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Encyclopedia > Macedonian language
Macedonian
Македонски јазик
Makedonski jazik 
Pronunciation: [maˈkɛdɔnski]
Spoken in: Republic of Macedonia, Australia, Serbia, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and others 
Region: The Balkans
Total speakers: 2[1] - 3 million[2] 
Ranking: 180 (native)
Language family: Indo-European
 Slavic
  South Slavic
   Eastern South Slavic
    Macedonian 
Writing system: Cyrillic (Macedonian variant
Official status
Official language in: Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Republic of Macedonia
recognised as minority language in parts of:
Flag of Albania Albania[3]
Flag of Serbia Serbia[4]
Regulated by: Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov" at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
Language codes
ISO 639-1: mk
ISO 639-2: mac (B)  mkd (T)
ISO 639-3: mkd 

Countries with significant Macedonian-speaking populations.
(Click on image for the legend)

Macedonian (македонски јазик , makedonski jazik, IPA[maˈkɛdɔnski ˈjazik]) is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia and is a part of the Eastern group of South Slavic languages. It is also referred to by several alternative names, many formed with the word Slavic. Macedonian is closely related to Bulgarian, with which it is mutually intelligible, and to a lesser extent with Serbian.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Balkan redirects here. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... South Slavic languages comprise one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The modern Macedonian alphabet (as any Slavic Cyrillic alphabet) is ultimately based on the Cyrillic alphabet (кирилица) of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius; it is an adaptation of Vuk Karadžićs (Serbian) phonetic alphabet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The Ss. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Mk-Makedonski_jazik. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... South Slavic languages comprise one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). ... In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a property exhibited by a set of languages when speakers of any one of them can readily understand all the others without intentional study or extraordinary effort. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

Contents



Classification and related languages

Macedonian language
"On Macedonian Matters"
History
Naming dispute
Literature
Distribution
Regulatory body
Dialects
Grammar:
  • Pronouns
  • Phonology

Orthography: Image File history File links Misirkov-ZaMakedonskiteRaboti. ... This article is about the history of the Slavic language. ... The name of the Macedonian language (Macedonian: Македонски јазик) as used by the people and defined in the constitution of the Republic of Macedonia is Macedonian (Macedonian: Македонски - Makedonski) . This is also the name used by international bodies, such as the United Nations and the World Health Organisation . ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

The modern Macedonian language belongs to the eastern sub-branch of the South Slavic branch of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The closest relative of Macedonian is Bulgarian, with which it is mutually intelligible. Following that, the next closest languages are Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian. Macedonian and its neighbours form a dialect continuum, with the Bulgarian standard based on the more eastern dialects and Macedonian based on the more western ones. It also includes the Torlakian dialect group that is intermediate between Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbia, comprising some of the northernmost dialects of Macedonian as well as varieties spoken in southern Serbia. The modern Macedonian alphabet (as any Slavic Cyrillic alphabet) is ultimately based on the Cyrillic alphabet (кирилица) of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius; it is an adaptation of Vuk Karadžićs (Serbian) phonetic alphabet. ... South Slavic languages comprise one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Torlakian is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia, Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ...


Together with its immediate Slavic neighbours, Macedonian also forms a constituent language of the Balkan Sprachbund, a group of languages which share typological, grammatical and lexical features based on geographical convergence, rather than genetic proximity. Its other principal members are Romanian, Greek and Albanian, all of which belong to different genetic branches of the Indo-European family of languages (Romanian is a Romance language, while Greek and Albanian each comprise their own separate branches). Macedonian and Bulgarian are the only Slavic languages that don't use noun cases (except for the vocative, and apart from some traces of once living inflections still found scattered throughout the languages). They are also the only Slavic languages with any definite articles (there are three: unspecified, proximate and distal). This last feature is shared with Romanian, Greek, and Albanian. The Balkan sprachbund or linguistic area is the ensemble of areal features—similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various branches of Indo-European, such as Slavic, Greek, Romance and Albanian. ... Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: generally, the alteration of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ...


Geographical distribution

Further information: Geographical distribution of the Macedonian Language

The population of the Republic of Macedonia was 2,022,547 in 2002, with 1,644,815 speaking Macedonian as the native language.[5] Outside of the Republic, there are Macedonians living in other parts of the geographical area of Macedonia. There are ethnic Macedonian minorities in neighbouring Albania, in Bulgaria and in Greece. According to the official Albanian census of 1989, 4,697 ethnic Macedonians reside in Albania.[6] In the most recent Bulgarian census, 5,071 Bulgarian residents professed proficiency in the Macedonian language.[7] In Greece, although groups may be considered to be speaking dialects heteronomous with standard Macedonian, they do not all identify their language with their national identity. The Slavic speaking minority in Greece varies on how it describes its language - most speakers describe it as Slavic and proclaim a Greek national identity; some smaller groups describe their speech as "Macedonian" and espouse an ethnic Macedonian identity; others describe it as "Bulgarian" and espouse a Bulgarian ethnic identity; and some prefer to identify as dopii and their dialect as dopia which mean "local" or "indigenous" in Greek.[8] For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article is about the region spanning several countries in southeastern Europe. ... This article is about the Slavic ethnic group; for the unrelated people of ancient and modern Greece, see Ancient Macedonians and Macedonians (Greek) respectively. ... A heteronomous language is a variety oriented towards an autonomous language. ... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ...


A large number of Macedonians live outside the traditional Balkan Macedonian region, with Australia, Canada and the USA having the largest emigrant communities. According to a 1964 estimate, approximately 580,000 Macedonians live outside of the Republic of Macedonia[9], nearly 30% of the total population. The Macedonian spoken by communities outside the republic dates back to before the standardisation of the language and retains many dialectic though, overall, mutually intelligible variations. This article is about the region spanning several countries in southeastern Europe. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


The Macedonian language has the status of official language only within the Republic of Macedonia, and is a recognised minority language in parts of Albania. The language is taught in some universities in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Russia, Serbia, the United States and the United Kingdom among other countries. For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...


