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Encyclopedia > Macintosh Finder
Finder
Finder and Mac OS X icon

Screenshot of Mac OS X v10.4 Finder.
Developer: Apple Computer
Latest release: 10.4.10
Preview release: 10.5 / June 11, 2007
OS: Mac OS X
Platform: Macintosh (PowerPC or Intel)
Genre: File browsing/organization
License: EULA
Website: Mac OS X - Finder

The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management of files, disks, network volumes and the launching of other applications. As such the Finder acts like the shell on other operating systems, but using a graphical user interface. It was introduced with the very first Macintosh computer, and also existed as part of GS/OS on the Apple IIGS. It underwent a complete rewrite with Apple's switch to a UNIX-based OS in Mac OS X. Image File history File links Finder_icon. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mac OS X version 10. ... Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product. ... Apple Inc. ... A software release is the distribution, whether public or private, of an initial or new and upgraded version of a computer software product. ... A software release is the distribution, whether public or private, of an initial or new and upgraded version of a computer software product. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... It has been suggested that Maintenance OS be merged into this article or section. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... The Macintosh 128K, the first Macintosh computer The iMac, a current Mac computer Macintosh is a brand name which covers several lines of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... The Intel Core Duo and Intel Core Solo mobile microprocessors are used in the Apple Macintosh Intel-processor based computers. ... Computer software can be organized into categories based on common function, type, or field of use. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... A software license is a type of proprietary or gratiuitious license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software — sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) — that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... It has been suggested that Maintenance OS be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Shell_(computing). ... A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a computer and computer-controlled devices which employ graphical icons, visual indicators or special graphical elements called widgets, along with text labels or text navigation to represent the information and actions available to... In computing, GS/OS is the second operating system developed by Apple Computer for its Apple IIGS computer system. ... The Apple IIGS, the fifth model inception of the Apple II, was the most powerful member of the Apple II series of personal computers made by Apple Computer. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


The Finder is the first program a user interacts with after booting a Mac (and potentially logging in), and as such it is responsible for the general look and feel of the machine. One should be careful to distinguish this from the actual GUI of the machine, which is really provided by particular services within the operating system (eg, WindowServer). The Finder is just another application, albeit the default one. It can even be closed if the user knows how, though this would make it impossible to open files and folders without reopening the Finder. GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... Quartz Compositor is the window server in Mac OS X. It is responsible for presenting and maintaining rasterized, rendered graphics from the rest of the Core Graphics framework and other renderers in the Quartz technologies family. ...


The Finder maintains a view of the file system that is rendered using the desktop metaphor - that is, the files and folders are represented as appropriate icons, volumes are displayed on the desktop, and there is a trash can (on the Dock in OS X, on the desktop in previous versions) to which files can be dragged to mark them for deletion. It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Desktop_environment. ... The Dock in Mac OS X v10. ...

Contents

Finder 1.0 to 4.1

Finder 1.1 screenshot

The original Finder, used with the MFS (Macintosh File System) always included a blank folder at the root level of every disk. A new blank folder would be created whenever that folder was renamed and used. Folders could not be placed inside of folders in Finder 1.0-4.1. The folders were maintained only by Finder, and were not stored by the file system. As such, no two files could have the same name on a drive; folders were absent in application "open" dialogs (instead there would be simply a list of all files); and all folder information would be lost after rebuilding the desktop, dumping all files into the root level of the drive. Image File history File links Finder_1. ... Image File history File links Finder_1. ... Macintosh File System (MFS) is a volume format (or disk file system) created by Apple Computer for storing files on 400K floppy disks. ...


Finder also provided a "trash folder": the only way to delete a file was to first drag it to the trash folder, then empty the folder. However, the trash folder was also an illusion, and was not reflected on disk. The list of files in the trash was held only in memory. Finder therefore emptied the trash before it terminated, including before running any other application. If a crash intervened, items that had been in the trash were back in their original home.


