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Encyclopedia > Macedonian Empire
"Macedonian Empire" redirects here. See Macedonian Empire (disambiguation) for other uses.
Μακεδονία
Makedonía
Macedon
Flag
800s BC – 146 BC  
Flag
Capital Aigai, Pella
Language(s) Macedonian, later Attic / Koiné Greek
Religion polytheism
Government Monarchy
King
 - 808 - 778 BC Karanus
 - 359 - 336 BC Philip II of Macedon
 - 336 - 323 BC Alexander the Great
 - 221 - 168 BC Philip V of Macedon
Historical era Classical Antiquity
 - Karanus establishes the Argead dynasty 800s BC
 - Amyntas III unifies Macedon 382 BC
 - Conquered by the Roman Republic in the Fourth Macedonian War 146 BC
Currency Greek drachma

Macedon or Macedonia (Greek Μακεδονία Makedonía) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east.[1] For a brief period it became the most powerful state in the ancient Near East after Alexander the Great conquered most of the known world, inaugurating the Hellenistic period of Greek history. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Makednos, also spelled as Makedon or Macedon - ancient Greek: Makedōn, colloquial Greek: Makedōnas, poetic Greek: Makedōnas. ... Macedonian Empire can refer to: the era of expansion of Macedonia under Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, 359-323 BC the Empire established by Alexander the Great in 333-323 BC, see Conquests of Alexander the Great the successor empires of the Diadochi Ptolemaic Empire Seleucid Empire... The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... 804 BC - Adad-nirari III of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 151 BC 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC - 146 BC - 145 BC 144 BC... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Macedonia province within the Roman Empire, c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1226x832, 168 KB) Map of the Macedonian kingdom. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Location of Aigéai/Vergina in Greece. ... Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... “Koine” redirects here. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Macedon (also known as Macedonia) was an ancient kingdom in the present-day territory of region Macedonia in northern Greece and a small part of the Republic of Macedonia, inhabited by the Ancient Macedonians. ... Karanus (Greek Κάρανος 808- 778 BC) was the first king of ancient Macedon. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Coin of Philip V. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ([coin] of King Philip). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Karanus (Greek Κάρανος 808- 778 BC) was the first king of ancient Macedon. ... Argead dynasty were the ruling family of Macedonia, a nation in northern Greece from c. ... Amyntas III, stater Amyntas III (or II), son of Arrhidaeus, grandfather of Alexander the Great, was king of Macedon from 393 (or 389) to 369 BC. He came to the throne after the ten years of confusion which followed the death of Archelaus II, the patron of art and literature. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 387 BC 386 BC 385 BC 384 BC 383 BC - 382 BC - 381 BC 380 BC... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The Fourth Macedonian War (150 BC - 148 BC) was the final war between Rome and Macedon. ... ISO 4217 Code GRD User(s) Greece Inflation 3. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since 1821. ...

Contents

History

Early history

The first Macedonian state emerged in the 8th or early 7th century BC under the Argead Dynasty, when the Macedonians are said to have migrated to the region from further west. Their first king is recorded as Perdiccas I. Around the time of Alexander I of Macedon, the Macedonians started to expand into Eordaia, Bottiaea, Pieria, Mygdonia, and Almopia. Near the modern city of Veria, Perdiccas I (or, more likely, his son, Argaeus I) built his capital, Aigai (modern Vergina). (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... Argead dynasty were the ruling family of Macedonia, a nation in northern Greece from c. ... Perdiccas I was king of Macedonia from about 700 BC to about 678 BC. Categories: People stubs | Macedonian monarchs ... Alexander I was ruler of Macedon from 495 BC to 450 BC. He was the son of Amyntas I of Macedon. ... Eordea (Greek: Εορδαία), rarely Eordaia, Latin: Eordaia is a province in the northern Greece. ... Bottiaea (Bottiaia) was a region of ancient Macedon. ... Pieria (Πιερία) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Mygdonia was an ancient territory, later conquered by Macedon, which comprised the plains around Therma (Thessalonica) together with the valleys of Klisali and Besikia, including the area of the Axios river mouth and extending as far east as Lake Bolbe. ... Almopía or Nótia (see below) is a village in the Pella Prefecture, Central Macedonia, Greece, at an altitude of 595 m, in the Upper Karadjova Plain. ... Veria (officially transliterated as Veroia, Greek Βέροια or Βέρροια - Véria) is a city in Greece. ... Perdiccas I was king of Macedonia from about 700 BC to about 678 BC. Categories: People stubs | Macedonian monarchs ... Argaeus I (Greek: Αργαίος) was king of Macedon from about 678 BC to about 640 BC. He succeeded in the throne his father Perdiccas I. Argaeus left as successor his son Philip I . ... Location of Aigéai/Vergina in Greece. ...


