FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Macedonia naming dispute
Political Macedonia
    Μακεδονία (Macedonia)
(part of Greece)
    Македонија (Macedonia)
(Republic of Macedonia)
Greece

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Greece
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixel Image in higher resolution (861 × 609 pixel, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Self made. ... Image File history File links COA_of_Greece. ... Politics of Greece takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Greece is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...







Other countries · Atlas
 Politics Portal
view  talk  edit
Republic of Macedonia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Republic of Macedonia
The Hellenic Parliament (Greek: Βουλή των Ελλήνων; transliterated Vouli ton Ellinon; literally Council of the Greeks) is the parliament of Greece, located in Syntagma Square in Athens. ... The Presidium is the group of individuals elected by the Hellenic Parliament to deal with the business of organizing and running the Parliament. ... The Conference of Presidents is a collective institution of the Hellenic Parliament. ... The Parliament of Greece naturally assumes legislative responsibilities within the framework of the state, a key part of this parliamentary process (in any liberal democracy) is the establishment and running of Parliamentary committees on all manner of state decisions. ... This is a list of presidents of Greece. ... Karolos Papoulias Karolos Papoulias (Greek: Κάρολος Παπούλιας) is the President of the Hellenic Republic, former minister and member of the Hellenic parliament. ... The President of the Hellenic Republic has a number of minor departments underneath him in order to help the President of the Republic in the exercise of his duties. ... Note on Greek names: There is no firm convention for the rendering of Greek personal names into English. ... This article is about the Greek Prime Minister whose term began in 2004. ... The cabinet of Greece comprises the heads of the major ministries. ... In Greece, the independence of the justice is safeguarded by the Constitution. ... In Greece, the Supreme Special Court (Greek: Ανώτατο Ειδικό Δικαστήριο) is provided for in the article 100 of the Constitution. ... The Court of Cassation is the Supreme Court of Greece. ... In Greece, the Counil of State (sometimes Counsel of State or State Council, Greek: Συμβούλιο της Επικρατείας) is, at the same time, an administrative organ (one of the three Big Bodies of the greek Public Administration) and the Supreme Administrative Court. ... In Greece, the Chamber of Accounts (or Court of Accounts or Court of Auditors or Audit Court, French: Cour des Comptes , Greek: Ελεγκτικό Συνέδριο) is, at the same time, an administrative organ (one of the three Big Bodies of the greek Public Administration) and a Supreme Administrative Court with a special jursdiction... The peripheries (περιφέρειες) are the subnational divisions of Greece. ... The super-prefectures of Greece are a second-degree organization of local self-government and an administrative division between the peripheries and the prefectures. ... Greece consists of 13 administrative regions known as Peripheries of Greece, which are further subdivided into 51 prefectures (nomoi, singular - nomos, Greek: νομοί, νομός)): See also List of the prefectures of Greece by area List of the prefectures of Greece by population density List of the prefectures of Greece by population External... Communities and municipalities of Greece are one of several levels of government within the organizational structure of that country. ... Elections in Greece gives information on election and election results in Greece. ... The 2006 Greek local elections will elect representatives to Greeces 3 super-prefectures, 54 prefectures, provinces, and approximately 1,033 communities and municipalities. ... Parliamentary elections were held in Greece on Sunday, September 16, 2007, to elect the 300 members of the Greek Parliament. ... The 12th legislative election since the restoration of democracy will be the next parliamentary election in Greece. ... Under the current electoral system, a party needs to surpass a 3% threshold in the popular vote in order to enter parliament. ... This is a list of electoral constituencies returning Members of Parliament to the Parliament of Greece. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Greece was elected by the United Nations General Assembly to the United Nations Security Council, on 15 October 2004 , as a non-permanent member for 2005 and 2006. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Politics of the Republic of Macedonia: From the CIA World Factbook 2000/2001, partially updated Country name: conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia conventional short form: none local long form: Republika Makedonija local short form: Makedonija abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M. Data code: MK Government type...



Other countries · Atlas
 Politics Portal
view  talk  edit
For an in depth analysis of the often confusing terms regarding Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology).