The original Finder was also the cause of much early user frustration due to slow speed of file copying, which would lead to dozens of disk-swaps on the single-drive original Macintosh. Though much of this problem could be attributed to the small amount of memory available on the Macintosh 128K, Apple attempted to address the issue with Finder 1.1 in May 1984. However, it was Finder 4.1 in April 1985 that really improved the speed of the Finder and added new features, including the "New Folder" command and a "Shut Down" command in the new "Special" menu, which also provided access to the "MiniFinder". MiniFinder was a simplified interface that held often-used applications and documents and launched them much more quickly, which helped ameliorate the slowness of switching between applications to some extent. For in-depth technical information, see Macintosh 128K technical details. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ...


Finder 5.x

Finder 5.1 screenshot

Apple replaced the MFS with the HFS (Hierarchical File System) in September 1985, as part of Finder 5.0 which was introduced along with the Mac's first hard drive, the Hard Disk 20. Nested folders were no longer an illusion, but rather a reflection of the data organization on the disk. Finder 5.0 also added several cosmetic changes to the look of the system's icons. Finder 5.4 added support for file system permissions in January 1987, as part of the AppleShare release. Image File history File links Finder_5. ... Image File history File links Finder_5. ... Hierarchical File System (HFS), is a file system developed by Apple Computer for use on computers running Mac OS. Originally designed for use on floppy and hard disks, it can also be found on read-only media such as CD-ROMs. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Most modern file systems have methods of administering permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The AppleShare protocol is a communications protocol from Apple Computer that allows client applications in a computer to exchange files with and request services from server programs in a computer network. ...


Finder Software 6.x

Early versions of the Finder would shut down whenever another program was launched, due to the single-tasking nature of the original Mac OS. System 5.x came with Finder 6.0 and the new MultiFinder, which allowed cooperative multitasking. MultiFinder was activated with a control panel whose setting took effect with the next restart. System Software 6.0.x came with Finder 6.1.x and introduced a much-improved version of MultiFinder, among other enhancements. Screenshot of macintosh Finder version 6. ... Screenshot of macintosh Finder version 6. ... This article is about the Macintosh operating system version. ... MultiFinder was the name of a piece of extension software for the Apple Macintosh introduced in System 5 and featured in System 6. ... In computing, cooperative multitasking (or non-preemptive multitasking) is a form of multitasking in which multiple tasks execute by voluntarily ceding control to other tasks at programmer-defined points within each task. ... This article is about the Macintosh operating system version. ...


The original Mac OS Finder featured a "universal Desktop," which showed the union of the contents of the invisible "Desktop Folder" on the root level of every mounted disk. This meant that files dragged from a disk to the Desktop did not always copy to the Mac's hard drive, and would disappear when the disk in question was later ejected.


A "Put Away" command premiered in System 6 which allowed users to drag icons from anywhere on their computer to the Desktop, use the file from the Desktop, and then scoot the file back to its original location with a single command.


Finder 7.0 to 9.2

Finder 7.0 screenshot
Finder 7.0 screenshot

In 1991 Apple released System 7, a significant rewrite of their operating system. Like every other component of the OS, the Finder received a major overhaul and it was completely rewritten using the C++ programming language. MultiFinder was no longer an option, but was instead always active. Finder windows were colorized, and the list view was expanded to include "disclosure triangles" which allowed the user to drill down further into the file system without opening more windows. The Finder's trash icon took on a more refined appearance, and the Color feature in System 6 (on color Macintoshes only), which allowed the user to assign a color shade to files, was extended to let users assign a label. These labels had a user-definable name and color. The Finder's new search function could also locate files based on their labels. The trash folder was at last a real folder, meaning it wasn't emptied after each restart. Image File history File links Finder_7. ... Image File history File links Finder_7. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... System 7 (codenamed Big Bang) was a version of Mac OS, the operating system of the Apple Macintosh computer. ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose, programming language with high-level and low-level capabilities. ...