After a brief period of Persian overlordship under Darius Hystaspes, the state regained its independence under King Alexander I (495450 BC). Prior to the 4th century BC, the kingdom covered a region approximately corresponding to the province of Macedonia of modern Greece. It became increasingly Hellenised during this period, though prominent Greeks appear to have regarded the Macedonians as uncouth. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Darius the Great (c. ... Alexander I was ruler of Macedon from 495 BC to 450 BC. He was the son of Amyntas I of Macedon. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC - 495 BC - 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 455 BC 454 BC 453 BC 452 BC 451 BC - 450 BC - 449 BC 448 BC... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


A unified Macedonian state was eventually established by King Amyntas III (c. 393370 BC), though it still retained strong contrasts between the cattle-rich coastal plain and the fierce isolated tribal hinterland, allied to the king by marriage ties. They controlled the passes through which barbarian invasions came from Illyria to the north and northwest. Amyntas had three sons; the first two, Alexander II and Perdiccas III reigned only briefly. Perdiccas III's infant heir was deposed by Amyntas' third son, Philip II of Macedon, who made himself king and ushered in a period of Macedonian dominance of Greece. Amyntas III, stater Amyntas III (or II), son of Arrhidaeus, grandfather of Alexander the Great, was king of Macedon from 393 (or 389) to 369 BC. He came to the throne after the ten years of confusion which followed the death of Archelaus II, the patron of art and literature. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 398 BC 397 BC 396 BC 395 BC 394 BC - 393 BC - 392 BC 391 BC 390... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 375 BC 374 BC 373 BC 372 BC 371 BC - 370 BC - 369 BC 368 BC 367... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Alexander II was king of Macedon from 370 - 368 BC, following the death of his father Amyntas II. He was the eldest of the three sons of Amyntas and Eurydice. ... Perdiccas III was king of Macedonia from 364 to 359 BC, succeeding his brother Alexander II. Son of Amyntas III and Eurydike, he was underage when Alexander II was killed by Ptolemy of Aloros, who then ruled as regent. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ...


Expansion

Philip II, king of Macedon
Philip II, king of Macedon
The statue of Alexander the Great in Thessaloniki sea front
The statue of Alexander the Great in Thessaloniki sea front

Under Philip II, (359336 BC), Macedon expanded into the territory of the Paionians, Thracians, and Illyrians. Among other conquests, he annexed the regions of Pelagonia and Southern Paionia (these regions respectively correspond to the Monastir/Bitola and Gevgelija districts in the modern Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x950, 729 KB) Description en: Niketerion (victory) medallion bearing the effigy of king Philip II of Macedon, 2nd century AD, probably minted during the reign of Emperor Alexander Severus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x950, 729 KB) Description en: Niketerion (victory) medallion bearing the effigy of king Philip II of Macedon, 2nd century AD, probably minted during the reign of Emperor Alexander Severus. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 237 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 237 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the greek province of Macedonia. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC 338 BC 337 BC - 336 BC - 335 BC 334 BC 333... ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Pelagonia was an ancient region of Europe later incorporated into Macedon. ... Paionia or Paeonia (in Greek Παιονία) was in ancient geography, the land of the Paeonians (Ancient Greek Παίονες), the exact boundaries of which, like the early history of its inhabitants, are very obscure. ... Monastir could be a city in the Republic of Macedonia now called Bitola Monastir, Italy - a village near Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, famous for fruit production. ... Nickname: Motto: Bitola, babam Bitola Location of the city of Bitola (red) within the Republic of Macedonia Coordinates: , Government  - Mayor Vlademir Taleski Area  - City 422. ... Gevgelija on the map of Republic of Macedonia Coat of arms of Gevgelija Gevgelija (Macedonian: Гевгелија, Greek: Γευγελή, Yevyelí) is a town with a population of 20,362 located in the very southeast of the Republic of Macedonia along the banks of the Vardar River, situated at the countrys main border...


