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Encyclopedia > Machining
A lathe is a common tool used in machining.
A lathe is a common tool used in machining.

Machining is an occupation or hobby or a class of material-working processes that involves using a power-driven machine tool, such as a lathe, milling machine or drill, to shape metal. Machining is a part of the manufacture of almost all metal products. Some plastic parts are machined. A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist. Image File history File links Lathe. ... Image File history File links Lathe. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ... In computing, a process is, roughly speaking, a task being run by a computer, often simultaneously with many other tasks. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... A lower quality cordless power drill. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. ... Household items made out of plastic. ... A machinist is a craftsman who uses machine tools to make parts or alter parts by cutting away excess material. ...


A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop.

Contents

Machining operations

Most machining operations can be divided into those that remove metal from an item, and those that form metal in an item.


Often an unfinished workpiece will need to have some parts removed or scraped away in order to create a finished product. For example, a lathe is a machine tool that generates circular sections by rotating a metal workpiece, so that a cutting tool can peel metal off, creating a smooth, round surface. A drill or punch press can be used to remove metal in the shape of a hole. Other tools that may be used for various types of metal removal are milling machines, saws, and grinding tools. Many of these same techniques are used in woodworking. Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... A lower quality cordless power drill. ... A Punch Press is a machine that has a set of punches and dies, a male (punch) and female (die), which when pressed together put a hole into the material used that is the same geometry as the punch that is being used. ... Cutters for a milling machine. ... Look up saw, SAW in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... Artists can use woodworking to create delicate sculptures. ...


Metal can be formed into a desired shape much more easily than materials such as wood or stone, especially when the metal is heated. A machinist may use a forging machine to hammer or mold a hot metal workpiece into a desired shape. Dies or molds may be used if the metal is soft enough, or under high pressures. A press is used to flatten a piece of metal into a desired shape. A blacksmiths forge For finery forges (making iron) see finery forge. ...


Advanced machining operations might use electrical discharge, elecro-chemical erosion, or laser cutting to shape metal workpieces. Electrical Discharge Machine Electrical discharge machining (or EDM) is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be impossible to machine with traditional techniques. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as understood by materials science, see Erosion (materials science) For erosion as an English analogy, see Erosion (figurative) Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of wind, water... A LASER (acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is an optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. ...


As a commercial venture, machining is generally performed in a machine shop, which consists of one or more workrooms containing major machine tools. Although a machine shop can be a stand alone operation, many businesses maintain internal machine shops which support specialized needs of the business.


The inferior finish found on the machined surface of a workpiece may be caused by insufficient clamping, cutting conditions or perhaps an incorrectly adjusted machine. It is evident by an undulating or irregular finish, and the appearance of waves on the surface.


Machining as a hobby

Machining can be a hobby in itself, or it can be useful in pursuing other hobbies. For instance plenty of car restorers would have good home workshops with a range of machine tools. There are also individuals who start building up a home workshop with the idea of eventually building some project, such as maybe a miniature steam locomotive, but get sidetracked into building the machine tools themselves and their accessories. The home machine shop thus may end up being a satisfying hobby in itself. There are in fact at least four magazines that cater to this side of the hobby, "Home Shop Machinist" and "Machinist's Workshop" in the USA, and "Model Engineer" and "Model Engineer's Workshop" in the United Kingdom. "Machinist's Workshop" and "Model Engineer's Workshop" tend to be very project-oriented, while the other two tend to present a mix of projects, techniques, and theory. Model Engineer Magazine was first published (in the United Kingdom) to support the hobby of model engineering in 1898 by Percival Marshall, who was to remain its editor for over 50 years. ...


Machining in manufacturing industries

Machining in precision manufacturing refers to a family of material removal operations that form surfaces on parts of products. These surfaces usually have tightly specified dimensional tolerances in the range of micrometers (100 micrometers down to fractions of a micrometer). These tolerances on the manufactured surfaces of machined parts may include shape tolerances such as flatness, waviness, or roughness, and specifications restricting the presence of surface defects such as porosity, burrs, dings, scratches, tool marks, cracks, edge breaks and gouges. Thorough measurement of a machined surface at each stage of its creation in a production process presents a challenge due to the variety of these characteristics, the spatial resolution required for sensing them relative to the total area of the part being machined, and the takt time available for accomplishing the measurement. High-definition metrology provides one means for accomplishing machined surface metrology at rates compatible with the usual required pace of production for large precision-machined parts. A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the size of a droplet of mist or fog. ... The intuitive idea of flatness is important in several fields. ... Roughness or rugosity is a measurement (see surface metrology) of the small-scale variations in the height of a physical surface. ... Used in geology, building science and hydrogeology, the porosity of a porous medium (such as rock or sediment) is the proportion of the non-solid volume to the total volume of material, and is defined by the ratio: where Vp is the non-solid volume (pores and liquid) and Vm... Takt time can be defined as the maximum time allowed to produce a product in order to meet demand. ... Metrology (from Greek metron (measure), and -logy) is the science of measurement. ...


See also

A workshop is a room or building which provides both the area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. ...

External links

  • The Machine Tool Archive
  • Combined site of The Home Shop Machinist & Machinist's Workshop
  • Manufacturing Engineering Centre (MEC), Cardiff University, UK. Machining.


Metalworking:

 Milling and machining: Image File history File links Blacksmith-hammer-anvil-50x50. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Metalworking topics:   Electrical Discharge Machine Electrical discharge machining (or EDM) is a machining method primarily used for hard metals or those that would be impossible to machine with traditional techniques. ... Electro Chemical Machining (or ECM) is a method of working extremely hard materials or materials that are difficult to machine cleanly using conventional methods. ... Several types of endmills An endmill is a type of Milling cutter, a cutting tool used in industrial milling applications. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... A hobbing machine is a special form of milling machine that mills gears. ... Center lathe with DRO and chuck guard. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines or machining centres. ... Cutters for a milling machine. ... A metalworking planer is a type of metalworking machine tool, analogous to a shaper but larger and with the entire workpiece moving beneath the cutter. ... Shaper tool slide, clapper box and cutting tool A shaper is a machine tool used for shaping or surfacing metal and other materials. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Casting | CNC | Cutting tools | Drilling and threading | Fabrication | Finishing | Grinding | Jewellery | Lathe (tool) | Machining | Machine tooling | Measuring | Metalworking | Hand tools | Metallurgy | Milling | Occupations | Press tools | Smithing | Terminology | Welding This article is about the manufacturing process. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Drilling is the process of using a drill bit in a drill to produce holes. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication is an industrial term generally applied to the building of metal machines and structures. ... Metalworking finishing is the activity of making things out of metal in a skillful manner. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... Earring Jewellery (jewelry in American English) is any piece of fine material used to adorn the human body. ... Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Metalworking hand tools are hand tools that are used in the metalworking field. ... Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Cutters for a milling machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Smith (metalwork). ... Power press with a fixed barrier guard A press, or a machine press is a tool used to work metal (typically steel) by changing its shape and internal structure. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...

Category:Manufacturing


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