Usage

The total number of Macedonian speakers is a highly disputed topic. Of Macedonia's neighbors, Serbia and Albania recognize the Macedonian language whereas Greece and Bulgaria do not.[1] According to the latest censuses and figures, the number of Macedonian-speakers is:

Distribution of the Macedonian language according to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups
Distribution of the Macedonian language according to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups
State Number
Lower Range Higher Range
Republic of Macedonia 1,700,000[10] 2,022,547[11]
Albania 4,697[12] 30,000[13]
Bulgaria 5,071[7] 25,000[14]
Greece 180,180 Bilingual speakers[15] 250,000[16][17]
Serbia 14,355[18] 30,000[19]
Rest of the Balkans 15,939[20] 25,000
Canada 37,055[21] 150,000[22]
Australia 71,994[23] 200,000[24]
Germany 62,295[25] 85,000[26]
Italy 50,000[27] 74,162[28]
United States of America 45,000[29] 200,000[30]
Switzerland 6,415[31] 60,362[32]
Rest of World 101,600[33] 110,000[34]
Total 2,289,904 3,435,395

Dialects

Part of a series of articles on
Macedonians
(ethnic group)
This article is about the Slavic ethnic group; for the unrelated people of ancient and modern Greece, see Ancient Macedonians and Macedonians (Greek) respectively. ...

Culture
Language · Literature · Art
Music · Cinema · Folklore
Costume · Cuisine · Symbols Macedonian culture is the culture of the Slavic Macedonian population of the Balkan region, known in the 20th century as Vardar Macedonia or the current Republic of Macedonia. ... Macedonian culture is the culture of the Slavic Macedonian population of the Balkan region, known in the 20th century as Vardar Macedonia or the current Republic of Macedonia. ... Music of the Republic of Macedonia and ethnic Macedonians has many things in common with the music of neighbouring Balkan countries, but maintains its own distinctive sound. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Religion
Macedonian Orthodox Church
Roman Catholicism
Greek Catholicism
Islam · Judaism
Protestants · Baptists The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Transliteration: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ... The Roman Catholic Church in the Republic of Macedonia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church, called the Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular church within Roman Catholic Church and uses Macedonian in the liturgy. ... Muslims in Macedonia form nearly one third (between 30 and 33%) of the Former Yugoslav Republic´s total population. ... The history of Jews in the territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia began in Roman times, when Jews first arrived in the region in the first century BC. Today, no more than 200 Jews reside in the Republic of Macedonia, almost all in the capital, Skopje. ... The Union of the Baptist Christians in the Republic of Macedonia is a small fellowship of Baptist churches in the Republic of Macedonia. ...

History
National Awakening
Ilinden Uprising
National Liberation War
National Liberation Front
Republic of Macedonia This article refers to the national awakening of the contemporary ethnic Macedonians, a Slavic ethnic group who form a slight majority in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Ethnic map of the Balkans prior to the Upspring. ... Combatants Allied Powers (communist) Yugoslav Partisans (Macedonian National Liberation Army) Axis Powers Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Commanders Josip Broz Tito Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo Mihajlo Apostoloski Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Bogdan Filov Strength ~25,000 - 1944 ~60,000 - 1944 Casualties Total casualties: 24,000 By nationality: (7,000 Jews, 6,000... The Slavic-Macedonian National Liberation Front (abbreviated NOF) (Macedonian: , transliterated Narodno Osloboditelen Front), also known as the Peoples Liberation Front, was a political and military organization created by the ethnic Macedonian minority in Greece. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

By region or country
Republic of Macedonia
Greece · Albania · Bulgaria
Diaspora
Serbia · Slovenia · Croatia
Australia · Canada · USA
Sweden · Romania
Switzerland · Germany For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The Macedonians (Македонци, Makedonci) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs [1] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Macedonian Australians are an ethnic group in Australia. ...

Subgroups
Aegean Macedonians
Torbeš The Macedonian Muslims (Macedonian: Македонци Муслимани or Makedonski Muslimani), also known as Muslim Macedonians[3] or Torbesh (the later name is somewhat pejorative and means the bag carriers), are a minority religious group within the community of ethnic Macedonians who are Sunni Muslims, although not all espouse a Macedonian national identity. ...

Other Articles
List of Macedonians
Macedonism · Holidays . ... Cover of Ethnological differences between Macedonians and Bulgarians (Macedonian: ) by Alexander Donski. ... 1–2 January : New Year – Нова Година 7 January : Christmas Day (Orthodox) – Прв ден Божиќ Easter Sunday (Orthodox) – Прв ден Велигден Easter Monday (Orthodox) – Втор ден Велигден 1–2 May : Labour Days – Ден на трудот 2 August : National (Ilinden Uprising) Day – Илинден 8 September : Independence Day – Ден на независноста 11 October: Revolution Day – Ден на востанието Category: ...

v  d  e
Main article: Dialects of Macedonian language

Based on a large group of features, Macedonian dialects can be divided into Eastern and Western groups (the boundary runs approximately from Skopje and Skopska Crna Gora along the rivers Vardar and Crna). In addition, a more detailed classification can be based on the modern reflexes of the Proto-Slavic reduced vowels (yers), vocalic sonorants, and the back nasal *ǫ. That classification distinguishes between the following 5 groups:[35] Location of the city of Skopje (green) in Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ... Vardar in Skopje Axios redirects here. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and all the other Slavic languages later emerged. ... The letter (Ъ, ÑŠ) of the Cyrillic alphabet is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак ) in the modern Russian alphabet and as er golyam (ер голям, big yer) in the Bulgarian alphabet. ...


Western Dialects:

  • Ohrid-Prespa Group
    • Ohrid dialect
    • Struga dialect
    • Vevčani-Radοža dialect
    • Upper Prespa dialect
    • Lower Prespa dialect.
  • Debar Group
    • Debar dialect
    • Reka Dialect
    • Drimkol-Golo Brdo dialect
    • Galičnik dialect
    • Skopska Crna Gora dialect
  • Polog Group
    • Upper Polog Dialect
    • Lower Polog Dialect
    • Prilep-Bitola dialect
    • Kičevo-Poreče dialect
    • Skopje-Veles dialect
  • Kostur-Korča Group
    • Korča dialect
    • Kostur dialect
    • Nestram-Kostenar dialect

Eastern Dialects:

  • Northern Group
    • Kumanovo dialect
    • Kratovo dialect
    • Kriva Palanka dialect
    • Ovče Pole dialect
  • Eastern Group
    • Štip-Strumica dialect
    • Tikveš-Mariovo dialect
    • Maleševo-Pirin dialect
    • Solun-Voden dialect
    • Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect.

The Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect and Maleševo-Pirin dialect are often considered to be Bulgarian dialects by many linguists[who?] or they are considered transitional dialects between Macedonian and Bulgarian.