Macedon became more politically involved with the south-central city-states of Ancient Greece, but it also retained more archaic features like the palace-culture, first at Aegae (modern Vergina) then at Pella, resembling Mycenaean culture more than classic Hellenic city-states, and other archaic customs, like Philip's multiple wives in addition to his Epirote queen Olympias, mother of Alexander. Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... This article is about the Macedonian princess. ...


Another archaic remnant was the very persistence of a hereditary monarchy which wielded formidable – sometimes absolute – power, although this was at times checked by the landed aristocracy, and often disturbed by power struggles within the royal family itself. This contrasted sharply with the Greek cultures further south, where the ubiquitous city-states mostly possessed aristocratic or democratic institutions; the de facto monarchy of tyrants, in which heredity was usually more of an ambition rather than the accepted rule; and the limited, predominantly military and sacerdotal, power of the twin hereditary Spartan kings. The same might have held true of feudal institutions like serfdom, which may have persisted in Macedon well into historical times. Such institutions were abolished by city-states well before Macedon's rise (most notably by the Athenian legislator Solon's famous σεισάχθεια seisachtheia laws). For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... “Serf” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... Seisachtheia (Greek: seiein, to shake, and achthos, burden, i. ...


Empire

Further information: Conquests of Alexander the Great, Wars of the DiadochiSeleucid Empire, and Diadochi
Alexander's empire at the time of its maximum expansion
Alexander's empire at the time of its maximum expansion

Philip's son Alexander the Great (356323 BC) managed to briefly extend Macedonian power not only over the central Greek city-states, but also to the Persian empire, including Egypt and lands as far east as the fringes of India. Alexander's adoption of the styles of government of the conquered territories was accompanied by the spread of Greek culture and learning through his vast empire. Although the empire fractured into multiple Hellenic regimes shortly after his death, his conquests left a lasting legacy, not least in the new Greek-speaking cities founded across Persia's western territories, heralding the Hellenistic period. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The word Diadochi means successors in Greek. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x961, 805 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great User:Macedonia User:Asteraki ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x961, 805 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Alexander the Great User:Macedonia User:Asteraki ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353... On his way from Ecbatana to Babylon, Alexander the Great fights and crushes the Cossaeans. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ...


Despite the empire's division into feuding kingdoms ruled by Alexander's generals, Macedonia itself remained a key and fiercely contested territory.


Antipatrid Macedonia

Further information: Antipatrid dynasty

Antipater and his son Cassander gained control of Macedonia but it slid into a long period of civil strife following Cassander's death in 297 BC. It was ruled for a while by Demetrius I (294288 BC) but fell into civil war. The Antipatrid dynasty was a Macedonian dynasty founded by Cassander (declared himself King of Macedonia in 302 BC), the son of Antipater. ... Antipater (Greek: Αντίπατρος Antipatros; c. ...  Kingdom of Cassander Other diadochi  Kingdom of Seleucus  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Ptolemy  Epirus Other  Carthage  Rome  Greek colonies Cassander (in Greek, Κάσσανδρος — Kassandros, ca. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC 296 BC 295 BC 294... Demetrius I (337-283 BC, Greek: Δημήτριος), surnamed Poliorcetes (The Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC 296 BC 295 BC 294 BC 293 BC 292 BC 291... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 293 BC 292 BC 291 BC 290 BC 289 BC 288 BC 287 BC 286 BC 285...


