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Encyclopedia > Mackinac Bridge
Mackinac Bridge

Carries 4 lanes of Interstate 75
Crosses Straits of Mackinac
Locale Mackinaw City and St. Ignace, Michigan
Maintained by Mackinac Bridge Authority[1]
Design Suspension bridge
Longest span 3,800 feet (1,158 m)
Total length 26,372 feet (8,038 m)
Width 68 feet (20.7 m)
Height 522 feet (159 m)
Vertical clearance 200 feet (61 m)
Clearance below 155 feet (47 m)
AADT 11,600
Opening date November 1, 1957
Toll $1.25 per axle for passenger vehicles ($2.50 per car). $2.00 per axle for motor homes. $3.00 per axle for commercial vehicles.
Connects:
Mackinaw City and St. Ignace

The Mackinac Bridge (pronounced [ˈmækɪˌnɔː], with a silent "c"), is a suspension bridge spanning the Straits of Mackinac to connect the non-contiguous Upper and Lower peninsulas of the U.S. state of Michigan. Envisioned since the 1880s, the bridge was completed only after many decades of struggles to begin construction. Designed by engineer David B. Steinman, it connects the city of St. Ignace on the north end with the village of Mackinaw City on the south. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 463 pixelsFull resolution (2487 × 1440 pixel, file size: 203 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A picture of the Mackinac Bridge. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Straits of Mackinac, spanned by the Mackinac Bridge, seen from the southern shore View of the Straits from Mackinac Island The Straits of Mackinac (pronounced , like MACK-in-aw, note the silent c) is the strip of water that connects two of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan and Lake... Mackinaw City is a village in Emmet County, with a small portion lying within Cheboygan County, in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Saint Ignace, usually written as St. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... Annual average daily traffic, abbrevated AADT, is a term used primarily in transportation planning and transportation engineering. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Mackinaw City is a village in Emmet County, with a small portion lying within Cheboygan County, in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Saint Ignace, usually written as St. ... Image File history File links MackinacBridgeSat1. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... The Straits of Mackinac, spanned by the Mackinac Bridge, seen from the southern shore View of the Straits from Mackinac Island The Straits of Mackinac (pronounced , like MACK-in-aw, note the silent c) is the strip of water that connects two of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan and Lake... The Upper Peninsula of Michigan is the northern of the two major land masses that comprise the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Regions and major cities of the Lower Peninsula can be seen here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... David Bernard Steinman (June 11, 1886 - August 21, 1960) was an American engineer He was the designer of the Mackinac Bridge and many other notable bridges, and a published author. ... Saint Ignace, usually written as St. ... Mackinaw City is a village in Emmet County, with a small portion lying within Cheboygan County, in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...

Contents

Longest between anchorages

The bridge opened on November 1, 1957, ending decades of the two peninsulas being solely linked by ferries. A year later, the bridge was formally dedicated as "the world's longest suspension bridge between anchorages". This designation was chosen because the bridge would not be the world's largest using another way of measuring suspension bridges, the length of the center span between the towers— at the time that title belonged to the Golden Gate Bridge, which has a longer center span. By saying "between anchorage", the bridge could be considered longer than the Golden Gate Bridge, and also longer than the suspended western section of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. (That bridge has a longer total suspension but is a double bridge with an anchorage in the middle.) November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening into the San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. ... The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge ( ; known locally as the Bay Bridge) is a toll bridge which spans San Francisco Bay and links the California cities of Oakland and San Francisco in the United States, as part of Interstate 80. ...


The Mackinac Bridge is the longest two tower suspension bridge between anchorages (8,614 feet) (2,626 m) in the Western Hemisphere. Much longer anchorage-to-anchorage spans have been built in the Eastern Hemisphere, including the Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge in Japan (12,826 feet) (3,909 m). However, because of the long leadups to the anchorages on the Mackinac, from waterline to waterline it is much longer than the Akashi-Kaikyo (5 mile compared to 2.4 mile). The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge ), also known as Pearl Bridge, is a suspension bridge in Japan that crosses the Akashi Strait; it links Maiko in Kobe and Iwaya on Awaji Island as part of the HonshÅ«-Shikoku Highway. ...


The length of the bridge's main span is 3,800 feet (1,158 m), which makes it the third-longest suspension span in the United States and tenth largest worldwide. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge has the largest span of any bridge This list of the largest suspension bridges ranks the worlds suspension bridges by the length of main span (distance between the suspension towers). ...