Phonology

Main article: Macedonian phonology

The phoneme inventory of standard literary Macedonian contains 31 phonemes. These consist of five vowels, one semivowel, three liquid consonants (which are also called "semivowels" by Lunt (1952)) three nasal consonants, three pairs of fricatives, two pairs of affricates, a non-paired voiceless fricative, nine pairs of voiced and unvoiced consonants and four pairs of stops.[36] In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are speech sounds; more specifically, they are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial [j] in English yes corresponds to [i]). The class of liquids can be... Semivowels (sometimes called semiconsonants) are vowels that function as consonants. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ...


Vowels

Front Central Back
Close и /i/ у /u/
Mid е /ɛ/ о /ɔ/
Open а /a/

In addition, the schwa [ə] may appear in certain dialects or loanwords. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Consonants

Bilabial Labio-
Dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
Alveolar
Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g
Affricate ts dz
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral ɫ l

At the end of a word, the voicing opposition is neutralized and all consonants are pronounced as voiceless. In cases when /r/ is syllabic, an apostrophe is used before the letter Р. Examples include 'рж /r̩ʒ/ ('rye'), за'ржи /zar̩ʒi/ ('to rust') and 'рбет /r̩bɛt/) ('backbone'), among others. In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Final obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as German, Dutch, Polish, and Russian, among others. ... This article discusses the unit of speech. ... For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... Er (Р, р) is the eighteenth letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ...


Neither Lunt (1952) nor Friedman (2001) recognize the existence of a palatalised (/lʲ/) or palatal (/ʎ/) lateral in standard Macedonian. This is in contrast with the surrounding related languages (Bulgarian, Serbian and Croatian languages). Instead, a /lj/ sequence is supposed to occur, except in rapid speech. This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ...


Both of these scholars also assert that there is a phonemic contrast between the velarised lateral /ɫ/ and the nonvelarised /l/. While they admit that /l/ (as Л) and /ɫ/ occur mainly before front and non-front vowels, respectively, they state that, at least in the prescribed norm according to Friedman (2001:11-12) or in some words according to Lunt (1952:?) /l/ (as Љ) may also occur before non-front vowels. Hence minimal pairs like бела /bɛɫa/ ('white'), fem.) versus беља /bɛla/ ('trouble') express this contrast. Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ... El (Л, л) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... The Cyrillic letter lje (Љ, љ) was originally a ligature of Л and Ь. It is used in the Serbian language. ... In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phone, phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ...


Stress

The word stress in Macedonian is antepenultimate, meaning it falls on the third from last syllable in words with three or more syllables, and on the first or only syllable in other words. This rule is sometimes disregarded when the word has entered the language more recently or from a foreign source. The following rules apply: In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence). ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...

  • Disyllabic words are stressed on the second-to-last syllable.

For example, де́те [ˈdɛtɛ] ('child'), ма́jкa [majka] ('mother') and та́тко [ˈtatkɔ] ('father'). A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...

For example, та́ткото [ˈtatkɔtɔ] ('the father'), та́тковци ([ˈtatkɔvʦi], 'fathers'), and татко́вците [tatˈkɔvʦitɛ] ('the fathers'). A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...


Exceptions include:

  • Verbal adverbs: e.g. вика́јќи [viˈkajci] ('shouting'), оде́јќи [ɔˈdɛjci] ('walking').
  • Foreign loanwords: e.g. клише́ [kliˈʃɛ] ('cliché'), гене́за [gɛˈnɛza] ('genesis'), литерату́ра [litɛraˈtura] ('literature').

By comparison, in standard Bulgarian, the stress can fall anywhere within a word. Be sure to check the discussion page (and feel free to remove this tag if this article is updated). ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Grammar

Main article: Macedonian grammar

Macedonian grammar is markedly analytic in comparison with other Slavic languages, having lost the common Slavic case system. The Macedonian language shows some special and, in some cases, unique characteristics due to its central position in the Balkans. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... An analytic language is any language where syntax and meaning are shaped more by use of particles and word order than by inflection. ...


Literary Macedonian is the only South Slavic literary language that has three forms of the definite article, based on the degree of proximity to the speaker, and a past tense formed by means of an auxiliary verb "to have", followed by a past passive participle in the neuter. In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In linguistics, a participle (from Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχη partaking) is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or as a modifier. ... The word neuter can refer to: the property of being neither biologically male or female: being asexual the sterilization (castration, spaying, etc. ...


Both double object and mediative (sometimes referred to as renarrative or admirative) mood are also found in the Bulgarian language, although the use of double object is much more restricted in the Bulgarian standard (see also Bulgarian syntax). Clitic doubling, or pronominal reduplication, in linguistics, is a phenomenon by which clitic pronouns appear in verb phrases together with the full noun phrases that they refer to (as opposed to the cases where such pronouns and full noun phrases are in complementary distribution). ... The renarrative mood is a grammatical verb category that exists in some languages such as Bulgarian and Turkish. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ...


Vocabulary

As a result of the close relatedness with Bulgarian and Serbian, Macedonian shares a considerable amount of its lexicon with these languages. Other languages which have been in positions of power, such as Ottoman Turkish and increasingly English also provide a significant proportion of the loan words. Prestige languages, such as Old Church Slavonic, which occupies a relationship to modern Macedonian comparable to the relationship of medieval Latin to modern Romance languages, and Russian also provided a source for lexical borrowings. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


During the standardization process, there was deliberate care taken to try and purify the lexicon of the language. "Serbisms" and "Bulgarisms", which had become common due to the influence of these languages in the region were rejected in favor of words from native dialects and archaisms. One example being the word for "event", настан [ˈnastan], which was found in certain examples of folk poetry collected by the Miladinov Brothers in the 19th century, while the Macedonian writer Krste Misirkov had previously used the word собитие [ˈsɔbitiɛ].[37] This is not to say that there are no Serbisms, Bulgarisms or even Russianisms in the language, but rather that they were discouraged on a principle of "seeking native material first".[38] Codification is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language. ... Linguistic purism (or linguistic protectionism) is the definition of one language variety as purer than other varieties, often in reference to a perceived decline from an ideal past or an unwanted similarity with other languages, but sometimes simply to an abstract ideal. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... Front cover of the original edition of Bulgarian Folk Songs The Miladinov Brothers (Bulgarian: Братя Миладинови; Macedonian: Браќа Миладиновци). Dimitar Miladinov (1810-1862) and Konstantin Miladinov (1830-1862), were Bulgarian poets (in Republic of Macedonia they are considered Macedonian) and folklorists from Macedonia, authors of the most important collection of Bulgarian folk songs in... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Krste Misirkov Krste Petkov Misirkov (Bulgarian Cyrillic: Кръсте/Кръстю/Кръстьо Петков Мисирков, Macedonian Cyrillic: Крсте Петков Мисирков) (born: 18 November 1874 in Postol (today Pella), Greek Macedonia - died, 26 July 1926 in Sofia, Bulgaria) was a philologist and publicist, mostly known for his work On the Macedonian Matters. Because of his self-conflicting views expressed in different points...