The naming dispute between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia over the name of the latter, its main ethnic group, and their language has escalated to the highest point of international mediation, involving attempts to a resolution notably through the United Nations. The Macedonian Presidency began after the Macedonian declaration of independence on September 18, 1991, and its first president was Kiro Gligorov, the oldest president in the world up until his resignation as president in 1999. ... Missing image Image:.jpg Branko Crvenkovski in Macedonian Бранко Црвенковски is the President of the Republic of Macedonia. ... List of Prime Ministers of the Republic of Macedonia See also President of the Republic of Macedonia Categories: | ... Nikola Gruevski (Macedonian: ) (born 31 August 1970 in Skopje) is the prime minister of Republic of Macedonia since August 27, 2006. ... The Parliament of the Macedonia, the Assembly (Sobranie), has 120 members, elected for a four year term, by proportional representation. ... Political parties in the Republic of Macedonia lists political parties in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Elections in the Republic of Macedonia gives information on election and election results in the Republic of Macedonia. ... Presidential elections were held in the Republic of Macedonia in two phases during April 2004. ... The parliamentary election, 2006 in the Republic of Macedonia was held on 5 July 2006. ... The municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia are first-order administrative divisions. ... The Republic of Macedonia is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights and the U.N. Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and Convention against Torture, and the Macedonian Constitution guarantees basic human rights to all Macedonian citizens. ... The existence and distinctiveness of the Macedonian language is disputed among the politicians, linguists and common people from Macedonia and neighboring countries. ... // The Republic of Macedonia became a member state of the United Nations on April 8, 1993, eighteen months after its independence from the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Official logo of the process for European integration of Republic of Macedonia The membership of the Republic of Macedonia in the European Union is the highest strategic interest and priority for the Republic of Macedonia, referred to by the European Union (EU) as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... This article is about the use of the name Macedonia and its derivatives. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


The provisional reference "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM) is currently always used in relations when states not recognizing the constitutional name are parties, although all UN member-states, and the UN as a whole, have agreed to accept any final agreement resulting from negotiations between the two countries.


The ongoing dispute is still pending full resolution and has created a great amount of political and academic argument for both sides.

Contents

Background

See also: Foreign relations of the Republic of Macedonia#Greece and Foreign relations of Greece#Balkans

// The Republic of Macedonia became a member state of the United Nations on April 8, 1993, eighteen months after its independence from the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Greece was elected by the United Nations General Assembly to the United Nations Security Council, on 15 October 2004 , as a non-permanent member for 2005 and 2006. ...

Controversy and conflict

The borders of the present-day Republic of Macedonia were drawn in 1946 when the People's Republic of Macedonia was established as part of the newly proclaimed federal Yugoslav state. The issue of the republic's name immediately sparked controversy with Greece over concerns that it presaged a territorial claim on the Greek coastal region of Macedonia (see Territorial concerns below). The republic was later renamed the Socialist Republic of Macedonia but dropped the "Socialist" from its name when it declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in September 1991. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...


However, the newly independent republic's accession to the United Nations and recognition by the European Community was delayed by strong Greek opposition. Although the Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the former Yugoslavia declared that the Republic of Macedonia met the conditions set by the EC for international recognition, Greece opposed the international community recognising the Republic due to a number of objections concerning the country's name, flag and constitution. In an effort to block the European Community from recognising the Republic,[1] the Greek government persuaded the EC to adopt a common declaration establishing conditions for recognition which included a ban on "territorial claims towards a neighbouring Community state, hostile propaganda and the use of a denomination that implies territorial claims." [2] The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the Former Yugoslavia (commonly known as Badinter Arbitration Committee) was a commission set up by Council of Ministers of the European Economic Community in 1991 to provide Peace Conference on the Former Yugoslavia with legal advice. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Greece's major political parties agreed on 13 April 1992 that the word "Macedonia" could not be included in any way in the new republic's name.[3] This became the cornerstone of the Greek position on the issue. The Greek diaspora was also mobilised in the naming controversy. A Greek-American group, Americans for the Just Resolution of the Macedonian Issue, placed a full-page advertisement in the April 26 and May 10, 1992 editions of the New York Times, urging President George H. W. Bush "not to discount the concerns of the Greek people" by recognising the "Republic of Skopje" as Macedonia. Greek Canadians also mounted a similar campaign.[4] The EC subsequently issued a declaration expressing a willingness "to recognise that republic within its existing borders ... under a name which does not include the term Macedonia." [5] A Greek American is a citizen of the United States, who is of Greek heritage or descent. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