History

Before the construction of the bridge, the typical way to cross the Straits of Mackinac was by ferry. Year-round boat service across the straits had been abandoned as impractical because of the cold winters which would often freeze the water across the entire strait. Following the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge in 1883, local residents began to imagine such a structure could span the straits. In 1884, a store owner in St. Ignace published a newspaper advertisement that included a reprint of an artist's conception of the Brooklyn Bridge with the caption "Proposed bridge across the Straits of Mackinac." The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, ca. ... For other uses, see Brooklyn Bridge (disambiguation). ... Saint Ignace, usually written as St. ...

A Mackinac Island ferry passing in front of the Mackinac Bridge.

The idea of the bridge was discussed in the Michigan Legislature as early as the 1880s. At the time the area was becoming a popular tourist destination, including the creation of Mackinac National Park on Mackinac Island in 1875. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 383 pixelsFull resolution (1530 × 732 pixel, file size: 843 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Mackinac Bridge with a Mackinac Island ferry passing in front. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 383 pixelsFull resolution (1530 × 732 pixel, file size: 843 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Mackinac Bridge with a Mackinac Island ferry passing in front. ... Mackinac National Park was U.S. National Park that existed from 1875 to 1895 on Mackinac Island in northern Michigan. ...


Despite the perceived necessity for the bridge, several decades elapsed with no formal plan. In 1920, the Michigan state highway commissioner advocated the construction of a floating tunnel across the straits. At the invitation of the state legislature, C. E. Fowler of New York City put forth a plan for a long series of causeways and bridges across the straits from Cheboygan, 17 miles (27 km) southeast of Mackinaw City, to St. Ignace, using Bois Blanc, Round, and Mackinac Island as intermediate steps. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Cheboygan is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Aerial view of the Straits of Mackinac. ... Round Island is a Michigan island in the Straits of Mackinac. ...


In 1923, the state legislature ordered the State Highway Department to re-establish ferry service across the strait. By 1928, however, the service had become so expensive to operate that Michigan Governor Fred Green ordered the department to study the feasiblity of building a bridge across the strait. The department deemed the idea feasible, estimating the cost at 30 million dollars. Fred Green was an American politician. ...


In 1934, the Michigan Legislature created the Mackinac Straits Bridge Authority of Michigan, to study the feasiblity of the bridge, and authorized the Authority to sell bonds for the project. In the mid 1930s, the Authority twice attempted to obtain federal funds for the project but was unsuccessful, despite the endorsement of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Nevertheless, between 1936 and 1940, a route was selected for the bridge and borings were made for a detailed geological study of the route. The USACE gold castle insignia, worn by officers of the Corps The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... FDR redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The preliminary plans for the bridge featured a 3-lane roadway, a railroad crossing on the underdeck of the span, and a center-anchorage double-suspension bridge configuration similar to the design of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. (Since this would have required sinking an anchorage pier literally in the deepest area of the Straits, the practicality of this design may have been questionable.) A causeway, approximately 4,000 feet (1,219 m), extending from the northern shore, was constructed with concrete road fragments from 1939-1941. The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge ( ; known locally as the Bay Bridge) is a toll bridge which spans San Francisco Bay and links the California cities of Oakland and San Francisco in the United States, as part of Interstate 80. ...


At that time, with funding for the project still uncertain, further work was put on hold because of World War II. The Authority was abolished by the state legislature in 1947 but was reauthorized three years later in 1950. In June 1950, engineers were retained for the project. Following a report by the engineers in January 1951, the state legistature authorized the sale of 85 million dollars in bonds for bridge construction on April 30, 1952. However, a weak bond market in 1953 forced a delay of over a year before the bonds could be issued. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

View of the bridge looking north across the Straits of Mackinac

Mackinac Bridge across the Straits of Mackinac looking north (taken Sept. ... Mackinac Bridge across the Straits of Mackinac looking north (taken Sept. ...