Writing system

Alphabet

Main article: Macedonian alphabet

The modern Macedonian alphabet was developed by linguists in the period after the Second World War, who based their alphabet on the phonetic alphabet of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, though a similar writing system was used by Krste Misirkov in the late 19th century. The Macedonian language had previously been written using the Early Cyrillic alphabet, or later using the Cyrillic alphabet with local adaptations from either the Serbian or Bulgarian alphabets. The modern Macedonian alphabet (as any Slavic Cyrillic alphabet) is ultimately based on the Cyrillic alphabet (кирилица) of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius; it is an adaptation of Vuk Karadžićs (Serbian) phonetic alphabet. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Serbian Cyrillic: Вук Стефановић Караџић) (November 7, 1787 - February 7, 1864) was a Serbian linguist and major reformer of the Serbian language. ... Krste Misirkov Krste Petkov Misirkov (Bulgarian Cyrillic: Кръсте/Кръстю/Кръстьо Петков Мисирков, Macedonian Cyrillic: Крсте Петков Мисирков) (born: 18 November 1874 in Postol (today Pella), Greek Macedonia - died, 26 July 1926 in Sofia, Bulgaria) was a philologist and publicist, mostly known for his work On the Macedonian Matters. Because of his self-conflicting views expressed in different points... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The original Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Macedonia and in the First Bulgarian Empire in the tenth century to write the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Macedonian, Russian, Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Macedonian alphabet, along with the IPA value for each letter: Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Cyrillic
IPA
А а
/a/
Б б
/b/
В в
/v/
Г г
/ɡ/
Д д
/d/
Ѓ ѓ
/ɟ/
Е е
/ɛ/
Ж ж
/ʒ/
З з
/z/
Ѕ ѕ
/dz/
И и
/i/
Cyrillic
IPA
Ј ј
/j/
К к
/k/
Л л
/l/
Љ љ
/lj/
М м
/m/
Н н
/n/
Њ њ
/ɲ/
О о
/ɔ/
П п
/p/
Р р
/r/
С с
/s/
Cyrillic
IPA
Т т
/t/
Ќ ќ
/c/
У у
/u/
Ф ф
/f/
Х х
/x/
Ц ц
/ts/
Ч ч
/tʃ/
Џ џ
/dʒ/
Ш ш
/ʃ/

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A (А, а) is the first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Look up Б, б in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ve (Ð’, в) is the third letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the sound . ... Look up Г, г in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De (Д, д) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Gje (Ѓ, Ñ“) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Macedonian language and sometimes equivalent to Ñ’, mainly in Serbian words. ... Ye, or E (Е, е), is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Zhe (Ж, ж) is the letter of Cyrillic alphabet which represents the voiced postalveolar fricative (listen), similar to the s in the English word treasure. Zhe is the 7th letter of the Bulgarian and Belarusian alphabets, the 8th letter in the Macedonian, Russian and Serbian alphabets, and the 9th in the Ukrainian... Ze (З, з) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /z/. Its easily confusable with the number 3, for example the stages of the N1 rocket. ... Ð… is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet used in the Macedonian alphabet, and formerly used in the Russian and Romanian Cyrillic alphabets. ... I or Y (И, и) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, pronounced in Russian, or in Ukrainian. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Je (Ј, ј) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Serbian and Macedonian languages. ... Ka (К, к) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... El (Л, л) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic letter lje (Љ, љ) was originally a ligature of Л and Ь. It is used in the Serbian language. ... Em (М, м) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /m/. Code positions This article is a substub, the first step on the way to becoming a full article. ... Look up Н, н in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Cyrillic letter Nje (Њ, њ) was originally a ligature of Н and Ь. It is used in the Serbian language, where it represents a voiced palatal nasal. ... O (О, о) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /o/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Pe (П, п) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /p/. It arose directly from the Greek letter Pi (Π, Ï€). The shape of capital printed Pe can be described as a square with the bottom line missing, not to be confused with El (Cyrillic), which has a curved left. ... Er (Р, р) is the eighteenth letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Te (Т, т) is the letter representing the consonant /t/ in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Kje (Ќ, ќ) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Macedonian language. ... U (У, у) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /u/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Ef (Ф, ф) is the twenty-first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Kha, or Ha, (Х, х) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant /x/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Tse (Ц, ц) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Che (Ч, ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant cluster /tS/ or /tS/ (like the ch in change). Categories: Cyrillic letters | Stub ... Dzhe (Џ, ÑŸ) is a letter of Vuk Karadžićs Cyrillic alphabet reform, used in Serbian and Macedonian to represent the affricate (like the J in English jump). It replaces the digraph дж from some other Cyrillic alphabets. ... Sha (Ш, ш) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the consonant sound or . ...

Orthography

Macedonian orthography is consistent and phonemic in practice, an approximation of the principle of one grapheme per phoneme. A principle represented by Adelung's saying, "write as you speak and read as it is written" („пишувај како што зборуваш и читај како што е напишано“). Though as with most, if not all, living languages it has its share of inconsistencies and exceptions. In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Johann Christoph Adelung, from a portrait by Anton Graff Johann Christoph Adelung (8 August 1732 – 10 September 1806) was a German grammarian and philologist. ...


Examples

Lord's Prayer The Lords Prayer (sometimes known by its first two Latin words as the Pater Noster, in Greek as the , or the English equivalent Our Father) is probably the best-known prayer in Christianity. ...

Оче наш
Оче наш којшто си на небото,
да се свети името Твое,
да биде кралството Твое,
да биде волјата Твоја,
како на небото, така и на Земјата!
Лебот наш насушен дај ни го денес
и прости ни ги долговите наши
како што им проштеваме и ние
на нашите должници.
И не воведи нè во искушение'
но избави нè од лукавиот.
Амин!
Oče naš
Oče naš, kojšto si na neboto
da se sveti imeto Tvoe,
da bide kralstvoto Tvoe,
da bide voljata Tvoja,
kako na neboto, taka i na Zemjata!
Lebot naš nasušen daj ni go denes
i prosti ni gi dolgovite naši
kako što im proštevame i nie
na našite dolžnici.
I ne vovedi nè vo iskušenie,
no izbavi nè od lukaviot.
Amin!

