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Encyclopedia > Machiavellian intelligence

In cognitive science and evolutionary psychology, Machiavellian intelligence (also known as political intelligence or social intelligence) is the capacity of an entity to be in a successful political engagement with social groups. Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain certain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as evolved adaptations, i. ... Political science is the field of the social sciences concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection consisting of a number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity. ...

Contents

History

The term refers to Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince (1513) and to the hypothesis that the techniques which lead to certain kinds of political success within large social groups are also applicable within smaller groups, including the family-unit. The term "everyday politics" was later introduced in reference to these various methods. These arguments are based on research by primatologists such as Nicholas Humphrey (1975). Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was a political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection consisting of a number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... Professor Nicholas Keynes Humphrey (b. ...


Machiavelli's teachings continue to unduly influence all levels of American society. Take for example a situation presented by Michael Walzer: An elementary school needs a new roof. Simple as it may seem, much of Machiavelli's theories will be put to use. Money from a budget must be allocated by officials, each of them lobbying for what they think is most important. Even then, if money is allocated towards a new roof, a construction contractor must be hired. One must consistently consider, What is behind this lower estimate for the construction work? Why does this company want this small contract? Many questions must be asked in order to identify deception. In the end, all anyone can ever do is "strive to make an informed decision based on the best evidence, and then act accordingly, even though the best evidence will never guarantee certainty."


Machiavellian intelligence may be demonstrated by behaviors including: For the Pet Shop Boys album of the same name see Behaviour Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ...

A promise is a transaction between two persons whereby the first person undertakes in the future to render some service or gift to the second person or devotes something valuable now and here to his use. ... This page is about untruth. ... For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... To Blame is to hold another person or group responsible for perceived faults, be those faults real, imagined, or merely invented for perjorative purposes. ... Rembrandt - The Return of the Prodigal Son Forgiveness is the mental and/or spiritual process of ceasing to feel resentment or anger against another person for a perceived offence, difference or mistake, or ceasing to demand punishment or restitution. ... Deception is providing intentionally misleading information to others. ... Misdirection is a form of deception, where one feints in a particular course, and then exploits the misled pursuers mistake to escape, or remain undetected. ...

Machiavellian intelligence and autism

Some theorists believe that autistic people lack Machiavellian intelligence. One hypothesis is that they lack a "theory of mind" which is necessary for both cooperation and deceit. However, various aspects of autistic behavior, such as wavering eye contact and abnormal body language can give a false impression to observers that autism sufferers are lacking in honesty. Autism is classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in delays of social interaction, language as used in social communication, or symbolic or imaginative play, with onset prior to age 3 years, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Machiavellian intelligence and non-human primates

The capacity of orangutans and gorillas to lie, blame, misdirect and mislead was demonstrated during the 1980s and 1990s[citation needed]. Type Species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes with long arms and reddish, sometimes brown, hair native to Indonesia and Malaysia . ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling herbivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... Germans dancing on the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the symbol of the cold war divide falls down as the world unites in the 1990s. ...


See also

Folk psychology (sometimes called naïve psychology) is the psychological theory implicit in our everyday ascriptions of others actions, and includes concepts such as belief (he thinks that Peter is wise), desire (she wants that piece of cake), fear (Alex is afraid of spiders) and hope (she hopes that he... Autism is classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in delays of social interaction, language as used in social communication, or symbolic or imaginative play, with onset prior to age 3 years, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. ... Game theory is most often described as a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where players choose different actions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ... Will the two prisoners cooperate to minimize total loss of liberty or will one of them, trusting the other to cooperate, betray him so as to go free? In game theory, the prisoners dilemma is a type of non-zero-sum game in which two players can cooperate with... Machiavellianism is the term some social and personality psychologists use to describe a persons tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Machiavellian intelligence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (163 words)
In cognitive science and evolutionary psychology, Machiavellian intelligence (political intelligence or social intelligence), is the capacity of an entity in successful political engagement with social groups.
The capacity of non-humans to lie, blame, misdirect and mislead was demonstrated by orang-utans and gorillas during the 1980s and 1990s.
One hypothesis is that they lack a "theory of mind" which is necessary for both cooperation and deceit.
more about generalism (1175 words)
Intelligence is the different way we get our food, and is our advantage, especially in times of climatic instability or extreme seasonal variation.
Chimpanzees may seem to be a good evidence for the Machiavellian Intelligence hypothesis, but their close relatives bonobos do not.
If the Machiavellian Intelligence hypothesis were true, then as soon as an older man began to slow up due to age or illness, he would be attacked by other males and replaced.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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