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Encyclopedia > Machu Picchu
Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Huayna Picchu above the ruins of Machu Picchu A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... View of Huayna Picchu towering above the ruins of Machu Picchu Huayna Picchu or Wayna Picchu (Quechua: Young Peak) is a mountain in Peru around which the Urubamba River bends. ...

State Party Flag of Peru Peru
Type Mixed
Criteria i, iii, vii, ix
Reference 274
Region Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1983  (7th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Picchu, "Old mountain") is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,400 meters (7,875 ft) above sea level[1]. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 km (50 mi) northwest of Cusco. Often referred to as "The Lost City of the Incas", Machu Picchu is probably the most familiar symbol of the Inca Empire. It was built around the year 1450, but abandoned a hundred years later, at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire. Forgotten for centuries, the site was brought to worldwide attention in 1911 by Hiram Bingham, an American historian. Since then, Machu Picchu has become an important tourist attraction. It was declared a Peruvian Historical Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. It is also one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Quechua (Runa Simi in Quechua; Runa, human + Simi, speech, literally mouth; i. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... Machu Pichu looking down on the Urubamba Valley The Urubamba Valley is located in Peru below the sacred city of Machu Pichu. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ... Hiram Bingham, formally Hiram Bingham III, (19 November 1875 – 6 June 1956) was an American academic, explorer and politician. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Location of the New Seven Wonders winners. ...


Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style, with polished dry-stone walls. Its primary buildings are the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun, and the Room of the Three Windows. These are located in what is known by archaeologists as the Sacred District of Machu Picchu. In September of 2007, Peru and Yale University reached an agreement regarding the return of artifacts which Hiram Bingham had removed from Machu Picchu in the early 20th century. Currently, there are concerns about the impact of tourism on the site as it reached 400,000 visitors in 2003. It has been suggested that Rock fence be merged into this article or section. ... Yale redirects here. ...

Contents

History

The Intihuatana ("sun-tier") is believed to have been designed as an astronomic clock by the Incas
The Intihuatana ("sun-tier") is believed to have been designed as an astronomic clock by the Incas

Machu Picchu was constructed around 1450, at the height of the Inca Empire. It was abandoned less than 100 years later. It is likely that most of its inhabitants were wiped out by smallpox before the Spanish conquistadores arrived. Hiram Bingham, the credited discoverer of the site, along with several others, originally hypothesized that the citadel was the traditional birthplace of the Inca people or the spiritual center of the "Virgins of the Suns".[citation needed] marius ivanov altFactor File links The following pages link to this file: Machu Picchu ... marius ivanov altFactor File links The following pages link to this file: Machu Picchu ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Conquistador (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under Spanish rule between the 15th and 17th centuries. ... Hiram Bingham is the name of several people. ...


Another theory maintains that Machu Picchu was Inca "llacta": a settlement built to control the economy of the conquered regions. It may also have been built as a prison for a select few who had committed heinous crimes against Inca society. Research conducted by scholars, such as John Rowe and Richard Burger, has convinced most archaeologists that rather than a defensive retreat, Machu Picchu was an estate of the Inca emperor, Pachacuti. In addition, Johan Reinhard presented evidence that the site was selected based on its position relative to sacred landscape features. One such example is its mountains, which are purported to be in alignment with key astronomical events. Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ...


Although the citadel is located only about 80 kilometers (50 miles) from Cusco, the Inca capital, it was never found and consequently not plundered and destroyed by the Spanish, as was the case with many other Inca sites. Over the centuries, the surrounding jungle grew over the site, and few knew of its existence. On July 24, 1911, Machu Picchu was brought to the attention of scholars by Hiram Bingham, an American historian then employed as a lecturer at Yale University. He was led there by locals who frequented the site. Bingham undertook archaeological studies and completed a survey of the area. Bingham coined the name "The Lost City of the Incas", which was the title of his first book. He never gave any credit to those who led him to Machu Picchu, mentioning only "local rumor" as his guide. This article is about a type of fortification. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Hiram Bingham, formally Hiram Bingham III, (19 November 1875 – 6 June 1956) was an American academic, explorer and politician. ... Yale redirects here. ...

View of the city of Machu Picchu in 1911.
View of the city of Machu Picchu in 1911.

