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Encyclopedia > Macedonian Slavs

This article is about the Slavic ethnic group. For information on the unrelated, ancient Macedonian civilisation see Macedon and for the greater modern region of Macedonia, see Macedonia (region). The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ... Vergina Sun - The symbol of Macedon under King Philip II Macedon (or Macedonia from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) in Classical Antiquity was the ancient state of Macedonia on the margins of Ancient Greece, bordering with the Greek state of Epirus on the west and with... This article is about the broad geographical region of Macedonia, spanning several countries in southeastern Europe. ...

Macedonians
Total population: c. 1,500,000
Significant populations in: Republic of Macedonia¤:
   1,297,981

Serbia and Montenegro:
   25,847 (2002)
Bulgaria:
   5,071
Albania:
   5,000 (1989 census)
Greece:
  See below
United States:
   38,051[1]
Rest of the world:
   100,000 (est.)
Image File history File links McdSlvs2. ... Official languages Macedonian¤,2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ... Official languages Macedonian¤,2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ...

Language: Slavic Macedonian
Religion: Macedonian¤ Orthodox, Muslim, Other, None
Related ethnic groups: Bulgarians, Serbs, Croatians, Bosniaks, Slovenes; and other Slavic peoples

The Macedonians (also often referred to as Macedonian Slavs, a name strongly resented by the Macedonians themselves) are a South Slavic ethnic group forming about 64.18% of the population of the Republic of Macedonia¤, and about a third of the population of the geographical region of Macedonia in southeastern Europe. They speak the Slavic Macedonian language and are generally associated with the Macedonian¤ Orthodox Church. The Macedonians are primarily the descendants of the Slavic tribes which settled Macedonia during the Middle Ages, but it is likely that their ancestry includes an element of autochthonous groups such as the Thracians and Illyrians and of later invaders, such as the Bulgars. Official languages Macedonian¤,2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ... In March 1945, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, so as to limit the influence of the Serbian Orthodox Church decided to create a separate administration in the newly-created Peoples Republic of Macedonia. ... Islam â–¶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second largest religion. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Bosniaks (in Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro and Croatia. ... The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ... Official languages Macedonian¤,2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ... Official languages Macedonian¤,2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... The Macedonian language (Македонски, Makedonski) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Official languages Macedonian¤,2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ... In March 1945, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, so as to limit the influence of the Serbian Orthodox Church decided to create a separate administration in the newly-created Peoples Republic of Macedonia. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, Republic of Moldova, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) - a people of Central Asia, probably originally Pamirian, who became Turkified and later Slavicized over time. ...

Contents


Areas of settlement

The vast majority of this ethnic group live in the valley of the river Vardar, the central region of the Republic of Macedonia. Smaller numbers live in eastern Albania, south-western Bulgaria, northern Greece, and southern Serbia and Montenegro, mostly abutting the border areas of the Republic of Macedonia. The Vardar (or Axiós, Greek: Αξιός, the ancient and current Greek name of the river) is the principal river of the Macedonian region of south-eastern Europe. ... Official languages Macedonian¤,2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ...


Major Populations of Macedonians by country

  • Republic of Macedonia: 1,297,981 (2002 census)
  • Serbia and Montenegro: 25,847 (2002 2002 census)
  • Bulgaria: 5,071 (2001 census)
  • Albania: 5,000 (1989 census)
  • Greece: Unknown - Ethnologue lists 180,180 speakers of Slavic in Greece, but makes no claims as to their ethnic affiliation, nor to the methods used to obtain that figure - Greece has not conducted a census on the question of mother tongue since 1951, when 41,017 speakers of the Slavic language were recorded. In fact, only a small minority of Slav-speakers in Greece identify ethnically as (non-Greek) "Macedonians", as evidenced by the degree of electoral support for the Rainbow Party, which obtained precisely 6,176 votes throughout Greece at the last European Parliament elections in 2004, less than half of which (2,955) were cast in the region of Macedonia itself.[2]

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with native language biblical texts. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Party logo The Rainbow Party (Oυράνιο Tόξο, Виножито) is a political party in Greece. ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Origins and identities

The geographical region of Macedonia, which is divided between Bulgaria, Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, is inhabited by a variety of other peoples including Albanians, Bulgarians, Jews, Turks, Serbs, Roma (Gypsies), Greeks and Vlachs. Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma; singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom), along with the closely related Sinti people, are commonly known as Gypsies in English. ... White = Romanians Green = Istro-Romanians Yellow = Aromanians Orange = Megleno-Romanians Vlachs (also called Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs) is a blanket term covering several distinct modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ...