Engineering and construction

David B. Steinman was appointed as the design engineer in January 1953. By the end of 1953, estimates and contracts had been negotiated, and construction began on May 7, 1954. The American Bridge Division of United States Steel Corporation was awarded a contract of over 44 million dollars to build the steel superstructure. Construction took two and a half years and cost the lives of five men who worked on the bridge. It opened to traffic on schedule on November 1, 1957, and was formally dedicated on June 25, 1958. The bridge officially achieved its 100 millionth crossing exactly forty years after its dedication, on June 25, 1998. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Bridge Company is a privately held civil engineering firm specializing in the construction and renovation of bridges and other large civil engineering projects, founded in 1900, and headquartered in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Pittsburgh. ... The United States Steel Corporation (NYSE: X) is an integrated steel producer with major production operations in the United States and Central Europe. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


The design of the Mackinac Bridge was directly influenced by the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which failed in 1940 because of its instability in high winds. Three years after that disaster, Steinman had published a theoretical analysis of suspension bridge stability problems which recommended that future bridge designs include deep stiffening trusses to support the bridge deck and an open-grid roadway to reduce its wind resistance. Both of these features were incorporated into the Mackinac Bridge. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is a mile-long (1600 meter) suspension bridge with a main span of 2800 feet (850 m) (the third-largest in the world when it was first built[1]) that carries Washington State Route 16 across the Tacoma Narrows of Puget Sound from Tacoma to Gig... In architecture and structural engineering, a truss is a structure comprising one or more triangular units which are constructed with straight slender members whose ends are connected at joints. ...


Facts and figures

Mackinac Bridge at night
Mackinac Bridge during a snowstorm
  • The Mackinac Bridge is currently a toll bridge on Interstate 75. Prior to the coming of I-75, the bridge carried US 27.
  • Every Labor Day, two of the lanes of the bridge are closed to traffic and open to walkers for the Mackinac Bridge Walk.
  • Overall length shore to shore: 26,372 feet (8,038 m) or approximately 5 miles.
  • Length from cable bent pier to cable bent pier: 7,400 feet (2,256 m).
  • Total width of the roadway: 54 feet (16.5 m)
Two outside lanes: 12 feet (3.7 m) wide each
Two inside lanes: 11 feet (3.4 m) wide each
Center mall: 2 feet (0.61 m)
Catwalk, curb and rail width: 3 feet (0.91 m) on each side
  • Width of stiffening truss in the suspended span: 68 feet (20.7 m), making it wider than the roadway it supports.
  • Height of the roadway at mid-span: approximately 200 feet (61 m) above water level.
  • Vertical clearance at normal temperature:
155 feet (47 m) at the center of the main suspension span.
135 feet (41 m) at the boundaries of the 3,000 feet (914 m) wide navigation channel.
  • Construction cost: $99.8 million (1957 USD)
  • Height of towers above water: 552 feet (168 m)
  • Max. depth of towers below water: 210 feet (64 m)
  • Total length of wire in main cables: 42,000 miles (68,000 km).
  • Total vehicle crossings, 2005: 4,236,491 (average 11,608 per day)
  • Speed limit: 45 mph (72 km/h) for passenger cars, 20 mph (32 km/h) for heavy trucks. Heavy trucks are also required to leave 500 feet (152 m) spacing ahead.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2136, 2274 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mackinac Bridge Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2136, 2274 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mackinac Bridge Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1887 KB) Summary The w:Mackinac Bridge, looking South from St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1887 KB) Summary The w:Mackinac Bridge, looking South from St. ... Paying toll on passing a bridge. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This U.S. Highway article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject U.S. Highways. ... Labour Day (or Labor Day) is an annual holiday that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... The Mackinac Bridge Walk is held every Labor Day in Michigan. ...

Fatalities

Five workers died during the construction of the bridge.

  • Twenty-eight-year old Jack Baker and Robert Koppen died in a catwalk collapse near the north tower on June 6, 1956. Koppen's body was never recovered. For both it was their first day on the job.
  • Diver Frank Pepper ascended too quickly from a depth of 140 feet on September 10, 1957. Despite being rushed to a decompression chamber the forty-six-year old died from the bends.
  • Twenty-six-year old James LeSarge lost his balance on October 10, 1954 and fell into a caisson. He fell forty feet and likely died of head injuries caused by impact with the criss-crossing steel beams inside the caisson.
  • Albert Abbott died on October 25, 1954. The forty-year old fell four feet into the water while working on an eighteen inch wide beam. Witnesses speculate he suffered a heart attack.

All five men are memorialized on a plaque near the bridge's southern end. Contrary to folklore, no bodies are embedded in the concrete. [2] [3]


One worker has died since the bridge was completed.

