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Encyclopedia > Macquarie Island
Macquarie Island*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Flag of Australia Australia
Type Natural
Criteria vii, viii
Reference 629
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription History
Inscription 1997  (21st Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

Macquarie Island lies in the southwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, about half-way between Australia and Antarctica. Politically, it has formed part of the Australian state of Tasmania since 1900 and became a Tasmanian State Reserve in 1978. In 1997 it became a world heritage site. It was a part of Esperance Municipality until 1993, when the municipality was merged with other municipalities to Huon Valley. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (911x581, 74 KB) Summary A map showing some of the outlying islands of New Zealand, including the Chatham Islands, Bounty Islands, Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, and Campbell Islands, as well as Australias Macquarie Island. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Slogan or Nickname: The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114... Tasmania may be the smallest state in Australia, but it contains no fewer than 495 separate Protected Areas with a total area of 22,034 km² (land area: 22,020 km² – 32. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Municipality of Huon Valley, Tasmania The Huon Valley is a local government area of Tasmania. ...


The Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) maintains a permanent base on the island. The base's residents, the island's only inhabitants, range in numbers from 20 to 40 people throughout the year. The Australian Antarctic Division (AAD), of the Australian Department of the Environment and Heritage, manages Australias four Antarctic stations, as well as Heard Island, as part of the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions. ...

Contents

History

The Australian/Briton Frederick Hasselborough discovered the island accidentally in July 1810 when looking for new sealing grounds. He claimed Macquarie Island for Britain and annexed it to the colony of New South Wales in 1810. The island took its name after Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821. Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, who explored the area for Alexander I of Russia, produced the first map of Macquarie Island. Bellingshausen landed on the island on November 28, 1820, defined its geographical position and traded his rum and food for Macquarie Island's fauna with the sealers. Languages Cornish, Dgèrnésiais, English, French, Irish, Jèrriais, Manx, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Llanito Religions Anglican, Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism - Related ethnic groups British-Americans, Anglo-Celtic Australian, Anglo-African, Belongers, English Canadians, Channel Islanders, Cornish, English, Anglo-Irish, Ulster-Scots, Irish, Manx, New Zealand European, Scottish, Welsh British... ... “NSW” redirects here. ... Major General Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales Major-General Lachlan Macquarie CB (31 January 1762[1] – 1 July 1824), British military officer and colonial administrator, served as Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development... A portrait of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (also known as Russian: ; Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen) (September 20, 1778–January 13, 1852) served as a naval officer of the Russian Empire and commanded the second Russian expedition to circumnavigate the globe. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the beverage. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... ...

A view over the Macquarie Island bluffs
A view over the Macquarie Island bluffs

In 1890 New South Wales transferred the island to Tasmania, which leased it to Joseph Hatch (1837 - 1928) between 1902 and 1920 for his oil industry based on harvesting penguins. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Slogan or Nickname: The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114... Joseph Hatch (1837 – 2 September 1928) was a New Zealand politician, but is now remembered for harvesting elephant seals and (mainly) penguins for their oil on the sub-antarctic Macquarie Island from 1890 to 1919. ...


Between 1911 and 1914, the island became a base for the Australasian Antarctic Expedition under Sir Douglas Mawson. George Ainsworth operated a meteorological station between 1911 and 1913, followed by Harold Power (1913 until 1914) and by Tullock from 1914 until its shutdown in 1915. In 1933 the authorities declared the island a wildlife sanctuary and eventually transferred it to the Commonwealth of Australia under the administration of the Australian Antarctic Territory on December 26, 1947. The Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) established its expedition headquarters on May 25, 1948 on Macquarie Island. Newly constructed Main Base Hut The Australasian Antarctic Expedition was an Australian scientific team that expored part of Antarctica between 1911 and 1914. ... “Mawson” redirects here. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is the part of Antarctica claimed by Australia. ... Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (acronym ANARE is normally pronounced an-ah-ree) has since 1947 served Australia in south polar regions. ...


On December 23, 2004 an earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter magnitude scale (one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded) rocked the island, but caused little damage.[1] Some considered this event part of the prelude of earthquakes prior to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, but seismologists have largely discounted this theory. The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


Vermin infestation

In recent years there have been fears by Antarctic researchers that Macquarie Island is being overrun by rabbits. The rabbits were introduced by sealers in the 1800s as a food source and rapidly multipled before numbers were reduced to about 10,000 in the early 1980s when myxomatosis was introduced. Rabbit numbers have now exploded to around 100,000 on the island.[2] Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... Myxomatosis (from the Greek μύξα (mucus), and ματώνω (to bleed)) is a disease which infects rabbits. ...


As well as rabbits there are plagues of rats which together are causing widespread environmental damage. There are currently plans to conduct the largest eradication program ever by mass baiting the island similar to an eradication program on New Zealand's Campbell Island, but there was an argument over which government, state or federal, will pay the estimated $24 million cost.[3] On 4 June 2007 a media release by the Federal Minister for the Environment and Water Resources, Malcolm Turnbull, announced that the Australian and Tasmanian Governments had reached an agreement to jointly fund the eradication of rodent pests, including rabbits, to protect Macquarie Island's World Heritage values.[4] Campbell Island is a remote, sub-Antarctic island of New Zealand and the main island of the Campbell Island group. ... Tasmanian Coat of Arms featuring two Thylacines The form of the Government of Tasmania is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1856, although it has been amended many times since then. ... The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a federation, and a parliamentary democracy. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia, Kiribati, Nauru, Tuvalu, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island Inflation 2. ...