Historians generally date the arrival of the Slavs in Macedonia and the Balkans to the 6th or 7th centuries AD. The question of whether the Macedonians constitute a distinct ethnic group is controversial, as many Bulgarians and Greeks believe that they are merely a subset of another people, usually the Bulgarians. Linguistically and culturally, there is not a great distinction between Macedonians and Bulgarians, but due to political and historic circumstances, the Macedonians have come to consider themselves a separate people from the Bulgarians.


The Macedonians had little or no political and national identity of their own until the 20th century. Medieval sources traditionally describe them as Bulgarians, a definition which survived well into the period of Ottoman rule as attested by the Ottoman archives and by descriptions of historians and travellers, for example Evliya Celebi and his Book of Travels. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Evliya Celebi (also known as Dervis Mehmed Zilli) was one of the most famous Ottoman travelers, who traveled throughout the territories of the Ottoman Empire and the neighbouring lands over a period of 40 years. ...


19th century ethnographers and travellers were also generally united in identifying them as Bulgarians until the period between 1878 and 1912 when the rival propaganda machines of Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria succeeded in effectively splitting the Slavophone population of Macedonia into three distinct parties, a pro-Serbian, pro-Greek and pro-Bulgarian one. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1912 was a leap year starting on Monday. ...


The key events in the formation of a distinctive "Macedonian" identity thus came during the first half of the 20th century in the aftermath of the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 and especially following the Second World War. The outcome as of April 1913 Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War (1912-1913) Distribution of races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923, Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, New York (The map does not reflect the results of the 1923... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Origin of the name

The Macedonians were traditionally described as Bulgarians by external observers until 1878 when an opinion on a Serbian origin of the Macedonians gradually started to gain popularity. The Serbian push to the south was preconditioned by the clauses of the Congress of Berlin of the same year, which denied them Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Sandjak of Novi Pazar, as well as by the pro-Austrian policy of Serbian king Milan Obrenovich IV. In 1881, Serbia relinquished all claims to the two regions in a secret treaty with Austria-Hungary, which, in its turn, vowed not to obstruct the expansion of Serbia into the valley of Vardar. 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)     (not includinding data for Kosovo and Metohia Province)  â€“ Density  7. ... Hosted in 1878 by Otto von Bismarck, after having been demanded by the rivals of the Russian Empire, particularly by Austria-Hungary and Great Britain, a number of the nations of Europe met to revise the Treaty of San Stefano and to attend to other pressing matters. ... This page is about districts of the Ottoman Empire; for a region in Serbia and Montenegro, see Sandžak. ... Novi Pazar (Нови Пазар) is a city located in Serbia and Montenegro at 43. ... Milan I, born Milan Obrenovich IV, (August 22, 1854 – February 11, 1901), was the king of Serbia from 1882 to 1889. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Vardar (or Axiós, Greek: Αξιός, the ancient and current Greek name of the river) is the principal river of the Macedonian region of south-eastern Europe. ...


As from the beginning of the 1880s, Serbia launched a wide-scale propaganda effort in Macedonia and abroad to prove the Serbian character of the region. Greece and Bulgaria soon launched similar campaigns, the Greeks claiming that the Slavs living in Macedonia were Slavophone Greeks and the Bulgarians maintaining that they were nothing but Bulgarians. As the three-sided propaganda efforts escalated in the 1890s, the name "Macedonians Slavs" came into being as a way to designate all Slavs inhabiting Macedonia regardless of their national affiliations. // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)     (not includinding data for Kosovo and Metohia Province)  â€“ Density  7. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no...