Greek objections likewise held up the wider international recognition of the Republic of Macedonia. Although the Republic applied for membership of the United Nations on 30 July 1992, its application languished in a diplomatic limbo for nearly a year. A few states — Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Lithuania, Slovenia and Turkey — recognised the republic under its constitutional name prior to its admission to the UN.[1] Most, however, waited to see what the United Nations would do. The delay had a serious effect on the Republic, as it led to a worsening of its already precarious economic and political conditions. With war raging in nearby Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, the need to ensure the country's stability became an urgent priority for the international community.[6] The deteriorating security situation led to the UN's first-ever preventative peacekeeping deployment in December 1992, when units of the United Nations Protection Force were deployed to monitor possible border violations from Serbia.[7] Pocket badge of the UNPROFOR. The United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), was the first UN peacekeeping force in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav wars. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Compromise solutions

During 1992, the International Monetary Fund, World Bank and the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia all adopted the appellation "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" to refer to the Republic in their discussions and dealings with it. The same terminology was proposed in January 1993 by France, Spain and the United Kingdom, the three EC members of the United Nations Security Council, to enable the Republic to join the United Nations.[8] The proposal was circulated on 22 January 1993 by the United Nations Secretary General. However, it was initially rejected by both sides in the dispute. It was immediately opposed by the Greek Foreign Minister, Michael Papacostaninou. In a letter to the Secretary General dated 25 January 1993, he argued that admitting the republic "prior to meeting the necessary prerequisites, and in particular abandoning the use of the denomination 'Republic of Macedonia', would perpetuate and increase friction and tension and would not be conducive to peace and stability in an already troubled region."[9] IMF redirects here. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


The Macedonian president, Kiro Gligorov, also opposed the proposed formula. In a letter of 24 March 1993, he informed the President of the United Nations Security Council that "the Republic of Macedonia will in no circumstances be prepared to accept 'the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia' as the name of the country." He declared that "we refuse to be associated in any way with the present connotation of the term 'Yugoslavia'".[9] The issue of possible Serbian territorial ambitions had been a long-running concern in Macedonia, which some Serbian nationalists still called "South Serbia" after its pre-World War II name.[10] The Macedonian government was consequently nervous of any naming formula which might be seen to endorse a possible Serbian territorial claim. Kiro Gligorov Kiro Gligorov (Киро Глигоров in Macedonian/Bulgarian, also known as Kiril Blagoev Gligorov/Кирил Благоев Глигоров), born May 3, 1917 in Štip was the first democraticaly elected president of the Republic of Macedonia. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


Both sides came under intense diplomatic pressure to compromise. The support that Greece had received initially from its allies and partners in NATO and the European Community had begun to wane due to a combination of factors that included irritation in some quarters at Greece's hard line on the issue and a belief that Greece had flouted sanctions against Slobodan Milošević's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The intra-Community tensions were publicly exposed on 20 January 1993 by the Danish foreign minister, Uffe Ellemann-Jensen, who attracted the ire of Greek members of the European Parliament when he described the Greek position as "ridiculous" and expressed the hope that "the Security Council will very quickly recognise Macedonia and that many of the member states of the Community will support this."[11] This article is about the military alliance. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Uffe Ellemann-Jensen (b. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


The Greek Prime Minister, Constantine Mitsotakis, took a much more moderate line on the issue than many of his colleagues in the governing New Democracy party.[1] Despite opposition from hardliners, he endorsed the proposal in March 1993.[12] The Greek government's acceptance of the formula led to the Macedonian government also reluctantly accepting it, though it too was divided between moderates and hardliners on the issue. Constantine Mitsotakis Constantine Mitsotakis (in Greek:Κωνσταντίνος Μητσοτάκης-Konstantinos Mitsotakis) (born October 18, 1918), Greek politician, was born in Chania, Crete. ... Party logo New Democracy (ND, Greek: Νέα Δημοκρατία, Nea Dhimokratia), founded in 1974, is the main center-right liberal-conservative political party in Greece. ...


On 7 April 1993, the UN Security Council endorsed the admission of the republic in UN Security Council Resolution 817. It recommended to the United Nations General Assembly "that the State whose application is contained in document S/25147 be admitted to membership in the United Nations, this State being provisionally referred to for all purposes within the United Nations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" pending settlement of the difference that has arisen over the name of the State." [13] The recommendation was agreed by the General Assembly, which passed Resolution 225 the following day, 8 April, using virtually the same language as the Security Council.[14] The Republic of Macedonia thus became the 181st member of the United Nations. The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ...