Bingham had been searching for the city of Vitcos, the last Inca refuge and spot of resistance during the Spanish conquest of Peru. In 1911, after years of previous trips and explorations around the zone, he was led to the citadel by Quechuans. These people were living in Machu Picchu, in the original Inca infrastructure. Even though most of the original inhabitants had died within a century of the city's construction, a small number of families survived so by the time the site was 'discovered' in 1911, there were still mummies (mostly women) in Machu Picchu and some families still living on the site. Bingham made several more trips and conducted excavations on the site through 1915. He wrote a number of books and articles about the discovery of Machu Picchu in his lifetime. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // Vitcos is a ruined palace in Peru, believed to have been built by ruler in exile Manco Inca during the Spanish conquest of Peru. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ...


Simone Waisbard, a long-time researcher of Cusco, claims that Enrique Palma, Gabino Sánchez, and Agustín Lizárraga left their names engraved on one of the rocks at Machu Picchu on July 14, 1901. This would mean that they 'discovered' it long before Bingham did in 1911. Likewise, in 1904, an engineer named Franklin supposedly spotted the ruins from a distant mountain. He told Thomas Paine, an English Plymouth Brethren Christian missionary living in the region, about the site, Paine's family members claim. In 1906, Paine and another fellow missionary named Stuart E McNairn (1867–1956) supposedly climbed up to the ruins. Simone Waisbard was a French explorer who spent years in South and Central America, studying remnants of the many ancient civilizations and tribes that have lived there. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Brethren are a Christian Evangelical movement that began in Dublin, London, Plymouth, and the continent of Europe in the late 1820s. ...

View of residential section of Machu Picchu in 2007.

In 1913, the site received significant publicity after the National Geographic Society devoted their entire April issue to Machu Picchu. In 1981 an area of 325.92 square kilometers surrounding Machu Picchu was declared a "Historical Sanctuary" of Peru. In addition to the ruins, this area includes a large portion of the regional landscape, rich with flora and fauna. This article is about the organization. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ...


Machu Picchu was designated as a World Heritage Site in 1983 when it was described as "an absolute masterpiece of architecture and a unique testimony to the Inca civilization".[2] On July 7, 2007, Machu Picchu was voted as one of New Open World Corporation's New Seven Wonders of the World. As a result of environmental degradation resulting from the impacts of tourism, uncontrolled development in the nearby town of Aguas Calientes (including a poorly-sited tram to ease visitor access), and the construction of a bridge across the Vilcanota River in defiance of a court order and government protests (which would most likely bring even more tourists to the site), the World Monuments Fund placed Machu Picchu on its 2008 Watch List of the 100 Most Endangered Sites in the world. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Location of the New Seven Wonders winners. ... The World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a private, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic art and architecture worldwide through fieldwork, advocacy, grantmaking, education, and training. ...


Location

Location of Machu Picchu.
Location of Machu Picchu.

Machu Picchu is 70 kilometers northwest of Cusco, on the crest of the mountain Machu Picchu, located about 2,350 meters (7,710 ft) above sea level. It is one of the most important archaeological centers in South America and the most visited tourist attraction in Peru. Image File history File links Machu_Picchu_Locn. ... Image File history File links Machu_Picchu_Locn. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


From the top, at the cliff of Machu Picchu, there is a vertical rock face of 600 meters ending at the foot of the Urubamba River. The location of the city was a military secret because its deep precipices and mountains were an excellent natural defense. The Inca Bridge, an Inca rope bridge across the Urubamba River in the Pongo de Mainique, provided a secret entrance for the Inca army. Another Inca bridge to the west of Machu Picchu, the trunk bridge, has a section across a cliff face with a 6 metres (20 ft) gap in it which could be bridged by two tree trunks. If the trees were removed, it would leave a 570 metres (1,900 ft) fall to the base of the cliffs to discourage invaders. It is above Urubamba Valley. The Urubamba River in Peru, a partially navigable headwater of the River Amazon, rises in the Andes to the south-east of Cuzco near the Puno region border (where it is called the Vilcanota) and flows north-north-west for 724 Kilometers before coalescing with the Apurimac River to form... The Inca Bridge or Inka Bridge seems to be the name or nickname of two places related to accesses of Machu Picchu, in Peru. ... Inca rope bridges were simple suspension bridges over canyons and gorges (pongos) to provide access for the Inca Empire. ... The Pongo de Mainique is a 50 yard wide, two mile long pongo (canyon), said to be the most dangerous whitewater pass on the Urubamba River; however, many boats traverse it, depending on seasonal river conditions. ... Inca army was the best organized of its time (15-16th centuries). ...