The Finder in Mac OS 9.
The Finder in Mac OS 9.

Finder 7.0 unveiled an "alias" functionality which allowed files to be represented in multiple locations by simple pointer files. Starting in System 7, the Put Away command could also be used as an alternate means to unmount floppy disks and CD-ROMs. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 74 KB) Summary A screenshot of Mac OS 9. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 74 KB) Summary A screenshot of Mac OS 9. ... Sherlock 2 for Mac OS 9 with the new metallic appearance Mac OS 9, introduced by Apple Computer on 1999-10-23, is the last version of the Classic Macintosh Operating System (Mac OS) released before being succeeded by Mac OS X. Upon introduction, Mac OS 9 was advertised as...


Though the Macintosh System itself would undergo major changes in the intervening years, the Finder remained relatively unchanged until the release of Mac OS 8 in 1997. Finder 8.0 was the first version to be multithreaded. For the first time copying a file or emptying the trash did not block other uses of the Finder. Like the rest of the system, Finder 8.0 took on a metallic platinum appearance. It also featured several new features, including Pop Up windows, which appeared as tabs on the bottom of the Mac's screen until clicked on, at which point they displayed their contents. Spring-loaded folders were also introduced in Finder 8.0, which allowed a user to drag and drop files deep into the system's folder hierarchy with a simple drill-down mechanism. Mac OS 8 is a series of versions of the Mac OS that supported a transition through major changes in the Macintosh hardware platform. ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... Many programming languages, operating systems, and other software development environments support what are called threads of execution. ... In Mac OS terminology, Platinum was the Appearance Manager theme that Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9 used. ...


Finder 8.1, released in early 1998, introduced support for the more efficient HFS+ file system. Finder 9, released in October 1999, introduced support for Multiple Users, Software Update, and the Classic Support Mode. Other features of Finder 9 were large (>2GB) file support, Encryption, Keychains, USB Printer Sharing, and CD Burning in 9.1. Finder 9 was the last major update to the classic Mac OS Finder. Apple stopped work on Mac OS 9, including the Finder, in December 2001 with Mac OS 9.2.2. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... HFS Plus or HFS+ is a file system developed by Apple Computer to replace their Hierarchical File System (HFS) as the primary file system used on Macintosh computers. ... Sherlock 2 for Mac OS 9 with the new metallic appearance Mac OS 9, introduced by Apple Computer on 1999-10-23, is the last version of the Classic Macintosh Operating System (Mac OS) released before being succeeded by Mac OS X. Upon introduction, Mac OS 9 was advertised as...


Finder 10.0 to 10.2.1

Finder 10.0.4 screenshot

The Mac OS X Finder was not an update of the previous Finder, but was a complete re-write that borrowed concepts from the NeXTSTEP file manager. As such, it was a major departure from the original Finder and was poorly received by many longtime Macintosh users. The original Mac OS X Finder was a Carbon application built on top of Metrowerks' PowerPlant framework.[1] It was later rewritten to use the modern HIToolbox framework built into Mac OS X. Image File history File links Finder_10. ... Image File history File links Finder_10. ... NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ... Carbon is the codename of Apple Computers API for the Macintosh operating system, which permits a good degree of forward and backward compatibility between source code written to run on the classic Mac OS, and the newer Mac OS X. The APIs are published and accessed in the form... Metrowerks was a company that developed software development tools for various embedded, game, handheld, and desktop platforms. ... A powerplant can mean: An aircraft engine (usually used in countries other than the U.S.) A power plant (a large facility that uses materials to generate electricity) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Finder 10.0 lacked many features found in its Classic predecessor. The universal Desktop was gone, replaced by a Desktop that presented only the contents of the user's own Desktop folder. Support for Labels, and almost any form of metadata, was gone, as were pop up windows, desktop printers, the "Put Away" command and spring-loaded folders. In Finder 10.0 the Trash was also removed from the Desktop and was no longer part of the Finder, having instead been integrated into the system's Dock.