The first scholar to use the designation with a specific meaning was Serbian geographer Jovan Cvijic in 1906. In an attempt to put Serbian claims in Macedonia on an equal footing with Bulgarian ones, Cvijic argued that Macedonia south of Debar, Kichevo and Skopje and west of the present border between Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia was inhabited by "Macedonian Slavs", an amorphous Slavic mass without definite national affiliations and culture. The Macedonian Slavs according to Cvijic oscillated between the Bulgarians and the Serbs both politically and culturally and could turn out either Bulgarian or Serbian if the respective people were to rule the region. In the years to the Balkan Wars Cvijic pushed the northern limit of the Macedonian Slavs twice more to the south thus almost doubling the portion which the Serbs, according to him, occupied in Macedonia. The view of Cvijic gained little recognition outside Serbia until Bulgaria's entry into World War I on the side of the Central Powers in 1915 precipitated the acceptance of the idea by the allied countries in Europe. Portrait of Jovan Cvijic by Uros Predic Jovan Cvijic (Serbian Јован Цвијић) (1865. ... 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Debar (Macedonian: Дебар, Albanian: Dibra) located in western Macedonia near the city of Gostivar, and the border with Albania. ... The Macedonian city of Kicevo (Macedonian: Кичево) has a population of 25,129 Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, Serbian, and Gypsy citizens. ... Skopje (see also different names) is the capital city of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Official languages Macedonian¤,2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Bučkovski Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Look up Culture on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikinews has news related to this article: Culture and entertainment Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Cultural Development in Antiquity Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Culture and Civilization in Modern Times Classificatory system for cultures and civilizations, by Dr. Sam Vaknin... The outcome as of April 1913 Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War (1912-1913) Distribution of races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923, Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, New York (The map does not reflect the results of the 1923... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations and... The Central Powers are depicted in red. ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The Balkan Wars

The Balkan Wars resulted in drastic changes to Macedonia's demographics after the Ottomans were forced out of the region. Ottoman Macedonia was carved up between the Balkan nations, with its northern parts coming under Serbian rule, the southern under Greece and the northeastern under Bulgaria.


The territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia came under the direct rule of Serbia (and later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), and was termed "southern Serbia" or the "Vardar banovina" (district). An intense programme of "Serbianization" was implemented during the 1920s and 1930s, during which time the local population were forcibly assimilated into Serbian culture. Only the Serbian language was permitted and taught, while Macedonian families found their names being modified into Serbian forms (e.g. Stankov becoming Stanković, Atanasoski becoming Atanacković). Other ethnic minorities in Serbian Macedonia were also suppressed during the inter-war period, with thousands being arrested. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or primarily in North America as the Roaring Twenties . In Europe it is sometimes refered to as the Golden Twenties. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the global depression. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect (former standard was known as Serbo-Croatian language). ...


Tito and the Macedonian Slavs

After the Second World War, the Communist Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito decided that the policy of Serbianization in Macedonia had failed - it had led to strong resentment of Belgrade. In addition, some of the Macedonians had been strong supporters of Tito's Partisan resistance movement, fighting the occupying Bulgarians, Germans and Italians as well as opposing the Serbian royalist Chetniks, who were, until midway through the war, the West's favorite rebels in Serbia. Although both the local Communist Party and the Ivan Mihailov-led IMRO welcomed the Bulgarian occupation in 1941, the Macedonian resistance at the end of the warn had a strongly nationalist character, not least as a reaction to Serbia's pre-war repression. It was clear well before the end of the war that Tito would seek major changes to the region's political balance. Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Marshal Josip Broz Tito Josip Broz Tito (Јосип Броз Тито) listen â–¶(?) (May 7, 1892 – May 4, 1980) was the leader of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... The Column The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno-oslobodilačka vojska... Chetniks (Serbian Četnici, Четници) were an organization of Yugoslavs (mostly Serbs) who supported the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed a notable resistance force during World War II. The name is derived from the Serbian word četa which means company (of about 100 men). ... Ivan Mihailov Ivan Mihailov ( : Иван Михайлов), also known as Vanche Mihailov ( : Ванче Михайлов), ( August 26, 1896, Novo Selo, present-day Republic of Macedonia – September 5, 1990, Rome, Italy) was a Bulgarian revolutionary, leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization after 1924. ... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (in Macedonian: Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija, Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, in Bulgarian: Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyucionna Organizaciya, Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация, VMRO), commonly known in English as IMRO, was the name of a revolutionary political organization in the Macedonia region of the Ottoman Empire, and later... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Following the war, Tito separated Yugoslav Macedonia from Serbia, making it a republic of the new federal Yugoslavia (as the Socialist Republic of Macedonia) in 1946. He also promoted the concept of a separate "Macedonian" nation, as a means of severing the ties of the Slav population of Yugoslav Macedonia with Bulgaria. Although the (Slavic) Macedonian language is very close to Bulgarian, the differences were deliberately emphasized and the region's historical figures were promoted as being uniquely "Macedonian" (rather than Serbian or Bulgarian). A separate Macedonian Orthodox Church was established, splitting off from the Serbian Orthodox Church. Pro-Bulgarian sentiment was forcibly suppressed. 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... In March 1945, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, so as to limit the influence of the Serbian Orthodox Church decided to create a separate administration in the newly-created Peoples Republic of Macedonia. ... The Serbian Orthodox Church (Serbian Cyrillic: Српска православна црква; SPC, SOC) is a body of some 11 million Orthodox Christians united under the Serb Patriarch who includes Archbishop of Peć and Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci in his title. ...