The compromise solution, as set out in the two resolutions, was very carefully worded in an effort to meet the objections and concerns of both sides. The wording of the resolutions rested on four key principles:

  • The appellation "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" was purely a provisional term to be used only until the dispute was resolved.[15]
  • The term was a reference, not a name; as a neutral party in the dispute, the United Nations had not sought to determine the name of the state.[15] The President of the Security Council subsequently issued a statement declaring on behalf of the Council that the term "merely reflected the historic fact that it had been in the past a republic of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia."[9] The purpose of the term was also emphasized by the fact that the expression begins with the uncapitalised words "the former Yugoslav", acting as a descriptive term, rather than "the Former Yugoslav", which would act as a proper noun.[15] By also being a reference rather than a name, it met Greek concerns that the term "Macedonia" should not be used in the republic's internationally recognised name.
  • The use of the term was purely "for all purposes within the United Nations"; it was not being mandated for any other party.[15]
  • The term did not imply that the Republic of Macedonia had any connection with the existing Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, as opposed to the historical and now-defunct Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[9]

One additional concern that had to be taken care of was the seating of the Republic of Macedonia in the General Assembly. Greece rejected seating the Republic's representative under M (as in "Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of"), and the Republic rejected sitting under F (as in "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", which turned the reference into a proper noun rather than a description). Instead, it was seated under T as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and placed next to Thailand.[15] A proper noun is a noun that picks out a unique entity. ...


In due course, the same convention was adopted by many other international organizations and states but they did so independently, not as the result of being instructed by the UN. For its part, Greece did not adopt the UN terminology at this stage and did not recognise the Republic under any name. The rest of the international community did not immediately recognise the Republic, but this did eventually happen at the end of 1993 and start of 1994. China was the first major power to act, recognising the Republic under its constitutional name on 13 October 1993. On 16 December 1993, two weeks before Greece was due to take up the European Community presidency, six key EC countries — Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom — recognised the Republic under its UN designation. Other EC countries followed suit in quick succession and by the end of December, all EC member states except Greece had recognised the Republic.[12] Japan, Russia and the United States followed suit on 21 December 1993, 3 February and 9 February 1994 respectively. [16]


A continuing dispute

Despite the apparent success of the compromise agreement, it led to an upsurge in nationalist agitation in both countries. Anti-Western and anti-American feelings came to the fore in Greece, in response to a perception that Greece's partners in the EC and NATO had betrayed it.[11] The government of Constantine Mitsotakis was highly vulnerable; it had a majority of only a couple of seats and was under considerable pressure from ultra-nationalists. After the Republic of Macedonia's admission to the UN, the hardline former foreign minister Antonis Samaras broke away from the governing New Democracy (ND) party along with three like-minded deputies who resented what they saw as the prime minister's unacceptable weakness on the Macedonian issue. This defection deprived ND of its slim parliamentary majority and ultimately caused the fall of the government, which suffered a landslide defeat in the general election of October 1993. It was replaced by the PASOK party under Andreas Papandreou, who introduced an even more hardline policy on Macedonia and withdrew from the UN-sponsored negotiations on the naming issue in late October.[17][11] This article is about the military alliance. ... Antonis Samaras, also spelt, Adonis Samaras (born 1951) is a Greek politician and Member of the European Parliament for New Democracy; part of the European Peoples Party. ... Party logo The Panhellenic Socialist Movement, better known as PASOK (Greek: Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα, Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima, ΠΑΣΟΚ), is a Greek social democratic political party. ... Andreas Georgiou Papandreou, Ανδρέας Γ. Παπανδρέου (5 February 1919 – 23 June 1996) was a Greek economist, a socialist politician and a towering figure in Greek politics. ...