The city sits in a saddle between two mountains, with a commanding view down two valleys and a nearly impassable mountain at its back. It has a water supply from springs that cannot easily be blocked, and enough land to grow food for about four times as many people as actually lived there. The hillsides leading to it have been terraced, not only to provide more farmland to grow crops, but to steepen the slopes which invaders would have to ascend. There are two high-altitude routes from Machu Picchu across the mountains back to Cuzco, one through the sun gate, and the other across the Inca bridge. Both could easily be blocked if invaders should approach along them. Regardless of its ultimate purpose, it is in a highly defendable position.


View with Google map's


Architecture

View of Machu Picchu from Huayna Picchu, showing the Hiram Bingham Highway used by buses carrying tourists to and from the town of Aguas Calientes.
View of Machu Picchu from Huayna Picchu, showing the Hiram Bingham Highway used by buses carrying tourists to and from the town of Aguas Calientes.

Most of the construction in Machu Picchu uses the classic Inca architectural style of polished dry-stone walls of regular shape. The Incas were masters of this technique, called ashlar, in which blocks of stone are cut to fit together tightly without mortar. The Incas were among the best stone masons the world has seen, and many junctions in the central city are so perfect that not even a knife fits between the stones. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1769x1191, 1059 KB) Machu Piqchu Wayna Piqchuman rikusqa. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1769x1191, 1059 KB) Machu Piqchu Wayna Piqchuman rikusqa. ... View of Huayna Picchu towering above the ruins of Machu Picchu Huayna Picchu or Wayna Picchu (Quechua: Young Peak) is a mountain in Peru around which the Urubamba River bends. ... Aguas Calientes is a town on the Urubamba River in Peru. ... It has been suggested that Rock fence be merged into this article or section. ... Ashlar is dressed stone work of any type of stone. ... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ...


Other Inca buildings have been built using mortar, but by Inca standards that was quick, shoddy construction. Peru is a highly seismic land, and mortar-free construction was more earthquake-resistant than using mortar. Inca walls show numerous subtle design details that would prevent them from collapsing in an earthquake. Doors and windows are trapezoidal and tilt inward from bottom to top, corners are usually rounded, inside corners often incline slightly into the rooms, and "L" shaped blocks are often used to tie outside corners together. Walls do not rise straight from top to bottom but are offset slightly from row to row. As a result, Machu Picchu is a city that has stood up well to earthquakes over the years. Mortar has several meanings: Mortar (weapon) fires shells at a much lower velocity and higher ballistic arc than other ordnance Paintball mortar fires paintballs or water balloons filled with paint Mortar (masonry), material used in masonry to fill the gaps between bricks and bind them together Mortar (firestop), hydraulic cementitious... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...


The Incas never used the wheel in any practical manner. How they moved and placed enormous blocks of stones is a mystery, although the general belief is that they used hundreds of men to push the stones up inclined planes. A few of the stones still have knobs on them that could have been used to lever them into position. After they were placed, the Incas would have sanded the knobs away.


The space is composed of 140 constructions including temples, sanctuaries, parks and residences (houses with thatched roofs). There are more than one hundred flights of stone steps – often completely carved from a single block of granite – and a great number of water fountains, interconnected by channels and water-drainages perforated in the rock, designed for the original irrigation system. Evidence has been found to suggest that the irrigation system was used to carry water from a holy spring to each of the houses in turn. Ajax prepares to violate the sanctuary of Athena by abducting Cassandra by force: red-figure vase, c. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Inca wall at Machu Picchu
Inca wall at Machu Picchu

According to archaeologists, the urban sector of Machu Picchu was divided into three great districts: the Sacred District, the Popular District, to the south, and the District of the Priests and the Nobility. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1144 KB) Summary Inca wall at Machu Picchu Photograph: Rubyk Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1144 KB) Summary Inca wall at Machu Picchu Photograph: Rubyk Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Located in the first zone are the primary archaeological treasures: the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun and the Room of the Three Windows. These were dedicated to Inti, their sun god and greatest deity. The Popular District, or Residential District, is the place where the lower class people lived. It includes storage buildings and simple houses to live in. Inti or Sun of May of the flag of Argentina, 1818 In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ...