Tito had a number of reasons for doing this. First, he wanted to reduce Serbia's dominance in Yugoslavia; establishing a territory formerly considered Serbian as an equal to Serbia within Yugoslavia achieved this effect. Secondly, he wanted to sever the ties of the Macedonian population with Bulgaria as recognition of that population as Bulgarian would have undermined the unity of the Yugoslav federation. Thirdly, Tito sought to justify future Yugoslav claims towards the rest of geographical Macedonia; in August 1944, he claimed that his goal was to reunify "all parts of Macedonia, divided in 1915 and 1918 by Balkan imperialists." To this end, he opened negotiations with Bulgaria for a new federal state, which would also probably have included Albania, and supported the Greek Communists in the Greek Civil War. The idea of the "reunification" of all of Macedonia under Communist rule was abandoned in 1948 when the Greek Communists lost and Tito fell out with the Soviet Union and pro-Soviet Bulgaria. 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... An ELAS Warrior The Greek Civil War was fought between 1942 and 1949, and was the result of the repression of the post-war Greek regime. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Tito's actions had a number of important consequences for the Macedonians. The most important was, obviously, the promotion of a distinctive "Macedonian" identity as a part of the multiethnic society of Yugoslavia. It may be only the subject of speculation whether Tito forced the "Macedonian" consciousness on the population of Yugoslav Macedonia or simply catered to an already existing national sentiment. There have been numerous accounts from northern Macedonia from the late 1940s that the policy of Bulgarisation during the Bulgarian occupation (1941-1944) was as abhorrent for the ordinary Macedonian Slav as the policy of Serbisation until then. IMRO's leader in exile, Ivan Mihailov, and the renewed Bulgarian IMRO after 1990 have, on the other hand, consistently argued that between 120,000 and 130,000 people went through the concentration camps of Idrizovo and Goli Otok for pro-Bulgarian sympathies and ideas for an independent "Macedonia" in the late 1940s, which has also been confirmed by former prime minister Ljubcho Georgievski [3]. Whatever the truth, it was certainly the case that most Macedonians embraced their official recognition as a separate nationality. Even so, some pro-Bulgarian sentiment persisted despite government suppression; even as late as 1991, convictions were still being handed down for pro-Bulgarian statements. // Events and trends The 1940s were seen as a transition period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s, which also leads the period to be divided in two halves: The first half of the decade was dominated by World War II, the widest and most destructive armed conflict in... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (in Macedonian: Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija, Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, in Bulgarian: Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyucionna Organizaciya, Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация, VMRO), commonly known in English as IMRO, was the name of a revolutionary political organization in the Macedonia region of the Ottoman Empire, and later... Ivan Mihailov Ivan Mihailov ( : Иван Михайлов), also known as Vanche Mihailov ( : Ванче Михайлов), ( August 26, 1896, Novo Selo, present-day Republic of Macedonia – September 5, 1990, Rome, Italy) was a Bulgarian revolutionary, leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization after 1924. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Greece, the Macedonians faced considerably tighter restrictions as its government saw them as a potentially disloyal minority. Greeks were resettled in the region in 1923 as a result of the population exchange with Turkey that followed the Greek military defeat in Asia Minor. After the Second World War many of the Macedonians who lived in Greece either chose to emigrate to Communist countries to avoid prosecution for fighting on the side of the Greek communists (see: Greek Civil War), or were forced to do so. Although there was some liberalization between 1959 and 1967, the Greek military dictatorship re-imposed harsh restrictions. The situation gradually eased after Greece's return to democracy. The Macedonians in Albania faced restrictions under the paranoid Stalinist dictatorship of Enver Hoxha, though ordinary Albanians were little better off. Their existence as a separate minority group was recognised as early as 1945 and a degree of cultural expression was permitted. An ELAS Warrior The Greek Civil War was fought between 1942 and 1949, and was the result of the repression of the post-war Greek regime. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Dictatorship, in contemporary usage, refers to absolute rule by a leadership (usually one dictator) unrestricted by law, constitutions, or other social and political factors within the state. ... Enver Hoxha. ...