The Macedonian government also faced domestic opposition for its part in the agreement. Protest rallies against the UN's temporary reference were held in the cities of Skopje, Kočani and Resen. The Macedonian parliament only accepted the agreement by a narrow margin, with 30 deputies voting in favour, 28 voting against and 13 abstaining. The nationalist opposition VMRO party called a vote of no confidence over the naming issue, but the government survived with 62 deputies voting in its favour.[18] Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... Category: ... Resen (Macedonian: ) is a city in Republic of Macedonia. ... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization–Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (Macedonian:Внатрешно-Македонска Револуциона Организација–Демократска Партија за Македонско Национално Единство, or VnatreÅ¡no-Makedonska Revoluciona Organizacija–Demokratska Partija za Makedonsko Nacionalno Edinstvo), or VMRO–DPMNE is a political party in the Republic of Macedonia. ... A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


Clashes over the naming dispute were not confined to the Balkans. After Australia recognised the Republic of Macedonia (under its UN appellation) in early 1994, tens of thousands of Greek-Australians took part in protest marches and Macedonian-Australian properties in Melbourne were hit by a series of bomb and arson attacks. [4] Greek churches were attacked in retaliation.[19] This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ...

The former flag of Republic of Macedonia (used from 1992-1995)
The current flag of the Republic.

Greece and the Republic of Macedonia eventually formalised bilateral relations in an Interim Accord signed in New York on 13 September 1995.[20] Under the agreement, the Republic removed the Vergina Sun from its flag and allegedly irredentist clauses from its constitution, and both countries committed to continuing negotiations on the naming issue under UN auspices. For its part, Greece agreed that it would not object to any application by the Republic so long as it used only the appellation set out in "paragraph 2 of the United Nations Security Council resolution 817" (i.e. "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia").[4] This opened the door for the Republic to join a variety of international organisations and initiatives, including the Council of Europe, OSCE and Partnership for Peace.[21] Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia_1991-95. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia_1991-95. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... This article is about the state. ... The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a symbol of a stylised star with sixteen rays. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ...


The accord was not a conventional perpetual treaty, as it can be superseded or revoked, but its provisions are legally binding in terms of international law. Most unusually, it did not use the names of either party. Greece, "the Party of the First Part", recognised the Republic of Macedonia under the term "the Party of the Second Part".[1] The accord did not specifically identify either party by name (thus avoiding the awkwardness of Greece having to use the term "Macedonia" in reference to its northern neighbour). Instead, it identified the two parties elliptically by describing the Party of the First Part as having Athens as its capital and the Party of the Second Part having its capital at Skopje.[15] Subsequent declarations have continued this practice of referring to the parties without naming them.[22] This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ...


The current situation

The naming issue has not yet been resolved, but it has effectively reached a stalemate.[23] Various names had been proposed over the years, for instance "New Macedonia", "Upper Macedonia", "Slavo-Macedonia", "Nova Makedonija", "Macedonia (Skopje)" and so on. However, these had invariably fallen foul of the Greek insistence that no permanent formula incorporating the term "Macedonia" is acceptable.[24][3] Greece had counter-proposed the names "Vardar Republic" or "Republic of Skopje", but the Macedonian government and opposition parties had consistently rejected any solution that eliminates the term "Macedonia" from the country's name.[25] Following these developments, Greece has revised its position and demonstrates its acceptance of a "composite solution" (i.e. the incorporation of the term "Macedonia" in the name, but with the use of a disambiguating qualifier).[26][27][28][29][30][31]


For their part, the inhabitants of the Republic of Macedonia are overwhelmingly opposed to changing the country's name. A June 2007 opinion poll found that 77 per cent of the population were against a change in the country's constitutional name, and 72 per cent supported the Republic's accession to NATO only if it was admitted under its constitutional name. Only 8 per cent supported accession under the "FYROM" reference.[32] This article is about the military alliance. ...


An increasing number of states have switched to recognising the Republic of Macedonia by its constitutional name. A few had recognized it by this name from the start, while most others had switched from recognising it under its UN reference. By September 2007, 118 countries (61% of all UN member states) had recognised the Republic of Macedonia under its constitutional name.[33] Some observers have suggested that the gradual erosion of the Greek position means that "the question appears destined to die" in due course.[34]


The compromise reference is always used in relations when states not recognizing the constitutional name are parties. This is due to the fact that the UN refers to the country only as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", although all UN member-states (and the UN itself) have agreed to accept any final agreement resulting from negotiations between the two countries.