  • Daniel Doyle fell 60-70 feet from a scaffolding on August 7, 1997. He survived the fall but fell victim to the 50 degree water temperature. His body was recovered the next day in 95 feet of water.

Two vehicles have fallen off the bridge. is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Twenty-four year old Leslie Anne Plouhar died in 1989 when her 1987 Yugo plunged over the 36 inch high railing. A combination of high winds and excessive speeding was blamed.
  • In March 1997, a 1996 Ford Bronco went over the edge. It was later determined to be a suicide by driver Richard Alan Daraban.[4]

The Zastava Koral / Yugo 45 and family are vehicles produced by the Zastava corporation, both for local use in the production country of Serbia and for export around the world. ...

Trivia

  • The Mackinac Bridge is one of two segments of I-75 that is tolled -- the other is Alligator Alley in Florida.
  • Travelers across the Mackinac Bridge can listen to a radio broadcast that specifically tells about the history of the bridge, as well as current driving conditions. One fact mentioned on the broadcast is that the painting of the bridge takes seven years, and when painting of the bridge is complete, it begins again.
  • The Mackinac Bridge Authority has a "Drivers Assistance Program" that provides drivers for those uncomfortable with driving across the Mackinac Bridge. Those interested can arrange, either by phone or with the toll collector, to have their cars driven to the other end. There is no additional fee for this service.
  • The bridge is painted foliage green and ivory white, and at night bluish vapor lamps light up the roadway while maize-colored spotlights shine on the main towers. According to legend, these colors symbolize the state's two largest universities since green and white are the official colors of Michigan State University and maize and blue represent the University of Michigan. In fact, the white-and-green color scheme was inspired by a colorized black and white image showing what the bridge would look like.[citation needed]
  • Residents of the Upper Peninsula ("Yoopers") often refer to Lower Peninsula residents as "trolls" because they live "below the bridge."
  • Before it opened, travel between Michigan's two peninsulas was by car ferry. A fleet of nine ferries could carry up to 9000 vehicles per day. Traffic backups sometimes stretched to Cheboygan, Michigan, 16 miles (26 kilometers) away from Mackinaw City.
  • On April 24, 1959 Captain John Lappo of the United States Air Force took his RB-47E Stratojet, a reconfigured bomber, under the bridge. Lappo lost his USAF flying privileges for violating a USAF regulation barring altitudes under 500 feet except during takeoff and landing.
  • The bridge and its maintenance crew were featured in an episode of the Discovery Channel TV show Dirty Jobs on August 7th, 2007. Host Mike Rowe and crew spent several days filming the episode in May 2007. [5]

Alligator Alley (also Everglades Parkway) is a nickname for that section of Interstate 75 that runs from Naples on the west coast of Florida to near Fort Lauderdale on the east. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Cheboygan is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Mackinaw City is a village in Emmet County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... The Boeing B-47 Stratojet jet bomber was a major postwar innovation in combat jet design, and it helped lead to the development of modern jet airliners. ... Discovery Channel is a United States-based TV channel founded by John Hendricks. ... Dirty Jobs is a program on the Discovery Channel in which host Mike Rowe is shown performing difficult, strange, and/or messy occupational duties alongside professional workers. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Mike Gregory Rowe (pronounced: ) (born March 18, 1962 in Baltimore, Maryland) is the host of the television show Dirty Jobs and the narrator of several television shows, primarily on the Discovery Channel. ... May 2007 is the fifth month of that year. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Michigan History Magazine July/August 2007
  3. ^ http://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070708/NEWS06/707080577
  4. ^ http://www.freep.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070708/NEWS06/707080577
  5. ^ http://www.9and10news.com/category/story/?id=117043 9&10 News: Crew from "Dirty Jobs" in Northern Michigan

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mackinac Bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1618 words)
The Mackinac Bridge (pronounced [ˈmækɪˌnɔː], like MACK-in-aw, note the silent "c", and affectionately known as the "Mighty Mac" or "Big Mac"), is a suspension bridge spanning the Straits of Mackinac to connect the non-contiguous upper and lower peninsulas of the U.S. state of Michigan.
The bridge opened on November 1, 1957, and a year later was formally dedicated as "the world's longest suspension bridge between anchorages".
Five workers died in the construction of the bridge: three iron workers died in a catwalk collapse, one iron worker fell from the north tower, and one diver surfaced too quickly and died from "the bends." Contrary to folklore, no bodies are buried in the concrete of the bridge.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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