History

South Slavic
languages and dialects
Western South Slavic
Slovene Language
Dialects
Slovene dialects
Central South Slavic diasystem
Croatian language
Dialects
Kajkavian · Chakavian
Western Shtokavian
Burgenland · Molise
Bosnian language
Dialects
Central Shtokavian
Serbian language
Dialects
Eastern Shotkavian · Slavoserbian
Romano-Serbian · Užice
Differences between Serbian,
Croatian, and Bosnian
Deprecated or non-ISO
recognized languages

Serbo-Croatian language
Bunjevac language
Montenegrin language
Šokac language
Eastern South Slavic
Old Church Slavonic
Church Slavonic
Bulgarian language
Dialects
Banat Bulgarian · Pomak Dialects
Shopski
Macedonian language
Dialects
Slavic dialects of Greece
Transitional dialects
Eastern-Central
Torlak dialects · Našinski
Western-Central
Kajkavian
Alphabets
Modern
Gaj’s Latin alphabet1
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
Macedonian Cyrillic
Bulgarian Cyrillic
Slovene alphabet
Historical

Bohoričica · Dajnčica · Metelčica
Arebica · Bosnian Cyrillic
Glagolitic · Early Cyrillic This article needs cleanup. ... Croatian language (hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily by the inhabitants of Croatia and Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina and parts of the Croatian diaspora. ... Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect (proper name: kajkavica) is one of the three main dialects of the Croatian. ... Chakavian (ÄŒakavian, čakavski) dialect is a dialect of the Croatian language. ... Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Burgenland Croatian language or dialect (gradišćanskohrvatski jezik) belongs to the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages. ... Molise Croatian dialect (also: Molise Slavic, Slavisano, na-naÅ¡o) is spoken in the Campobasso Province in the Molise Region of Italy, in three villages — Montemitro (Mundimitar), Aquaviva Collercroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Å tifilić). These have approximately 3,000 speakers. ... Bosnian language (Latin script: bosanski jezik) is a South Slavic language native to the Bosniak people and Ethnic Bosnians. ... Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Shtokavian or Å tokavian is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system: Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian languages. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... The Romano-Serbian language is a language in the Western group of South Slavic languages. ... Užican speech (Serbian: ужички говор or užički govor), also known as Zlatiborian speech (златиборски говор or zlatiborski govor) is a dialect of the Serbian language. ... The standard Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian languages differ in various aspects as outlined below. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... The Serbo-Croatian language or Croato-Serbian language (cрпскохрватски језик srpskohrvatski jezik), sometimes also called the Yugoslavian language or Yugoslav language (југословенски језик jugoslovenski jezik), is a South Slavic diasystem. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... The Shopi (шопи, scientific transliteration Å¡opi; singular шоп, Å¡op, with various regional names also existing) are are an ethnic subgroup of the Bulgarian people that inhabits the region of the Shopluk (Шоплук, Å opluk) in central western Bulgaria, around the towns of Botevgrad, Svoge, Elin Pelin, Kostinbrod, Slivnitsa, Dragoman, Samokov, Ihtiman, Dupnitsa, Kyustendil, Tran... Torlak[1] (Торлачки говор or Torlački govor) is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in southern and eastern Serbia, northeast Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo), northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo), and further afield in the CaraÅŸ-Severin County in Romania. ... NaÅ¡inski, Nashinski or Goranian is a Torlakian language (dialect) used by the Gorani in southern Kosovo. ... Location map of Kajkavian Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect (proper name: kajkavica) is one of the three main dialects of the Croatian. ... The variant of the Latin alphabet devised by Ljudevit Gaj, in his book 1830 Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja (A short primer of Croatian-Slavic orthography), is currently used as the only script of the Bosnian and Croatian standard languages, and as one of the two scripts of the Serbian... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The modern Macedonian alphabet (as any Slavic Cyrillic alphabet) is ultimately based on the Cyrillic alphabet (кирилица) of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius; it is an adaptation of Vuk Karadžićs (Serbian) phonetic alphabet. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... Bohorič alphabet (slovene bohoričica) was slovene writing system used in years 1550-1850. ... Dajnko alphabet or dajnčica was a slovenian writing system invented by Peter Dajnko. ... Metelko alphabet (slovene: metelčica) was a slovenian writing system developed by Franc Serafin Metelko. ... Bosancica is a script, that was used in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Dalmatia and Dubrovnik). ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The original Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Macedonia and in the First Bulgarian Empire in the tenth century to write the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language. ...

1 Includes Banat Bulgarian alphabet
which is based on it.
v  d  e

The region of Macedonia and the Republic of Macedonia are located on the Balkan peninsula. The Slavs first came to the Balkan Peninsula in the sixth and seventh centuries AD. In the ninth century, the Greek Byzantine monks Saints Cyril and Methodius developed the first writing system for the Slavonic languages. At this time, the Slavic dialects were so close as to make it practical to develop the written language on the dialect of a single region. There is dispute as to the precise region, but it is likely that they were developed in the region around Thessaloniki. This article is about the history of the Slavic language. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... For details about each of the saints, see Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ...


In the fourteenth century, the Ottoman Turks invaded and conquered most of the Balkans, incorporating Macedonia into the Ottoman Empire. While the written language, now called Old Church Slavonic, remained static as a result of Turkish domination, the spoken dialects moved further apart. Only very slight traces of written Macedonian survive from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.[citation needed] Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ...


During the increase of national consciousness in the Balkans, standards for the languages of Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian were created. As Turkish influence in Macedonia waned, schools were opened up that taught the Bulgarian standard language in areas with significant a Bulgarian population. (see Demographic History of Macedonia) Slovenian or Slovene (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the family of South Slavic languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Macedonia is known to have been inhabited from Neolithic times. ...