Although the two countries continue to argue over the name, in practice they deal pragmatically with each other. Economic relations and cooperation have resumed to such an extent that Greece is now considered one of the Republic's most important foreign economic partners and investors.[35]


Most Greeks reject any use of the word "Macedonia" to describe the Republic of Macedonia, instead calling it ΠΓΔΜ (Πρώην Γιουγκοσλαβική Δημοκρατία της Μακεδονίας), the Greek version of FYROM, or Skopje and its inhabitants Skopians (Greek: Skopiani), after the country's capital. This metonymic name is not used by non-Greeks, and many inhabitants of the Republic regard it as insulting. However, Greek official sources sometimes use the term "Slavomacedonian" to refer to the Republic's inhabitants; the US State Department has used the term side by side with "Macedonian", albeit having them both in quotation marks.[36] The name "Macedonian Slavs" (Македонски Словени) is another term used to refer to the ethnic Macedonians by non-Greeks. A number of news agencies have used it (although the BBC recently discontinued its use on the grounds that people had alleged it was offensive), and it is used by the Encarta Encyclopedia. The name has been occasionally used in early ethnic Macedonian literary sources as in Krste Misirkov's work On Macedonian Matters (Za Makedonckite Raboti) in 1903. Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Krste Misirkov Krste Petkov Misirkov (Bulgarian Cyrillic: Кръсте/Кръстю/Кръстьо Петков Мисирков, Macedonian Cyrillic: Крсте Петков Мисирков) (born: 18 November 1874 in Postol (today Pella), Greek Macedonia - died, 26 July 1926 in Sofia, Bulgaria) was a philologist and publicist, mostly known for his work On the Macedonian Matters. Because of his self-conflicting views expressed in different points... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

The March 2004 application of the Republic of Macedonia for membership of the European Union may help to speed efforts to find a solution; in a meeting of 14 September 2004, the EU noted that the difference over the name of the Republic of Macedonia still persists and encouraged parties to find a mutually acceptable solution, but stated that it is not part of the conditions for EU accession. Image File history File links The_Sun_too_is_a_star. ... Image File history File links The_Sun_too_is_a_star. ... Official logo of the process for European integration of Republic of Macedonia Membership in the European Union is of the highest strategic interest and priority for the Republic of Macedonia[1][2], and an aspiration shared by the majority of its citizens and political agents. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official logo of the process for European integration of Republic of Macedonia The membership of the Republic of Macedonia in the European Union is the highest strategic interest and priority for the Republic of Macedonia, referred to by the European Union (EU) as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM...


In 2005, Matthew Nimetz, UN Special Representative for the country, suggested using "Republika Makedonija-Skopje" [sic] for official purposes. Greece did not accept the proposal outright, but characterized it as "a basis for constructive negotiations". Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski rejected the proposal and counterproposed a "double formula" where the international community uses "Republic of Macedonia" and Greece uses "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".[28][29] Vlado Bučkovski (Владо Бучковски) (born December 2, 1962 in Skopje) is the prime minister of the Republic of Macedonia, elected by parliament on December 15, 2004. ...


Nimetz was reported to have made a new proposal in October 2005; that the name "Republika Makedonija" should be used by those countries that have recognized the country under that name and that Greece should use the formula "Republika Makedonija – Skopje", while the international institutions and organizations should use the name "Republika Makedonia" in Latin alphabet transcription. Although the government of the Republic of Macedonia accepted the proposal as a good basis for solving the dispute, Greece rejected the proposal as unacceptable.[37]


In December 2006, the government of the Republic announced the intent to rename Skopje Airport "Petrovec" to "Aleksandar Veliki" (Alexander the Great).[38] Mathew Nimetz was invited to Athens in January 2007, where he commented that the efforts to mediate in the issue over the name were "affected and not in a positive way".[39] Skopje Airport (IATA: SKP, ICAO: LWSK) (Аеродром Скопје, Aerodrom Skopje), also known as Petrovec Airport (named after its nearest village), is the largest and busiest international airport in the Republic of Macedonia. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


The Republic of Macedonia's aspirations to join the European Union and NATO under its constitutional name have caused controversy in recent years. Under the Interim Accord of September 1995, Greece agreed not to obstruct the Republic's applications for membership in international bodies as long as it did so under its provisional UN appellation. Leading Greek officials have repeatedly stated that Athens would veto the country's accession in the absence of a resolution to the dispute.[40][41][42] The Greek foreign minister, Dora Bakoyannis, has stated that "...the Hellenic Parliament, under any composition, will not ratify the accession of the neighbouring country to the EU and NATO if the name issue is not resolved beforehand."[41][43] However, the Greek Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis has denied ever committing himself unequivocally to exercising Greece's right of veto, stating instead that he would only block the neighbouring country's application for EU and NATO membership if it sought to be admitted as the "Republic of Macedonia".[44] On Friday 19th October 2007 Karamanlis stated that without a mutually acceptable solution to the name issue, FYROM can not join either NATO or the EU.[45] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the senior minister at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. ... Dora Bakoyianni Dora Bakoyianni (born 1954), is the mayor of Athens, capital of Greece. ... The Hellenic Parliament (Greek: Βουλή των Ελλήνων; transliterated Vouli ton Ellinon; literally Council of the Greeks) is the parliament of Greece, located in Syntagma Square in Athens. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about the Greek Prime Minister whose term began in 2004. ...