Demetrius' son Antigonus II (277239 BC) successfully restored order and prosperity and repelled a Galatian invasion, though he lost control of many of the formerly controlled Greek city-states. He established a stable monarchy and gave rise to the Antigonid dynasty. His successor Antigonus III (239221 BC) built on these gains by re-establishing Macedonian power across the region. Coin of Antigonus II Gonatas (c. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278 BC - 277 BC - 276 BC 275 BC 274... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 244 BC 243 BC 242 BC 241 BC 240 BC - 239 BC - 238 BC 237 BC... Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (now Turkey). ... The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Macedonian kings descended from Alexander the Greats general Antigonus I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed). Antigonus himself ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. ... Antigonus III Doson (263 BC-221 BC), king of Macedonia 229 BC-221 BC. He belonged to the Antigonid dynasty. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 244 BC 243 BC 242 BC 241 BC 240 BC - 239 BC - 238 BC 237 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC...


Decline

Under Philip V of Macedon (221179 BC) and his son Perseus of Macedon (179168 BC), the kingdom clashed with the rising power of the Roman Republic. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Macedon fought a series of wars with Rome. Two major losses that led to their inevitable defeat were in 197 BC when Rome defeated Philip V, and 168 BC when Rome defeated Perseus. The overall losses resulted in the defeat of Macedon, the deposition of the Antigonid dynasty and the dismantling of the Macedonian kingdom. Andriscus' brief success at reestablishing the monarchy in 149 BC was quickly followed by his defeat the following year and the establishment of direct Roman rule and the organization of Macedon as the Roman province of Macedonia. Coin of Philip V. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ([coin] of King Philip). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 184 BC 183 BC 182 BC 181 BC 180 BC - 179 BC - 178 BC 177 BC 176... Coin of Perseus of Macedon Perseus was the last king of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in Macedon created upon the death of Alexander the Great. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 184 BC 183 BC 182 BC 181 BC 180 BC - 179 BC - 178 BC 177 BC 176... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 173 BC 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC - 168 BC - 167 BC 166 BC 165... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... The Macedonian and Seleucid wars were a series of conflicts fought by Rome during and after the second Punic war, in the eastern Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and the Aegean. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 202 BC 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC - 197 BC - 196 BC 195 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 173 BC 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC - 168 BC - 167 BC 166 BC 165... Andriscus, (also spelt Andriskos) often called the pseudo-Philip, a fuller of Adramyttium, who claimed to be a son of Perseus, last king of Macedonia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC 150 BC - 149 BC - 148 BC 147 BC... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The Roman province of Macedonia was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon in 148 BC, and after the four client republics established by Rome in the region were dissolved. ...


Institutions

The political organization of the Macedonian kingdom was a three-level pyramid: on the top, the King and the nation, at the foot, the civic organizations (cities and éthnē), and between the two, the districts. The study of these different institutions has been considerably renewed thanks to epigraphy, which has given us the possibility to reread the indications given us by ancient literary sources such as Livy and Polybius. They show that the Macedonian institutions were near to those of the Greek federal states, like the Aetolian and Achaean leagues, whose unity was reinforced by the presence of the king. The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Polybius (c. ... The Aetolian League was a confederation in ancient Greece centering on the cities of Aetolia in central Greece. ... The Achaean League was a confederation of Greek city states in Achaea, a territory on the northern coast of the Peloponnese. ...

The Vergina Sun, a sign found in royal tombs in Macedonia, has been interpreted as a symbol of the royal Macedonian dynasty of the Argeads
The Vergina Sun, a sign found in royal tombs in Macedonia, has been interpreted as a symbol of the royal Macedonian dynasty of the Argeads

Image File history File links Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a symbol of a stylised star with sixteen rays. ... Argead dynasty were the ruling family of Macedonia, a nation in northern Greece from c. ...