In 1845 the Russian scholar Viktor Grigorovich travelled in the Balkans in order to study the south Slavic dialects of Macedonia. His work articulated for the first time a distinct pair of separate Bulgarian dialects: Eastern and Western. According to his findings, the Western Bulgarian variety, spoken in Macedonia, was characterized by traces of Old Slavic nasal vowels.[39] It wasn't until the works of Krste Misirkov that parts of what had been regarded as West Bulgarian dialects were defined as a separate 'Macedonian' language. Misirkov was born in a village near Pella in Greek Macedonia. Although literature had been written in the Slavic dialects of Macedonia before, arguably the most important book published in relation to the Macedonian language was Misirkov's On Macedonian Matters, published in 1903. In that book, he argued for the creation of a standard literary Macedonian language from the central dialects of Macedonia which would use a phonemic orthography. Krste Misirkov Krste Petkov Misirkov (Bulgarian Cyrillic: Кръсте/Кръстю/Кръстьо Петков Мисирков, Macedonian Cyrillic: Крсте Петков Мисирков) (born: 18 November 1874 in Postol (today Pella), Greek Macedonia - died, 26 July 1926 in Sofia, Bulgaria) was a philologist and publicist, mostly known for his work On the Macedonian Matters. Because of his self-conflicting views expressed in different points... Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ... This article is about the region of Greece. ... A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ...


After the first two Balkan wars, the region of Macedonia was split among Greece, Bulgaria, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia occupied the area that is currently the Republic of Macedonia incorporating it into the Kingdom as "Southern Serbia." During this time, Yugoslav Macedonia became known as Vardar Banovina (Vardar province) and the language of public life, education and the church was Serbo-Croatian. In the other two parts of Macedonia, the respective national languages, Greek and Bulgarian, were made official. In Bulgarian Macedonia, the local dialects were described as dialects of Bulgarian. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Map of the Vardar Banovina Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Vardar Banovina is coloured green, on the lower right part of the map) The Vardar Banovina or Vardar Banate or in Serbian: Вардарска бановина/Vardarska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ...


During the second World War, Yugoslav Macedonia was occupied by the Bulgarians, who were allied with the Axis. The Bulgarian language was reintroduced in schools and liturgies. The Bulgarians were initially welcomed as liberators from Serbian domination until connections were made between the imposition of the Bulgarian language and unpopular Serbian assimilation policies; the Bulgarians were quickly seen as conquerors. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily... Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ...


There were a number of groups fighting the Bulgarian occupying force, some advocating independence and others union with Bulgaria. The eventual outcome was that almost all of Vardar Banovina (i.e. the areas which geographically became known as Vardar Macedonia) was incorporated into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a constituent Socialist Republic with the Macedonian language holding official status within both the Federation and Republic. The Macedonian language was proclaimed the official language of the Republic of Macedonia at the First Session of the Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia, held on August 2, 1944. The first official Macedonian grammar was developed by Krume Kepeski. One of the most important contributors in the standardisation of the Macedonian literary language was Blaže Koneski. The first document written in the literary standard Macedonian language is the first issue of the Nova Makedonija newspaper in 1944. Makedonska Iskra (Macedonian Spark) was the first Macedonian newspaper to be published in Australia, from 1946 to 1957. A monthly with national distribution, it commenced in Perth and later moved to Melbourne and Sydney. Map of the Vardar Banovina Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Vardar Banovina is coloured green, on the lower right part of the map) The Vardar Banovina or Vardar Banate or in Serbian: Вардарска бановина/Vardarska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian: Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija; Bulgarian: Вардарска Македония, Vardarska Makedoniya), also known as Southern Serbia]/Old Serbia (Serbian:Јужна Србија / Стара Србија, Južna Srbija / Stara Srbija) is the north-western area of the Macedonia region. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Blaže Koneski (Macedonian: ) (1921-1993) (born in Nebregovo, near Prilep, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, now Republic of Macedonia) was one of the most distinguished Macedonian poets. ...


Political views on the language

As with the issue of Macedonian ethnicity, the politicians, linguists and common people from Macedonia and neighbouring countries have opposing views about the existence and distinctiveness of the Macedonian language. The existence and distinctiveness of the Macedonian language is disputed among the politicians, linguists and common people from Macedonia and neighboring countries. ... This article is about the Slavic ethnic group; for the unrelated people of ancient and modern Greece, see Ancient Macedonians and Macedonians (Greek) respectively. ...


In the ninth century AD, saints Cyril and Methodius introduced Old Church Slavonic, the first Slavic language of literacy. Written with their newly invented Glagolitic script, this language was based largely on the dialect of Slavs spoken in Thessaloniki; this dialect is closest to present day Bulgarian and Macedonian[40] and the official modern Macedonian view, prevalent in books printed in the Republic of Macedonia, is that Macedonian was the first official language of Slavs.[citation needed] See Saint Cyril (disambiguation) for other persons with this name. ... Saint Methodius was a bishop of Great Moravia (Moravia) (born Thessaloniki, Greece, 826; he died in the (unknown) capital of Great Moravia, April 6, 885). ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ...


Bulgaria recognized the Macedonian language from 1944 until 1948, the date of the Tito-Stalin split.[41] This date also coincided with the first referenced efforts of Bulgarian linguists to the Serbianisation of the Macedonian language.[42] Although Bulgaria was the first country to recognize the independence of the Republic of Macedonia, it has since refused to recognise the existence of a separate Macedonian nation and a separate Macedonian language. Unlike Bulgaria, Serbia has acknowledged a separate Macedonian and language since the end of the Second World War. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Serbianisation (Serbianization or Serbian: Srbizacija) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something ethnically non-Serbian is made to become Serbian. ...


Bulgarian linguists and scientists regard Macedonian as a dialect of the Bulgarian language. Although described as being dialects of Bulgarian prior to the establishment of the standard, the current academic consensus outside Bulgaria is that Macedonian is an autonomous language within the South Slavic dialect continuum.[43] An autonomous language or variety is usually a standard language that has its own established norms, as opposed to a heteronomous variety. ...


Alternative names

The name of the Macedonian language (Macedonian: Македонски јазик) as used by the people and defined in the constitution of the Republic of Macedonia is Macedonian (Macedonian: Македонски - Makedonski) . This is also the name used by international bodies, such as the United Nations and the World Health Organisation . ...