In the royalty area, a sector existed for the nobility: a group of houses located in rows over a slope; the residence of the Amautas (wise persons) was characterized by its reddish walls, and the zone of the Ñustas (princesses) had trapezoid-shaped rooms. The Monumental Mausoleum is a carved statue with a vaulted interior and carved drawings. It was used for rites or sacrifices. Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Amauta Inca education during the time of the Inca Empire was divided into two principal spheres: education for the upper classes and education for the general population. ...


As part of their road system, the Inca built a road to Machu Picchu. Today, tens of thousands of tourists walk the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu, acclimatising at Cusco before starting on a two- to four-day journey on foot from the Urubamba valley up through the Andes mountain range. Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ...


Intihuatana Stone

Shamanic legends say that if you're a sensitive person and you rub your forehead against the stone you will see the spirit world. The Intihuatana stone is one of the many ritual stones in South America. They are arranged so they point directly at the sun during the winter solstice. The Spanish did not find Machu Picchu until the 20th century so the Intihuatana Stone was not destroyed like many other ritual stones. It is also called "The Hitching Point of the Sun" because it was supposed to hold the sun in its place. At midday on March 21st and September 21st the sun stands almost above the pillar creating no shadow at all. [3] It is (as they said before) believed to be an astronomic clock built by the Incas. [4] The Intihuatana Stone was damaged in September 2000 when a 450 kg (1,000-pound) crane fell onto it, breaking off a piece of stone the size of a ballpoint pen. The crane was being used by a crew hired by J. Walter Thompson advertising agency to film an advertisement for the Cristal beer brand. "Machu Picchu is the heart of our archaeological heritage and the Intihuatana is the heart of Machu Picchu. They've struck at our most sacred inheritance," said Federico Kaufmann Doig, a Peruvian archaeologist.[5] In the 1980s, a large rock from Machu Picchu's central plaza was moved to a different location in order to create a helicopter landing zone. However, since the 1990s, helicopter flights are no longer possible. JWT is the current name of the United States largest and worlds fourth largest advertising agency originally founded by William James Carlton in 1864 and renamed by James Walter Thompson in 1877 to The James Walter Thompson Company. ...


Concerns over tourism

Temple of the Sun
Temple of the Sun

Machu Picchu is a UNESCO World Heritage site. As Peru’s most visited tourist attraction and major revenue generator, it is continually threatened by economic and commercial forces. In the late 1990s, the Peruvian government granted concessions to allow the construction of a cable car to the ruins and development of a luxury hotel, including a tourist complex with boutiques and restaurants. These plans were met with protests from scientists, academics and the Peruvian public, worried that the greater numbers of visitors would pose tremendous physical burdens on the ruins. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 615 KB)[edit] Summary Machu Picchu Intihuatana, Author: Fabricio Guzmán [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 615 KB)[edit] Summary Machu Picchu Intihuatana, Author: Fabricio Guzmán [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Llama and tourists at the guard house.
Llama and tourists at the guard house.

A growing number of people visit Machu Picchu (400,000 in 2003[6]). For this reason, there were protests against a plan to build a further bridge to the site[7] and a no-fly zone exists in the area.[8] UNESCO is considering putting Machu Picchu on its list of endangered World Heritage Sites.[7] A No-Fly Zone is a territory over which aircraft generally or certain unauthorized aircraft are not permitted to fly. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... These are thirty sites which the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has decided to include on a list of World Heritage Sites in danger; this list also shows the year in which the World Heritage committee added the site to this list. ...


Controversy with Yale University

View looking down onto Machu Picchu from the trail to the Sun Temple
View looking down onto Machu Picchu from the trail to the Sun Temple

During his early years in Peru, Bingham built strong relationships with top Peruvian officials. As a result, he had little trouble obtaining necessary permission, paperwork, and permits to travel throughout the country and borrow archeological artifacts. Upon returning to Yale University, Bingham had collected around 5,000 such objects to be kept in Yale's care until such time as the Peruvian government requested their return. [9]


On March 14, 2006, the controversy was reignited in part by the Hartford Courant reporting that the wife of former Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo had accused Yale University of profiting from Peru's cultural heritage by claiming title to more than 250 museum-quality pieces that had been removed from Machu Picchu by Hiram Bingham in 1912 and had been on display at Yale's Peabody Museum ever since. Some of the material Bingham removed was returned to Peru but Yale kept the rest saying its position was supported by federal case law involving Peruvian antiquities.[10] is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and the only morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... Alejandro Toledo (Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique) (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician. ... Yale redirects here. ...


