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Encyclopedia > Macedonian Muslims
Macedonian Muslims
Македонци Муслимани
Makedonski Muslimani
Total population

40,000[1]
(some sources claim 80,000-90,000)

Regions with significant populations
Republic of Macedonia:
   40–80,000

Albania:
   80–120,000[2]
For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

Languages
Macedonian
Religions
Islam
Related ethnic groups
other ethnic Macedonians, Gorani, Pomaks, Bosniaks, all other South Slavs

The Macedonian Muslims (Macedonian: Македонци Муслимани or Makedonski Muslimani), also known as Muslim Macedonians[3] or Torbesh (the later name is somewhat pejorative and means the bag carriers), are a minority religious group within the community of ethnic Macedonians who are Sunni Muslims, although not all espouse a Macedonian national identity. They have been culturally distinct from the majority Orthodox Christian Slavic Macedonian community for centuries. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Languages Macedonian Religions Macedonian Orthodox, Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox, Other, None Related ethnic groups • Slavs   â€¢ South Slavs    â€¢ South-Eastern Slavs      â€¢ Ethnic Macedonians      â€¢ Bulgarians The Macedonians[17] (Macedonian: , transliteration: ) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[18] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Å ar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os... The Pomaks (Помаци, Pomatsi) or Bulgarian Muslims (Българи Мюсюлмани, Bălgari Myusyulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are Slavs of the Islamic faith. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Countries inhabited by South Slavs (in black) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The South Slavs are a southern branch of the Slavic peoples that live in the Balkans, the southern Pannonian Plain and the eastern Alps. ... Languages Macedonian Religions Macedonian Orthodox, Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox, Other, None Related ethnic groups • Slavs   â€¢ South Slavs    â€¢ South-Eastern Slavs      â€¢ Ethnic Macedonians      â€¢ Bulgarians The Macedonians[17] (Macedonian: , transliteration: ) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[18] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ...

Contents

Islamicisation

The Macedonian Muslims are largely the descendants of Christian Macedonians who converted to Islam during the centuries when the Ottoman Empire ruled the Balkans. The main factor prompting their conversion, was the Ottoman Empire. Non-Muslims were generally regarded by the state and Ottoman society as being of a subordinate status. They were treated differently under the legal system, being subjected to special taxes such as the jizya head tax. Muslims generally enjoyed a more favorable treatment from the law and the state. For example, non-Muslims could not hold political or military office. They also benefited from the prestige accorded to the religion of the ruling class of the empire - in practice, Christianity was the religion of a conquered underclass.[4] Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Canadian Head Tax was a fee charged for each Chinese person entering Canada. ...


Areas of settlement

The largest concentration of Macedonian Muslims is in the western part of the country, in the town of Debar and surrounding villages and in the Reka region between Mavrovo, the state border with Albania, Debar and Kičevo. The region is mountaneous, positioned in the slopes of Sar Mountain on the north, and the northern parts of the Deshat on the south. Mount Korab lie on the western border, while Mount Bistra and Stogovo mountains are situated on the eastern one. The region takes its name from the Radika river (reka is the Macedonian word for a river). The region has approximately 10,000 inhabitants. However, there are smaller concentrations of Macedonian Muslims in other places of the country as well. Debar on the map of Republic of Macedonia Debar (Cyrillic: Дебар) is a city in the western part of the Republic of Macedonia, near the border with Albania, on the road from the city of Struga to the city of Gostivar. ... From many points of view, the Gostivar region is divided into several small areas. ... Debar on the map of Republic of Macedonia Debar (Cyrillic: Дебар) is a city in the western part of the Republic of Macedonia, near the border with Albania, on the road from the city of Struga to the city of Gostivar. ... KI or ki can refer to: The Japanese word ki 気, from Chinese Qi, the originally Chinese cultural concept meaning life force or spiritual energy. See main article: Qi The Kikuyu language (ISO 639 alpha-2, ki) Kiribati (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code, KI) The chemical compound potassium... The Šar mountain (Serbian Шар планина, Šar Planina; Albanian Malet e Sharrit, Sharr) is a mountain on the border of Serbia and Montenegro and the Republic of Macedonia. ... Deshat is a mountain on the border between the Republic of Macedonia and Albania. ... The Korab Mountain range Korab Mountain landscape Mount Korab is the highest mountain of both Albania and Republic of Macedonia at the border of the two states. ... Bistra (English: Clear mountain) is one of the most interesting mountains in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Stogovo is a mountain in the western part of the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Radika (Serbian Cyrillic and Macedonian: Радика) is a river in southern Serbia (Kosovo and Metohija) and eastern Macedonia, a 70 km-long right tributary to the Crni Drim river. ...


Demographics

The exact numbers of Macedonian Muslims are not easy to establish. The writer Ivo Banac estimates that in the old Kingdom of Yugoslavia, before World War II, the Macedonian Muslim population stood at around 27,000.[5] Subsequent censuses have produced dramatically varying figures: 1,591 in 1953, 3,002 in 1961, 1,248 in 1971 and 39,355 in 1981. Commentators have suggested that the latter figure includes many who previously identified themselves as Turks. Meanwhile the Association of Macedonian Muslims has claimed that since World War II more than 70,000 Macedonian Muslims have been assimilated by other Muslim groups, most notably the Albanians.[6] Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Language and ethnic affiliation

Like their Christian ethnic kin, Macedonian Muslims speak the Macedonian language as their first language. Despite their common religion, Macedonian Muslims rarely intermarry with the country's other Muslims. Macedonian ethnologists do not consider the Muslim Slavs a separate ethnic group from the Christian Macedonian Slavs, but instead a religious minority within the Macedonian Slav ethnic community. The Macedonian language (македонски јазик makedonski jazik) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia. ... Ethnologyis a genre of cultural anthropology and| anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the beliefs and practices of different societies. ...