Bulgarian

In most sources in and out of Bulgaria before the Second World War, the southern Slavonic dialect continuum covering the area of today's Republic of Macedonia were referred to as Bulgarian dialects. After WWII, the question about the Macedonian language was forgotten in the name of the Bulgaro-Yugoslavian friendship under the pressure of the Soviet Union The South Slavic dialect continuum covers the languages spoken from Slovenia to northern Greece. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


Greece

According to the linguistic publication Ethnologue, alternative names include "Macedonian Slavic" and (in Greece) "Slavic"[44]. The use of the name Macedonian for the language is considered offensive by Greeks, who assert that the northern Greek ancient Macedonian language is the only "Macedonian language." Greeks object to the use of the "Macedonian" name in reference to the modern Slavic language, calling it "Slavomacedonian" (Macedonian: славомакедонски јазик, Greek: σλαβομακεδονική γλώσσα), a term introduced and accepted by the Slavic-speaking community of northern Greece itself,[45] or "Skopian", which, since the 1990s, are considered pejorative terms by ethnic Macedonians (i.e. people with that national identity).[45] Terms such as Slav Macedonian have also been used.[46] The European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages is of the opinion that the language spoken by the Slavophone Greeks in Greek Macedonia should in fact be called "Macedonian"[47] and it appropriate recognises it as such.[48] Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... European flag The European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages (EBLUL) is a non-governmental organisation promoting linguistic diversity and languages founded in 1982. ... The region called Macedonia (or Makedonia) in Greece is a large section of the north-northwestern part of the country which collectivally with Thrace, is forming Northern Greece. ...


See also

Wikipedia
Macedonian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache framework is a tool developed by sociolinguists, e. ... The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... The modern Macedonian alphabet (as any Slavic Cyrillic alphabet) is ultimately based on the Cyrillic alphabet (кирилица) of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius; it is an adaptation of Vuk Karadžićs (Serbian) phonetic alphabet. ... The name of the Macedonian language (Macedonian: Македонски јазик) as used by the people and defined in the constitution of the Republic of Macedonia is Macedonian (Macedonian: Македонски - Makedonski) . This is also the name used by international bodies, such as the United Nations and the World Health Organisation . ... The existence and distinctiveness of the Macedonian language is disputed among the politicians, linguists and common people from Macedonia and neighboring countries. ... Romanisation of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. ... Slavic (Greek: σλάβικα slávika, also referred to as εντόπια entópia (meaning local), reported self-identifying names: makedonski, slavomakedonski (Macedonian), pomashki, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... Geographical distribution of Torlakian dialect (exception of Bulgaria) Torlakian is the name used for the dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia (Serbia and Montenegro), Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). ...

References

  1. ^ a b Although the precise number of speakers is unknown, figures of between 1.6 million (from ethnologue) and 2-2.5 million have been cited, see Topolinjska (1998) and Friedman (1985). The general academic consensus is that there are approximately 2 million speakers of the Macedonian language, accepting that "it is difficult to determine the total number of speakers of Macedonian due to the official policies of the neighbouring Balkan states and the fluid nature of emigration" Friedman (1985:?).
  2. ^ http://www.omniglot.com/writing/macedonian.htm
  3. ^ Hill (1999:?)
  4. ^ Матица на иселениците - Македонија
  5. ^ Popis na Naselenie, Domaćinstva i Stanovi vo Republika Makedonija, 2002 - Vkupno naselenie na Republika Makedonija spored majčin jazik.
  6. ^ Artan & Gurraj (2001:219)
  7. ^ a b Преброяване 2001 - Окончателни резултати - Население към 01.03.2001 г. по области и етническа група
  8. ^ Greek Helsinki Monitor - Report about Compliance with the Principles of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
  9. ^ Topolinjska (1998:?)
  10. ^ www.stat.gov.mk
  11. ^ 2002 census
  12. ^ 1989 census
  13. ^ Albania : 4.2.2 Language issues and policies : Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe
  14. ^ Helsinki Monitor
  15. ^ ethnologue
  16. ^ Shea, John (1992). The Real Macedonians. Newcastle, 148. ISBN 0646105043. , >Poulton, Hugh (1995). Who are the Macedonians?. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 167. ISBN 1850652384. 
  17. ^ http://www.uni-klu.ac.at/eeo/Aegaeis-Makedonisch.pdf
  18. ^ http://webrzs.statserb.sr.gov.yu/axd/Zip/VJN3.pdf
  19. ^ SN31
  20. ^ A combination of Balkan Censuses: [1], [2],2005 census, 2003 Census and[http://www.stat.si/popis2002/si/rezultati/rezultati_red.asp?ter=SLO&st=7
  21. ^ Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data
  22. ^ Estimate from the MFA
  23. ^ [www.abs.gov.au]
  24. ^ Estimate from the MFA
  25. ^ 2006 figures
  26. ^ Estimate from the MFA
  27. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.mk//Upload/ContentManagement/Files/Broj%20na%20makedonski%20iselenici%20vo%20svetot.doc Estimate from the MFA
  28. ^ http://demo.istat.it/str2006/query.php?lingua=eng&Rip=S0&paese=A12&submit=Tavola
  29. ^ American FactFinder
  30. ^ Estimate from the MFA
  31. ^ LINGUISTIQUE 2637
  32. ^ http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/fr/index/themen/01/07/blank/key/01/01.Document.20578.xls
  33. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.mk//Upload/ContentManagement/Files/Broj%20na%20makedonski%20iselenici%20vo%20svetot.doc Estimate from the MFA]
  34. ^ 2001 census, 2001 census, 2001 census , Population Estimate from the MFA, OECD Statistics, 2002 census, 2002 census, 2006 census, 2008 census, 2008 census, 2003 census, 2005 census, 2006 census, 2003 Census and 2002 census
  35. ^ Comrie & Corbett (2002:247)
  36. ^ Lunt (1952:1)
  37. ^ In his most famous work "On the Macedonian Matters" (available online), Misirkov uses the word собитие (a cognate to the Bulgarian събитие) where настан is used today, though it still exists in some dialects.
  38. ^ Friedman (1998:?)
  39. ^ Seriot (1997:177)
  40. ^ Dostál (1965:69)
  41. ^ Mahon (1998:?)
  42. ^ Friedman (1998:?)
  43. ^ Trudgill (1992:?)
  44. ^ Ethnologue
  45. ^ a b Although acceptable in the past, current use of this name in reference to both the ethnic group and the language can be considered pejorative and offensive by ethnic Macedonians. In the past, the Macedonian Slavs in Greece seemed relieved to be acknowledged as "Slavomacedonians". Pavlos Koufis, a native of Greek Macedonia, pioneer of ethnic Macedonian schools in the region and local historian, says in Laografika Florinas kai Kastorias (Folklore of Florina and Kastoria), Athens 1996:

    "[During its Panhellenic Meeting in September 1942, the KKE mentioned that it recognises the equality of the ethnic minorities in Greece] the KKE recognised that the Slavophone population was ethnic minority of Slavomacedonians]. This was a term, which the inhabitants of the region accepted with relief. [Because] Slavomacedonians = Slavs+Macedonians. The first section of the term determined their origin and classified them in the great family of the Slav peoples." This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... Krste Misirkov Krste Petkov Misirkov (Bulgarian Cyrillic: Кръсте/Кръстю/Кръстьо Петков Мисирков, Macedonian Cyrillic: Крсте Петков Мисирков) (born: 18 November 1874 in Postol (today Pella), Greek Macedonia - died, 26 July 1926 in Sofia, Bulgaria) was a philologist and publicist, mostly known for his work On the Macedonian Matters. Because of his self-conflicting views expressed in different points... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... This article is about the modern Slavic language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ...