As ethnographers and linguists tended to identify the population of the Bulgarian part of Macedonia as Bulgarian in the interwar period, the issue of a "Macedonian" minority in the country came up as late as the 1940s. In 1946, the population of Pirin Macedonia was declared "Macedonian" and teachers were brought in from Yugoslavia to teach the newly codified Macedonian language. The census of 1946 was accompanied by mass repressions, the result of which was the complete destruction of the local organisations of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization and mass internments of people at the Belene concentration camp. The policy was reverted at the end of the 1950s and later Bulgarian governments argued that the two censuses of 1946 and 1956 were the result of pressure from Moscow. Western governments remained, however, mistrustful and continued to list the population of Pirin Macedonia as "Macedonian" until the beginning of the 1990s despite the 1965 census which put Macedonians in the country at 9,000. The two latest censuses after the fall of communism (in 1992 and 2001) have, however, confirmed the results from previous censuses with some 3,000 people declaring themselves as "Macedonians" in Pirin Macedonia in 2001 (<1.0% of the population of the region) out of 5,000 in the whole of Bulgaria. // Events and trends The 1940s were seen as a transition period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s, which also leads the period to be divided in two halves: The first half of the decade was dominated by World War II, the widest and most destructive armed conflict in... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Categories: Regions of Bulgaria | Macedonia | Bulgaria geography stubs ... The Macedonian language (Македонски, Makedonski) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (in Macedonian: Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija, Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, in Bulgarian: Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyucionna Organizaciya, Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация, VMRO), commonly known in English as IMRO, was the name of a revolutionary political organization in the Macedonia region of the Ottoman Empire, and later in Bulgaria and the Macedonian regions of... // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the baby boom from returning... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: listen ▶(?)) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but otherwise retaining the same mindset. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Categories: Regions of Bulgaria | Macedonia | Bulgaria geography stubs ...


The situation today

The secession of the Republic of Macedonia from the former Yugoslavia in 1991 led to an intense nationalist dispute with Greece which has not yet fully been resolved. 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Within the Republic of Macedonia, Macedonians comprise two-thirds (65.2%) of the population. Following a brief conflict with ethnic Albanians in 2001, a Macedonian-Albanian power-sharing agreement is now in place.
  • Albania continues to recognise the Macedonians as a legitimate minority and delivers education in the (Slavic) Macedonian language in the border regions where most Macedonians live. However, Macedonian organizations complain that the government undercounts the number of Macedonians in Albania and that they are politically underrepresented - there are no ethnic Macedonians in the Albanian parliament.
  • Bulgaria maintains generally cordial relations with the Macedonians, recognizing them as a distinct ethnic group and last counting them in the 2001 census. However, Macedonian groups in the country have reported official harassment, with the Bulgarian Constitutional Court banning a small Macedonian political party in 2000 as separatist and Bulgarian local authorities banning political rallies.
  • Greece does not recognise any ethnic minorities: only one "religious minority", the Greek Muslim minority in Thrace, in accordance with the provisions set out in the Treaty of Lausanne; and opposes the use of the term "Macedonians" to refer to the country's Slav minority, which is centered around the northern Greek town of Florina. The term "Slavomacedonians" is sometimes used instead, to distinguish them from the various other ethnic groups who inhabit Macedonia. There is a Macedonian (Slav) political party in Greece, the "Rainbow Party": their most recent election tally amounted to 6,176 votes (or 0.098%) nationwide (1,203 of them in the Prefecture of Florina and 2,955 in the region of Macedonia overall).
  • Serbia and Montenegro recognizes the Macedonian minority on its territory as a distinct ethnic group and counts them in its annual census.

2001: A Space Odyssey. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... The term refers to a religious minority in western Thrace, in north-east Greece. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη Thrákē, Bulgarian Тракия Trakija, Turkish Trakya) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty that delimited the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey. ... Florina (Greek: Φλώρινα) is a city located in the central part of Florina Prefecture. ... A political party is a political organization that subscribes to a certain ideology and seeks to attain political power within a government. ... Party logo The Rainbow Party (Oυράνιο Tόξο, Виножито) is a political party in Greece. ... Florina (Greek: Φλώρινα) is a city located in the central part of Florina Prefecture. ...

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