The King

The king (Βασιλεύς, Basileús) headed the central administration: he led the kingdom from its capital, Pella, and in his royal palace was conserved the state's archive. He was helped in carrying out his work by the Royal Secretary (βασιλικὸς γραμματεύς, basilikós grammateús), whose work was of primary importance, and by the Council. For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... Synhedrion or Synedrion is a Greek word, meaning seated together, for an assembly that holds formal sessions. ...


The king was commander of the army, head of the Macedonian religion, and director of diplomacy. Also, only he could conclude treaties, and, until Philip V, mint coins. Coin of Philip V. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ([coin] of King Philip). ...


The number of civil servants was limited: the king directed his kingdom mostly in an indirect way, supporting himself principally through the local magistrates, the epistates, with whom he constantly kept in touch.


Succession

Royal succession in Macedon was hereditary, male, patrilineal and generally respected the principle of primogeniture. There was also an elective element: when the king died, his designated heir, generally but not always the eldest son, had first to be accepted by the council and then presented to the general Assembly to be acclaimed king and obtain the oath of fidelity. Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


As can be seen, the succession was far from being automatic, more so considering that many Macedonian kings died violently, without having made dispositions for the succession, or having assured themselves that these would be respected. This can be seen with Perdiccas III, slain by the Illyrians, Philip II assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis, Alexander the Great, suddenly died of malady, etc. Succession crises are frequent, especially up to the 4th century BC, when the magnate families of Upper Macedonia still cultivated the ambition of overthrowing the Argaead dynasty and to ascend to the throne. Perdiccas III was king of Macedonia from 365 to 359 BC, succeeding his brother Alexander II. Son of Amyntas III and Eurydice, he was underage when Alexander II was killed by Ptolemy of Aloros, who then ruled as regent. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Pausanias of Orestis was a member of Philip II of Macedons somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


Finances

The king was the simple guardian and administrator of the treasure of Macedon and of the king's incomes (βασιλικά, basiliká), which belonged to the Macedonians: and the tributes that came to the kingdom thanks to the treaties with the defeated people also went to the Macedonian people, and not to the king. Even if the king was not accountable for his management of the kingdom's entries, he may have felt responsible to defend his administration on certain occasions: Arrian tells us that during the mutiny of Alexander's soldiers at Opis in 324 BC, Alexander detailed the possessions of his father at his death to prove he had not abused his charge. Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) are legally obliged to obey. ... Originally a Sabine goddess, Ops (plenty) was a fertility deity and earth-goddess in Roman mythology. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC - 324 BC - 323 BC 322 BC 321...


It is known from Livy and Polybius that the basiliká included the following sources of income:

  • The mines of gold and silver (for example those of the Pangaeus), which were the exclusive possession of the king, and which permitted him to strike currency, as already said his sole privilege till Philip V, who conceded to cities and districts the right of coinage for the lesser denominations, like bronze.
  • The forests, whose timber was very appreciated by the Greek cities to build their ships: in particular, it is known that Athens made commercial treaties with Macedon in the 5th century BC to import the timber necessary for the construction and the maintenance of its fleet of war.
  • The royal landed properties, lands that were annexed to the royal domain through conquest, and that the king exploited either directly, in particular through servile workforce made up of prisoners of war, or indirectly through a leasing system.
  • The port duties on commerce (importation and exportation taxes).

The most common way to exploit these different sources of income was by leasing: the Pseudo-Aristotle reports in the Oeconomica that Amyntas III (or maybe Philip II) doubled the kingdom's port revenues with the help of Callistratus, who had taken refuge in Macedon, bringing them from 20 to 40 talents per year. To do this, the exploitation of the harbour taxes was given every year at the private offering the highest bidding. It is also known from Livy that the mines and the forests were leased for a fixed sum under Philip V, and it appears that the same happened under the Argaead dynasty: from here possibly comes the leasing system that was used in Ptolemaic Egypt. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Amyntas III, stater Amyntas III (or II), son of Arrhidaeus, grandfather of Alexander the Great, was king of Macedon from 393 (or 389) to 369 BC. He came to the throne after the ten years of confusion which followed the death of Archelaus II, the patron of art and literature. ... Callistratus of Aphidnae (Greek: Καλλιστράτος Kallistratos; died 355 BC) was an Athenian orator and general in the 4th century BCE. For many years, as prostates, he supported Spartan interests at Athens, recognizing that Thebes posed a greater threat to Athens. ... A talent is an ancient unit of mass. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria...