Finder 10.0 also eschewed the classic Finder's "spatial" orientation, in which each location on the hard drive opened in its own window, and only one window, in favor of a NeXTSTEP-style browser system. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... NEXTSTEP is the original object-oriented, multitasking operating system that NeXT Computer, Inc. ...


Finder 10.0 introduced a highly-customizable toolbar which could be displayed at the top of every Finder window, and the NeXT-derived Column View, which displayed the hierarchy of the file system in a series of left-to-right panes. Users were also able to specify which, if any, of the mounted disks on their system appeared on the Desktop. For other meanings, see Next. ...


Mac OS X 10.1, a free update, brought CD burning capability to the Finder. This feature had been added to the classic Mac OS with version 9.1. Mac OS X version 10. ...


Finder 10.2 reintroduced spring-loaded folders, but they did not feature all of the functions of their Finder 8.0 predecessors. This version also added the ability to browse and download from, but not upload to, FTP servers from the Finder, by virtue of the underlying operating system adding an FTP file system, so that a remote FTP server's directory hierarchy could look like a local directory hierarchy. Darwin is a free and open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. ... FTPFS (File Transfer Protocol FileSystem) is an obsoleted Linux kernel module that allows the user to mount a FTP server onto the local filesystem. ...


Just as with Finder 1.0, the Mac OS X Finder continues to show a view of the user's filesystem that is partly illusion. For example, when running a Unix shell, the file names are displayed as POSIX-style paths, even if the underlying file system is actually HFS. Unix files cannot contain the "/" character in a file name; because Macintosh users had historically been able to use "/" (but not ":") in a file name on an HFS file system, the Finder swaps over these two characters — a user types a name Input/Output which is converted to a POSIX name of Input:Output. The only characters not permitted in a filename at the Finder level are colons. In addition, the Finder will not let the user enter certain control characters (like the line break) even if the file system supports them. The Finder and shells both provide full Unicode filename support. Screenshot of a sample Bash session, taken on Gentoo Linux. ... The colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... In computing, a control character or non-printing character, is a code point (a number) in a character set that does not in itself represent a written symbol. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ...


Finder 10.3

Screenshot of Finder 10.3
Screenshot of Finder 10.3

Mac OS X v10.3 introduced a somewhat upgraded version of the Finder which restored several classic features while also introducing an updated, but not radically different, GUI. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 464 KB)Screenshot of Mac OS X v10. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 464 KB)Screenshot of Mac OS X v10. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Finder 10.3 took on a Brushed Metal appearance similar to that of Apple's iTunes jukebox application (before version 5, which took on a Polished Metal look). As with previous Finders introduced since Mac OS X 10.0, users could customize a toolbar at the top of the Finder window. This included a search pane, allowing for live searching of any selected folder or volume. A new panel to the left of the Finder window, called the Sidebar, allowed almost any item to be dropped in for quick access. Importantly, this customisation would appear in open and save dialogs within other applications. The Sidebar also listed and allowed the ejection of mounted removable storage. Labels and the ability to search by Type and Creator metadata, features in Mac OS 9 that were lost and much missed by Mac users, were restored in Finder 10.3. Brushed metal is metal that has been abraded (brushed), most often with a fine grit sandpaper. ... This article is about the iTunes application. ...


By clicking the "show/hide toolbar" widget in the upper right of a window, not only could a window's toolbar be hidden, but the window also removed its sidebar and switched into an Aqua-themed look and "spatial" behavior. Mac OS X 10. ...