On August 14, 2007, the Hartford Courant reported that Yale had agreed to turn over to Peru an inventory of some 300 museum-quality pieces in its collection. The breakthrough was followed by Peru's new president, Alan Garcia, appointing a delegation to continue talks with Yale and potentially settle the dispute without pursuing the lawsuit threatened by his predecessor, Alejandro Toledo.[11] is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Alan Garc rez (born May 23, 1949 in Lima) was President of Peru from 1985 to 1990. ... Alejandro Toledo (Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique) (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician. ...


On September 19, 2007, the Hartford Courant reported that Peru and Yale University had reached an agreement regarding return of artifacts removed from Machu Picchu in the early 20th century by Hiram Bingham. The agreement includes sponsorship of a joint traveling exhibition and construction of a new museum and research center in Cusco on which Yale will advise Peru. Yale acknowledges Peru's title to all the excavated objects from Machu Picchu but Yale will share rights with Peru in the research collection, part of which will remain at Yale as an object of continuing study.[12] is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Panoramic Photo of Machu Picchu III.
Panoramic Photo of Machu Picchu III.
Hi-Res Panoramic Photo of Machu Picchu.
Hi-Res Panoramic Photo of Machu Picchu.[13]

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 176 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 220 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Machu Picchu Panorama. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 176 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 220 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Machu Picchu Panorama. ...

Virtual Tour of Machu Picchu

The Peru department of tourism PROMPERU has sponsored the world's first full screen 360 x 360 virtual tour of the entire citadel. Virtual Tour of Machu Picchu


See also

View of Choquequirao Choquequirao (Quechua: Choqekiraw) is a partly excavated ruined city of the Inca in the south of Peru. ... the fortress of Kuelap. ... Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu — UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO (2006). Retrieved on 9 December, 2006.
  2. ^ UNESCO advisory body evaluation (PDF).
  3. ^ http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:JSwdbm9AmYwJ:www.sacredsites.com/americas/peru/machu_picchu.html+%22Intihuatana+Stone%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&client=firefox-a
  4. ^ Intihuatana stone at Everything.com.
  5. ^ Sacred stone in Machu Picchu damaged during beer commercial, CNN, September 12, 2000, <http://archives.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/americas/09/11/peru.machupicchu.ap/> 
  6. ^ "Row erupts over Peru's tourist treasure", BBC News Online. 27 December 2003
  7. ^ a b "Bridge stirs the waters in Machu Picchu", BBC News Online, 1 February 1 2007
  8. ^ "Peru bans flights over Inca ruins", BBC News Online, 8 September 2006
  9. ^ Andrew Mangino (2006-04-12). Elections could avert Peru's lawsuit. Yale Daily News Publishing Company, Inc.. Retrieved on June 26, 2006.
  10. ^ Hartford Courant. "Peru Presses Yale On Relics." March 14, 2006..
  11. ^ Hartford Courant. "Yale Will Give Peru A List Of Artifacts." August 14, 2007..
  12. ^ Hartford Courant. "Yale To Return Incan Artifacts" by Edmund H. Mahoney. September 19, 2007
  13. ^ Norbert Krupa. August 14, 2007

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bingham, Hiram (1979 [1930]) Machu Picchu a Citadel of the Incas. Hacker Art Books, New York.
  • Burger, Richard and Lucy Salazar (eds.) (2004) Machu Picchu: Unveiling the Mystery of the Incas. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Frost, Peter (1995) Machu Picchu Historical Sanctuary. Nueves Imágines, Lima.
  • Reinhard, Johan (2002) Machu Picchu: The Sacred Center. Lima: Instituto Machu Picchu (2nd ed.).
  • Richardson, Don (1981) Eternity in their Hearts. Regal Books, Ventura. ISBN 0-8307-0925-8, pp. 34–35.
  • Wright, Kenneth and Alfredo Valencia (2000) Machu Picchu: A Civil Engineering Marvel. ASCE Press, Reston.