Except for the king's properties, land in Macedon was free: Macedonians were free men and did not pay land taxes on private grounds. Even extraordinary taxes like those paid by the Athenians in times of war did not exist. Even in conditions of economic peril, like what happened to Alexander in 334 BC and Perseus in 168 BC, the monarchy did not tax its subjects but raised funds through loans, first of all by his Companions, or raised the cost of the leases. Events Alexander the Great crosses the Bosporus, invading Persia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 173 BC 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC - 168 BC - 167 BC 166 BC 165...


The king could grant the atelíē (ἀτελίη), a privilege of tax exemption, as Alexander did with those Macedonian families which had losses in the battle of the Granicus in May 334: they were exempted from paying tribute for leasing royal grounds and commercial taxes. Combatants Macedon Greek allies Persia Greek mercenaries Commanders Alexander the Great Parmenion Clitus the Black Spithridates Mithridates Memnon of Rhodes Strength 5,000 cavalry 30,000 infantry 15,000 Persian cavalry 10,000 Persian peltasts 8,000 Greek mercenaries Casualties About 150 4,000 killed 2,000 captured Mostly on... Events Alexander the Great crosses the Bosporus, invading Persia. ...


Extraordinary incomes came from the spoils of war, which were divided between the king and his men. At the time of Philip II and Alexander, this was a considerable source of income. A considerable part of the gold and silver objects taken at the time of the European and Asian campaigns were melted in ingots and then sent to the monetary foundries of Pella and Amphipolis, most active of the kingdom at that time: an estimate judges that during the reign of Alexander only the mint of Amphipolis struck about 13 million silver tetradrachms. Location of Pella Pella (Greek Πέλλα) is a city in Greece founded by the ancient Macedonians. ... Localization of Amphipolis Amphipolis (Greek, Ἀμφίπολις – Amphípolis) was an ancient Greek city in the region once inhabited by the Edoni people in the present-day periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace. ... ISO 4217 Code GRD User(s) Greece Inflation 3. ...


The Assembly

All the kingdom's citizen-soldiers gather in a popular assembly, which is held at least twice a year, in spring and in autumn, with the opening and the closing of the campaigning season.


This assembly (koinê ekklesia or koinon makedonôn), of the army in times of war, of the people in times of peace, is called by the king and plays a significant role through the acclamation of the kings and in capital trials; it can be consulted (without obligation) for the foreign politics (declarations of war, treaties) and for the appointment of high state officials. In the majority of these occasions, the Assembly does nothing but ratify the proposals of a smaller body, the Council. It is also the Assembly which votes the honors, sends embassies, during its two annual meetings. It was abolished by the Romans at the time of their reorganization of Macedonia in 167 BC, to prevent, according to Livy, that a demagogue could make use of it as a mean to revolt against their authority. This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC 168 BC - 167 BC - 166 BC 165 BC 164... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ...


Council (Synedrion)

The Council was a small group formed among some of the most eminent Macedonians, chosen by the king to assist him in the government of the kingdom. As such it was not a representative assembly, but notwithstanding that on certain occasions it could be expanded with the admission of representatives of the cities and of the civic corps of the kingdom.


The members of the Council (synedroi) belong to three categories:

  • The somatophylakes (in Greek literally "bodyguards") were noble Macedonians chosen by the king to serve to him as honorary bodyguards, but especially as close advisers. It was a particularly prestigious honorary title. In the times of Alexander there were seven of them.
  • The Friends (philoi) or the king's Companions (basilikoi hetairoi) were named for life by the king among the Macedonian aristocracy.
  • The most important generals of the army (hégémones tôn taxéôn), also named by the king.