They should not be confused with the Macedonian Albanians, who are an entirely different ethnic group which is also divided into Muslim and Christian populations. Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia, according to the 1981 census. ...


Some Turkish ethnologists have claimed that the Macedonian Muslims are in fact Slavicized Turks, although this interpretation is not widely supported.[7] The Macedonian writer Jakim Sinadinovski has similarly claimed that the Macedonian Muslims are not, in fact, Slavic Macedonians; this prompted a strong reaction when his thesis was first published in 1988.[8] 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the Republic of Macedonia was established in 1946, the ruling Communists encouraged the Macedonian Muslims to adopt an ethnic Macedonian identity,[citation needed] which Macedonian Christians were also compelled to accept.[citation needed] This has since led to some tensions with the Macedonian Christian community over the widespread association between Macedonian national identity and adherence to the Macedonian Orthodox Church.[9] For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Latinic: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ...


Political activities

The principal outlet for Macedonian Muslim political activities has been the Association of Macedonian Muslims. It was established in 1970 with the support of the authorities, probably as a means of keeping Macedonian Muslim aspirations in control.[10] 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


The fear of assimilation into the Albanian Muslim community has been a significant factor in Macedonian Muslim politics, amplified by the tendency of some Macedonian Muslims to vote for Albanian candidates. In 1990, the chairman of the Macedonian Muslims organization, Riza Memedovski, sent an open letter to the Chairman of the Party for Democratic Prosperity of Macedonia, accusing the party of using religion to promote the Albanization of the Macedonian Muslims.[1]. A controversy broke out in 1995 when the Albanian-dominated Meshihat or council of the Islamic community in Macedonia declared that Albanian was the official language of Muslims in Macedonia. The decision prompted protests from the leaders of the Macedonian Muslim community.[9] 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Occupation

The main occupation of the Macedonian Muslims is cattle breeding and working abroad. Macedonian Muslims are well-known as fresco-painters, wood carvers and mosaic-makers. In the past few decades large numbers of Macedonian Muslims have emigrated to Italy and other Western European countries.


See also

Languages Macedonian Religions Macedonian Orthodox, Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox, Other, None Related ethnic groups • Slavs   â€¢ South Slavs    â€¢ South-Eastern Slavs      â€¢ Ethnic Macedonians      â€¢ Bulgarians The Macedonians[17] (Macedonian: , transliteration: ) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[18] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... The term refers to a religious minority in western Thrace, in north-east Greece. ... Muslim Bulgarians (also Bulgarian Mohammedans, bul:Българи-мохамедани; local: Pomak, Ahrian, Poganets, Marvak, Poturnak) are descendants of Christian Bulgarians who converted to Islam during the 16th and the 18th century. ... The Pomaks (Помаци, Pomatsi) or Bulgarian Muslims (Българи Мюсюлмани, Bălgari Myusyulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are Slavs of the Islamic faith. ... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Å ar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os...

References

  1. ^ Gallagher, Tom. The Balkans In The New Millennium: In the Shadow of War and Peace, p. 85. (Routledge, 2005)
  2. ^ M. Apostolov, "The Pomaks: A Religious Minority in The Balkans", (1996)
  3. ^ Kowan, J. (2000) Macedonia: The Politics of Identity and Difference, p.111
  4. ^ Jean W. Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, p. 190. University of Washington Press, 1994. ISBN 0295972904
  5. ^ Ivo Banac, The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics, p. 50 (Cornell University Press, 1989)
  6. ^ Hugh Poulton, Who Are the Macedonians?, p. 124. (C. Hurst & Co, 1995)
  7. ^ Victor A. Friedman, "Language in Macedonia as an Identity Construction Site", in When Languages Collide: Perspectives on Language Conflict, Language Competition, and Language Coexistence, p. 267, ed. Brian D. Joseph (Ohio State University Press, 2003)
  8. ^ Jakim Sinadinovski, Macedonian Muslims, Then and Now
  9. ^ a b Duncan M. Perry, "The Republic of Macedonia: finding its way", in Politics, Power and the Struggle for Democracy in South-East Europe, ed. Karen Dawisha, Bruce Parrott, p. 256. (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
  10. ^ Hugh Poulton, "Changing Notions of National Identity among Muslims", in Muslim Identity and the Balkan States, ed. Hugh Poulton, Suha Taji-Farouki (C. Hurst & Co, 1997)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Macedonian Muslims - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (906 words)
The Macedonian Muslims are largely the descendants of Christian Slavs who converted to Islam during the centuries when the Ottoman Empire ruled the Balkans.
The largest concentration of Macedonian Muslims is in the western part of the country, in the town of Debar and surrounding villages and in the Reka region between Mavrovo, the state border with Albania, Debar and Kičevo.
The Macedonian writer Jakim Sinadinovski has similarly claimed that the Macedonian Muslims are not, in fact, Slavic Macedonians; this prompted a strong reaction when his thesis was first published in 1988.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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