    The Greek Helsinki Monitor reports: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

    "... the term Slavomacedonian was introduced and was accepted by the community itself, which at the time had a much more widespread non-Greek Macedonian ethnic consciousness. Unfortunately, according to members of the community, this term was later used by the Greek authorities in a pejorative, discriminatory way; hence the reluctance if not hostility of modern-day Macedonians of Greece (i.e. people with a Macedonian national identity) to accept it."

  46. ^ Poulton (2000:ix)
  47. ^ http://www.greekhelsinki.gr/bhr/english/organizations/ghm/ghm_13_03_02.rtf
  48. ^ EBLUL - European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages - Language Data

This article is about the modern Slavic language. ...

Bibliography

  • Comrie, Bernard & Corbett, Greville (2002), “The Macedonian language”, The Slavonic Languages, New York: Routledge Publications 
  • Dostál, Antonín (1965), “The Origins of the Slavonic Liturgy”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 19: 67-87 
  • Hill, P. (1999), “"Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A comparative study of recent developments"”, Nationalities Papers 27 (1) 
  • Friedman, Victor (2001), “Macedonian”, in Garry, Jane & Rubino, Carl, Facts about the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the Worlds Major Languages, Past and Present, New York: Holt, pp. 435-439 
  • Friedman, Victor (1998), “The implementation of standard Macedonian: problems and results”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language (no. 131): 31-57 
  • Hoxha, Artan & Gurraj, Alma (2001), “Local self-government and decentralization: case of Albania. History, reformes [sic and challenges.”], Local Self Government and Decentralization in South-East Europe:Proceedings of the Workshop held in Zagreb, 6th April 2001, pp. 194-224, <http://www.fes.hr/E-books/pdf/Local%20Self%20Government/09.pdf> 
  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje 
  • Mahon, Milena (1998), “The Macedonian question in Bulgaria”, Nations and Nationalism 4 (3): 389-407 
  • Poulton, Hugh (2000), Who Are the Macedonians?, United Kingdom: C. Hurst & Co. Ltd., ISBN 0253345987 
  • Seriot, Patrick (1997), “Faut-il que les langues aient un nom? Le cas du macédonien”, in Tabouret-Keller, Andrée, Le nom des langues. L'enjeu de la nomination des langues, vol. 1, Louvain: Peeters, pp. 167-190, <http://www2.unil.ch/slav/ling/recherche/biblio/97macedTK.html> 
  • Topolinjska, Z. (1998), “In place of a foreword: facts about the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian language”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language (no. 131): 1-11 
  • Trudgill, Peter (1992), “Ausbau sociolinguistics and the perception of language status in contemporary Europe”, International Journal of Applied Linguistics 2 (2): 167-177 

Nations and Nationalism is a scholarly journal. ...

Further reading

  • Kramer, Christina (2003). Macedonian: A Course for Beginning and Intermediate Students., 2nd, University of Wisconsin Press. 

Christina Elizabeth Kramer is Professor of Slavic and Balkan languages and linguistics at the University of Toronto and Chair of the universitys Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures which is part of the Faculty of Arts and Science. ...

External links

  • A grammar of Macedonian by Victor Friedman
  • Macedonian - English, Greek, Albanian, German, French, Italian translator
  • Macedonian language at Ethnologue
  • BBC Education - Languages: Macedonian, Makedonski
  • The Macedonian Language
  • Macedonian - English Dictionary
  • Reading and Pronouncing Macedonian: An Interactive Tutorial
  • Otto Kronsteiner. The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Future Prospects of the Macedonian Literary Language
  • UCLA Language materials project: Macedonian profile
  • Krste Misirkov - Za Makedonckite Raboti (Complete text of the book)
  • Nature of Standard Macedonian lanuage by Mladen Srbinovski
  • The Macedonian nationality
  • 1920 US Census, Instructions to Enumerators, where Macedonian is listed as a principal foreign language
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbšćina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. ... Pannonian Rusyn or simply Rusyn (Ruthenian) is a Slavic language or dialect spoken in north-western Serbia and eastern Croatia (therefore also called Yugoslavo-Ruthenian, Vojvodina-Ruthenian or Bačka-Ruthenian). ... The Polabian language, which became extinct in the 18th century, was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany: Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony, and Schleswig-Holstein. ... Stefan RamuÅ‚ts Dictionary of the Pomeranian (Kashubian) language, published in Kraków, 1893 Pomeranian language edition of Wikipedia Pomeranian is a group of Lechitic dialects which were spoken in the Middle Ages on the territory of Pomerania, between the Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Łebsko in Pomerania. ... Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbšćina) is a minority language of Germany spoken in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, today part of Saxony. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... Old Novgorod dialect (Russian древненовгородский диалект, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (Андрей Анатольевич Зализняк) to account for the astonishingly distinct linguistic features of the East Slavic birch-bark writings from the 11th to 15th centuries excavated in Novgorod and... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... South Slavic languages comprise one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... Russenorsk or Russonorsk (Norwegian for Russo-Norwegian) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from northern Norway and the Russian Kola peninsula, and also used in Svalbard. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
macedonian language - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com (488 words)
The Macedonian language (Македонски, Makedonski) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages.
Macedonian is the official language in the Republic of Macedonia, and officially recognized in the District of Kor in Albania.
Macedonian is taught as a subject in several university centres in the world, and is being taught in all universities of the former Yugoslavia.
Macedonian language - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (2480 words)
Macedonian is also spoken in Serbia and Montenegro, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, and in the Macedonian diasporas in Western Europe, North America and Australia.
The Macedonian language is taught as a subject in several of the university centres of the world, and is currently taught in all universities of the former Yugoslavia.
Macedonian dialects are indeed a part of dialectal continuum which stretches from Croatian, Bosnian and Serbian Shtokavian dialect through Torlakian on the northwest, to western and eastern Bulgarian dialects on the East.
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