Geography

Contour map of Macquarie Island

The island has an approximate length of 34 km and a width of 5 km, with an area of 128 km². It sits atop Macquarie Ridge, which extends north and south. Also on Macquarie Island are two minor groups of islets, Judge and Clerk Islets, 54°21′S, 159°01′E, 14 km to the north, and 0.2 km² in area, and Bishop and Clerk Islets, 55°03′S, 158°46′E, 34 km to the south, and 0.6 km² in area. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 454 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 844 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 454 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 844 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Bishop and Clerk Islets lie approximately 37 km to the south of Macquarie Island. ...


Bishop and Clerk Islets mark the southernmost point of Australia (including islands). This is a list of the extreme points of Australia, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location on the continent. ...


In the 19th Century Emerald Island was supposed to exist south of Macquarie Island. The Emerald Island is a phantom island reported by some early explorers to lie between Australia and Antarctica and south of Macquarie Island, eg by the ship Emerald in December 1821. ...


Fauna and flora

A Royal penguin rookery on Macquarie Island.
A Royal penguin rookery on Macquarie Island.
See also: Birds of Macquarie Island

Fauna found on the island include: Subantarctic Fur Seals, Antarctic Fur Seals, New Zealand Fur Seals and Southern Elephant Seals - over 80,000 individuals of this species. Royal Penguins breed only on this island; King Penguins, Southern Rockhopper Penguins and Gentoo penguins also breed here. An estimated 100,000 introduced rabbits also occur on the island. Introduced feral cats were declared totally eradicated in 2002. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Birds of Macquarie Island are, unsurprisingly for an isolated oceanic island, predominantly seabirds. ... Binomial name Arcetocephalus tropcalis , The Subantarctic Fur Seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) is a fur seal found in the southern parts of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. ... Binomial name Peters, 1875 The Antarctic Fur Seal (Arctocephalus gazella) is one of seven seals in the genus Arctocephalus. ... Binomial name Arctocephalus fosteri Lesson, 1828 The New Zealand (or Southern) Fur Seal (Arctocephalus fosteri, Maori name kokono) is a species of fur seal found around the south coast of Australia, the coast of the South Island of New Zealand, and some of the small islands to the south and... Binomial name Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758 The Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina) is one of two species of elephant seal (the other is the Northern Elephant Seal). ... Binomial name Eudyptes schlegeli Finsch, 1876 The Royal Penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli) inhabits the waters surrounding Antarctica. ... Binomial name Aptenodytes patagonicus Miller,JF, 1778 The King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is the second largest species of penguin at about 90 cm (3 ft) tall and weighing 11 to 15 kg (24 to 33 lb), second only to the Emperor Penguin. ... Binomial name Forster, 1781 Synonyms Eudyptes crestatus The Southern Rockhopper Penguin or just Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome, is a species of penguin closely related to the Macaroni Penguin. ... Binomial name (Forster, 1781) Penguin at the Arctowski Polish Antarctic base The Gentoo Penguin (pronounced ), Pygoscelis papua, is easily recognised by the wide white stripe extending like a bonnet across the top of its head. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... Rescued feral kittens Most feral kittens have little chance of surviving more than a few months and are vulnerable to starvation, predators, disease and even flea-induced anemia[1][2]. Here, kittens from two feral litters are fostered by a domestic mother. ...


In September 2006 a large landslip at Lusitania Bay, on the eastern side of the island, partially destroyed an important penguin breeding colony. Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service attributed the landslip to a combination of heavy spring rains and severe erosion caused by rabbits.[5][3] The Service sought funding from the federal and Tasmanian governments for a rabbit eradication plan, which was agreed to in June 2007.[6] September 2006 is the ninth month of 2006 and has begun on a Friday. ... The logo of Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service is the Tasmanian Government body responsible for the care and administration of Tasmanias National Parks and wildlife. ...


Large portions of the Macquarie Island bluffs are eroding as a result of overeating by rabbits. Rabbits are not indigenous to the island.


Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Antarctic expeditioners unscathed by earthquake", News Online, Australian Broadcasting Commission, 2004-12-24. Retrieved on 2007-04-05. 
  2. ^ "Fears for sub-antarctic island plagued by rabbits", News Online, Australian Broadcasting Commission, 2006-07-15. Retrieved on 2007-04-05. 
  3. ^ a b Darby, Andrew. "Up against rats, rabbits and costs", The Sydney Morning Herald, 2007-04-11. Retrieved on 2007-04-11. 
  4. ^ Turnbull, Malcolm. "Agreement to eradicate rabbits on Macquarie Island", Australian Government, 2007-06-07. Retrieved on 2007-06-12. 
  5. ^ "Rabbits blamed for penguin deaths in landslide", News Online, Australian Broadcasting Commission, 2006-10-21. Retrieved on 2007-04-05. 
  6. ^ Turnbull76/07

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

List of Administrative Heads of Macquarie Island Directors of the Australian Meteorological Bureau Officers in charge Macquarie Island Meteorological Station under the Director of the Australian Meteorological Bureau Categories: Lists of people | Government of Australia ... Australia has thousands of islands within its territory and several external territories. ... The sub-antarctic islands are the islands in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Macquarie Island - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (505 words)
He claimed Macquarie Island for Britain and annexed it to the colony of New South Wales in 1810.
Bellingshausen landed on the island on November 28, 1820, defined its geographical position and traded his rum and food for Macquarie Island's fauna with the sealers.
In 1933 the authorities declared the island a wildlife sanctuary, and eventually transferred it to the Commonwealth of Australia under the administration of the Australian Antarctic Territory on December 26, 1947.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Macquarie Island (311 words)
The island was claimed by Britain and annexed to the colony of New South Wales in 1810.
The island was transferred to Tasmania in 1890 and leased to Joseph Hatch in 1902.
In 1933, the island was declared a wildlife sanctuary and was eventually transferred to Australia under the administration of Australian Antarctic Territory in 1947.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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