External links

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Machu Picchu

Coordinates: 13°09′47″S, 72°32′44″W Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru_(state). ... An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Acaray is a town in Paraguay. ... Buena Vista is the 20-acre site of an archaeological dig north of Lima, Peru. ... Cahuachi, in Peru, was a major ceremonial center of the Nazca culture and overlooked some of the Nazca lines from 1 CE to about 500 CE. Italian archaeologist Giuseppe Orefici has been excavating the site for the past few decades, bringing a team down every year. ... Editor: The name of the first andean civilization is Caral, and not Norte Chico. Caral civilization was defined for the first time by Ruth Shady in 1997, after the Sacred City of Caral. ... Overview of ruins of the Tschudi Complex, Chan Chan The largest Pre-Columbian city in South America, Chan Chan is an archaeological site located in the Peruvian region of La Libertad, just north of Trujillo. ... Chankillo is an ancient monumental complex in the Peruvian coastal desert, found in the Casma-Sechin Oasis in the Ancash Department of Peru. ... Chavín de Huantar is an archaeological site located 250 kilometers (155 miles) north of Lima, Peru. ... View of Choquequirao Choquequirao (Quechua: Choqekiraw) is a partly excavated ruined city of the Inca in the south of Peru. ... Cumbe Mayo Aqueduct Cumbe Mayo is located about 12 miles (19 km) southwest of the Peruvian city of Cajamarca, at an elevation of approximately 11,000 feet (3,300 meters). ... A view of the Huaca de la Luna, with Cerro Blanco in the background. ... Huaca del Sol as seen from the southeast, with the Moche River delta beyond and city ruins in the foreground. ... Jiskairumoko during excavation 2002 Jiskairumoko is a pre-columbian archaeological site located 54 kilometers (33 miles) south east of Puno, Peru. ... the fortress of Kuelap. ... Ollantaytambo terraces Ollantaytambo is a town in southern Peru, located in the district of Ollantaytambo, province of Urubamba, Cusco region. ... Pachacamac empire The ancient city of Pachacamac is a ruin 40 km southeast of Lima, Peru in the Valley of the Lurín River. ... Pikillacta (City of fleas) is a large Huari archaeological site 20km east of Cusco also known as Piki Llacta or Piquillacta. ... In the central highlands of Peru, more specifically in the Ayacucho Valley is the site of Flea Cave, or Pikimachay. ... Qallaqasa, the citadel. ... Raqchi overview Raqchi is an archaeological site in the Cusco region in Peru. ... Ruins of Sacsayhuamán with view of the city of Cusco in the background Sacsayhuamán (also known as Saksaq Waman) is a walled complex near the old city of Cusco. ... The tallest chullpa of Sillustani, about 12 m high. ... Tambo Colorado remains of original colours on adobe walls Tambo Colorado overview Tambo Colorado is a well-preserved Inca adobe site on the coast of Peru. ... Purgatorio (purgatory) is the name by which local people refer to the dozens of prehispanic pyramids, enclosures and mounds found on the plain around La Raya Mountain, south of the La Leche River. ... Vilcabamba a city founded by Manco Inca in 1539 and was the last refuge of the Inca Empire until it fell to the Spaniards in 1572, signalling the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Machu Picchu, Machu Picchu Peru, Machu Picchu Artifacts, Machu Picchu Tourism (1220 words)
Machu Picchu tourism is one of Peru’s proudest industries, and thankfully the country sees fit to share its crown jewel with anyone who is fortunate enough to make the trip.
Machu Picchu was probably built around the year 1450 AD, and it only thrived for approximately 100 years.
Machu Picchu tourism peaks from June to August, and if you are visiting during these months, you can expect to share the site with about 3,000 other visitors.
Machu Picchu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2010 words)
Machu Picchu (Quechua: Old Peak; sometimes called the "Lost City of the Incas") is a well-preserved pre-Columbian Inca ruin located on a high mountain ridge.
Machu Picchu is located 70 kilometers to the northwest of Cusco, on the crest of the mountain Machu Picchu, located about 2,350 meters above sea level.
On July 24, 1911, Machu Picchu was brought to the attention of the West by Hiram Bingham III, an American historian then employed as a lecturer at Yale University.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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