Finder 10.4

Mac OS X v10.4 introduces further changes to the Finder, including a slideshow feature (similar to that of Windows Explorer). This allows pictures to be viewed in series fullscreen directly from the Finder. Spotlight, a concept introduced in 10.4, features prominently throughout the revamped OS: The classic command-F Finder keyboard shortcut now shows a criterion-based search. These criteria searches can be saved as smart folders which display the live-updating results of the search. Two other methods of search exist: the Spotlight menu item and the Spotlight windows. These can be accessed system-wide and some have speculated that data organisation and the "desktop metaphor" are going to be phased out by the high-speed search functions in Mac OS X, thus rendering Finder redundant.[2] However, others have commented on the delays experienced when using Spotlight, even on newer Macs.[3] Mac OS X version 10. ... Windows Explorer running on Windows Vista Windows Explorer running on Windows XP Windows Explorer is an application that is part of modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that provides a graphical user interface for accessing the file systems. ... Spotlight is an as-you-type, system-wide desktop search feature found in Mac OS X v10. ... Virtual Folders are a feature of Microsofts upcoming operating system Windows Vista. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


Mac OS X 10.5

Mac OS X Leopard Finder

Finder has been updated in Leopard. It features a UI similar to iTunes 7, which includes Cover Flow. The new finder has a new organized sidebar, better integration with Spotlight, a new feature called Quick Look which allows one to see what's inside a file without opening it. Further, it uses the new unified theme. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 850 KB, MIME type: image/png) Desktop of Mac OS X v10. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 850 KB, MIME type: image/png) Desktop of Mac OS X v10. ... Mac OS X version 10. ... This article is about the iTunes application. ... Cover Flow is a three-dimensional graphical user interface for visually rummaging through ones digital music libraries via cover artwork. ... Spotlight is an as-you-type, system-wide desktop search feature found in Mac OS X v10. ... Quick Look is a new preview feature in Mac OS X v10. ...


The new Finder allows users to view other computers, applications and documents. The user can switch it to the icon view and to the Mac OS X "Tiger" style Finder.


Finder replacements

Third party Macintosh software developers offer Finder replacements which run as stand-alone Macintosh applications, such as Path Finder. These replacements are shareware, and aim to provide the same functionality as the Finder as well as additional features which the Finder does not include. In the video game industry, a third-party developer is a developer that is not directly tied to the primary product the consumer is using. ... Path Finder is a file browser developed by Cocoatech, built as a Macintosh Finder replacement for the Mac OS X operating system. ...


Criticism of the Macintosh Finder

Main article: Mac OS X#Criticism

In particular the Finder in Mac OS X has attracted some criticism for violating the "spatial interface" concept in the Mac OS Finder and for leaving hidden .DS_Store files everywhere. Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... In computing, spatial navigation is the ability to navigate between focusable elements (such as hyperlinks and form controls) within a structured document or user interface (such as HTML) according to the spatial location. ... .DS_Store (Desktop Services Store)[1] is a hidden file created by Apple Incs Mac OS X operating system to store custom attributes of a folder such as the position of icons or the choice of a background image[2]. By default, Mac OS X will create a . ...


See also

The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of file managers. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Windows Explorer running on Windows Vista Windows Explorer running on Windows XP Windows Explorer is an application that is part of modern versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that provides a graphical user interface for accessing the file systems. ...

References

  1. ^ Andrew Orlowski (May 22, 2001). Jobs and Tevanian vow to fight OS X speed drain. The Register. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  2. ^ Mac OS X 10.4 'Tiger' in depth. The Register. Retrieved on 2007-06-23.
  3. ^ Tiger Review: Spotlight. Retrieved on 2007-06-23.

is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Apple's website
  • 10.4 "Tiger" Finder Site
  • Ars Technica: About the Finder…
  • Ars Technica: Review of Mac OS X 10.3 - discussing the lack of fundamental changes to the Finder
  • Change Finder Instructions

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Macintosh Finder (1125 words)
The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management of files, disks, network volumes and the launching of other applications.
The Finder's trash icon took on a more refined appearance, and the Labels feature known from System 6, which allowed the user to assign metadata labels to different files, was extended to let users customize their names and colors.
Finder 10.0 introduced a highly-customizable toolbar which could be displayed at the top of every Finder window, and the NeXT-derived Column View, which displayed the hierarchy of the file system in a series of left-to-right panes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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