The king had in reality less power in the choice of the members of the Council than appearances would warrant; this was because many of the kingdom's most important noblemen were members of the Council by birth-right. Somatophylakes (singular: somatophylax). ... PHILOS (plural PHILOI) is the old Greek word for friend, and sometimes means amateur etc. ... The Companions (Greek: Hetairoi) were Alexander the Greats elite cavalry, the offensive arm of his army and also his elite guard. ...


The Council primarily exerted a probouleutic function with respect to the Assembly: it prepared and proposed the decisions which the Assembly would have discussed and voted, working in many fields such as the designation of kings and regents, as of that of the high administrators and the declarations of war. It was also the first and final authority for all the cases which did not involve capital punishment.


The Council gathered frequently and represented the principal body of government of the kingdom. Any important decision taken by the king was subjected before it for deliberation.


Inside the Council ruled the democratic principles of iségoria (equality of word) and of parrhésia (freedom of speech), to which the even king subjected himself.


After the removal of the Antigonid dynasty by the Romans in 167 BC, it is possible that the synedrion remained, unlike the Assembly, representing the sole federal authority in Macedonia after the country's division in four merides. The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Macedonian kings descended from Alexander the Greats general Antigonus I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed). Antigonus himself ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC 168 BC - 167 BC - 166 BC 165 BC 164...


Regional districts (merides)

The merit of the creation of an intermediate territorial administrative level between the central government and the cities has to be probably ascribed to Philip II: this reform agreed with the need to adapt the kingdom's institutions to the great expansion of Macedon under his rule. It was not anymore easy to convene all the Macedonians in a single general assembly, and the answer to this problem was the creation of four regional districts, each supplied with a regional assembly. These territorial divisions clearly did not follow any historical or traditional internal divisions; they were simply artificial administrative lines. This said, it should be added that the existence of these districts is not attested with certainty (by the numismatics) before the beginning of the 2nd century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


See also

For the full range of meanings of Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Roman mosaic of the Battle of Issus The military of ancient Macedon is considered to be among the greatest military forces of the ancient world. ... The Ancient Macedonian calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Macedon in the 1st millennium BC. It consisted of 12 synodic Lunar months (i. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a symbol of a stylised star with sixteen rays. ... Macedon (also known as Macedonia) was an ancient kingdom in the present-day territory of region Macedonia in northern Greece and a small part of the Republic of Macedonia, inhabited by the Ancient Macedonians. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Macedonian kings descended from Alexander the Greats general Antigonus I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed). Antigonus himself ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... Crestonia (Crestonice) was an ancient region immediately north of Mygdonia. ... Lynkestis was a region (in earlier times, a small kingdom) of Upper Macedonia which was ruled by kings, barons and independent or semi-independant chieftains till the later Argead rulers of Macedon (Amyntas IV, Philip II) neutralized their independence. ... Mygdonia was an ancient territory, later conquered by Macedon, which comprised the plains around Therma (Thessalonica) together with the valleys of Klisali and Besikia, including the area of the Axios river mouth and extending as far east as Lake Bolbe. ... Paionia or Paeonia (in Greek Παιονία) was in ancient geography, the land of the Paeonians (Ancient Greek Παίονες), the exact boundaries of which, like the early history of its inhabitants, are very obscure. ... Pelagonia was an ancient region of Europe later incorporated into Macedon. ... There are and were a very large number of monarchies in the world. ...

References

  1. ^ "Macedonia" - Britannica 2006

Further Readings

  • Eugene N. Borza: Before Alexander: constructing early Macedonia. Claremont, CA: Regina Books, 1999. Pp. 89. ISBN 0941690970 (pb)
  • Robin Lane Fox, Alexander the Great, Penguin Books, 1973, ISBN 0-14-008878-4 (pb).
  • Nicholas G. L. Hammond, The Macedonian State, Oxford University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-19-814883-6. Pg. 12-13.

External links

  • History of Macedon
  • Ancient Macedonia
  • Ancient Macedonia at Livius, by Jona Lendering
  • [1] Encyclopedia Britannica: Video: Ancient Macedonia: Hellenism in Upper Macedonia

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