This special adapter attaches to the filter thread on the front of a lens and makes it possible to attach the lens in reverse. Excellent quality results up to 4x lifesize magnification using fairly cheap, "standard" (not specially designed for macro) lenses can be produced. For cameras with all-electronic communications between the lens and the camera body, such as Canon EOS, reversing rings are available which allow all camera functions, including open aperture metering, to be used. When used with extension tubes or bellows a relatively cheap but highly versatile macro system can be assembled.
  • Reversing a lens of lesser focal length in front of a normally mounted lens using a very inexpensive "macro coupler," which uses two male filter threads to join lenses. This method allows most cameras to maintain the full function of electronic communication with the normally mounted lens for features such as open-aperture metering. Magnification ratio is calculated by dividing the focal length of the normally mounted lens by the focal length of the reversed lens (i.e., when a 18 mm lens is reverse mounted on a 300 mm lens a 16:1 magnification ratio is achieved). The use of automatic focus is not recommended due to the extra weight of the reverse-mounted lens. Attempted use of automatic focus with this technique could result in damage to the camera or lens. Working distance is significantly reduced as compared to the original lens.

An extension tube is an accessory for cameras with interchangeable lenses, used primarily for macro photography. ... In photography, a close-up lens or close-up filter is a simple secondary lens used to enable macro photography without requiring a specialised primary lens. ... A dioptre (also diopter) is a unit of curvature equal to one per metre; that is, inverse metres, or 1/(metres). ... A 2× teleconverter A teleconverter or doubler is a group of lenses which is mounted between the camera and a photographic lens. ...

Technical considerations

Limited depth of field is an important consideration in macro photography. This makes it essential to focus critically on the most important part of the subject, as elements that are even a millimetre closer or farther from the focal plane might be noticeably blurry. Due to this, the use of a microscope stage is highly recommended for precise focus with large magnification such as photographing skin cells. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1328 KB) Summary Honey bee in a crocus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1328 KB) Summary Honey bee in a crocus. ... In optics, particularly film and photography, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. ... In optics, particularly film and photography, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. ... An image that is partially in focus, but mostly out of focus in varying degrees. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...

High DOF obtained by compiling several images taken at progressive focal lengths.
High DOF obtained by compiling several images taken at progressive focal lengths.

The problem of sufficiently and evenly lighting the subject can be difficult to overcome. Some cameras can focus on subjects so close that they touch the front piece of glass in the lens. It is impossible to place a light between the camera and a subject that close, making this extreme close-up photography impractical. A normal-focal-length macro lens (50 mm on a 35 mm camera) can focus so close that lighting remains difficult. To avoid this problem, many photographers use telephoto macro lenses, typically with focal lengths from about 100 to 200 mm. These are popular as they permit sufficient distance for lighting between the camera and the subject. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 575 KB) Wolf spider focus bracket. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 575 KB) Wolf spider focus bracket. ... In optics, particularly film and photography, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. ... 500 mm telephoto lens with extension tube. ...


Ring flashes, with flash tubes arranged in a circle around the front of the lens, can be helpful in lighting at close distances. More recently, ring lights have emerged, using white LEDs to provide a continuous light source for macrophotography. A ring flash is a type of circular photographic flash that fits around the lens, especially for use in macro (or close-up) photography. ... “LED” redirects here. ...


Examples

See also

Photography Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Macro photographs

Image File history File links Large_format_camera_lens. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Before a rain storm Coyote Photograph Wildlife photography is the act of taking photographs of wildlife. ... The Tetons - Snake River (1942) by Ansel Adams Wildlife photography, such as this midflight shot of a male mallard duck, can be very challenging and require a high power telephoto lens A waterfall in Iron Horse State Park. ... An example of cloudscape photography Cloudscape photography is photography showing a view of clouds and sky. ... Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. ... A photograph (often just called a photo) is an image (or a representation of that on e. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Timothy Edberg Photo Tip: Macro Photography Methods (2672 words)
I prefer to speak more loosely of macro photography as being anything that uses some sort of technique that yields an image more magnified than would be possible with just an ordinary lens on the camera.
With macro photography, if you are shooting with available light, the fact that you are shooting a small target means that the light is easy to modify with reflectors and diffusers.
One feature of a flash-illuminated macro shot is that the background, being far away compared to the distance of the subject, is unilluminated by the flashes and records on the film as a strong fl.
Macro photography (4475 words)
Macro photography needs a lot of light and your lighting setup must be flexible to deliver it correctly.
It is clear that macro photography is done in many ways, using the various camera systems, but underlying it all is the theory of lenses, depth of field and the limitations imposed on lighting systems.
In macro photography with a macro lens, the strobe is constantly moved outward/inward, left to middle to right, and is often taken off the bracket for side and back lighting and for admitting light into narrow confines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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