List of countries/entities recognizing "Republic of Macedonia" (RoM)

As of September 2007, 118 countries recognise the Republic of Macedonia by its constitutional name.[33]


Four of the five permanent UN Security Council members: A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...

All other former Yugoslav republics: Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...

Neighbor: Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...

In addition, the following countries have also recognized the nation by its constitutional name:

List of countries/entities recognizing "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM)

List of countries/entities to be sorted

The following states have inconsistent official references to the country, using both names: Motto Tuitio Fidei et Obsequium Pauperum(Latin) Defence of the faith and assistance to the poor Anthem (Latin) Hail, thou White Cross Capital Palazzo Malta, Rome Official languages Italian Government  -  Grand Master Fra Andrew Bertie Currency Scudo The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and...

List of countries/entities that have not yet granted recognition as either RoM, or FYROM

The following countries/entities have no diplomatic relations with the state: Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Bhutan, Botswana, Chile, Cyprus, Fiji, Georgia, Grenada, Kiribati, Lebanon, Liberia, Mali, Malta, Monaco, Namibia, Palau, Palestinian Authority, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Sahrawi Republic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Solomon Islands, South Africa, South Korea, Suriname, Syria, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Zimbabwe. The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... National motto: Liberty, Democracy, Unity Official language Arabic (Spanish is widely used as a second language) Capital and largest city (العيون) - Arabic translitteration -- El Aaiún - Spanish translitteration -- Laâyoune - French translitteration; Bir Lehlou, temporary capital President Mohamed Abdelaziz Prime Minister Abdelkader Taleb Oumar Area - Total - % water Ranked 83rd 266,000...

Greek position

The constitutional name of the country "Republic of Macedonia" and the short name "Macedonia" when referring to the country, can be considered offensive by most Greeks, especially inhabitants of the Greek province of Macedonia. The Greek government officially uses the term Slavomacedonian to describe both the language and a member of the ethnic group, and the United Nations' provisional reference for the country (the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) by the main international organisations, including the United Nations.[75] The official reasons for this, as described by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, are: The Vergina Sun, a symbol widely used by Greek Macedonians, both in Greece and in the diaspora. ... Here are a lists of the provinces (Greek: επαρχεία, eparcheia fr. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Greece was elected by the United Nations General Assembly to the United Nations Security Council, on 15 October 2004 , as a non-permanent member for 2005 and 2006. ...

"The choice of the name Macedonia by FYROM directly raises the issue of usurpation of the cultural heritage of a neighbouring country. The name constitutes the basis for staking an exclusive rights claim over the entire geographical area of Macedonia. More specifically, to call only the Slavo-Macedonians Macedonians monopolizes the name for the Slavo-Macedonians and creates semiological confusion, whilst violating the human rights and the right to self-determination of Greek Macedonians. The use of the name by FYROM alone may also create problems in the trade area, and subsequently become a potential springboard for distorting reality, and a basis for activities far removed from the standards set by the European Union and more specifically the clause on good neighbourly relations. The best example of this is to be seen in the content of school textbooks in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia."[26] This article is about the region spanning several countries in southeastern Europe. ... Languages Macedonian Religions predominantly Macedonian Orthodox, but also some Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox,and others The Macedonians[18] (Macedonian: , Тransliteration: ) also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[19] are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Vergina Sun, a symbol widely used by Greek Macedonians, both in Greece and in the diaspora. ...

The current leader of the major opposition party, PASOK, George Papandreou has stated that "in January 2002, when he was Minister for Foreign Affairs, was next to a deal with Skopje leadership about using the name "Горна Македонија" ("Gorna Makedonija" - "Upper Macedonia" in Slavic). The other parties and the President of the Republic, he said, were informed but the solution process didn't work, because the Tetovo crisis broke out."[27] Party logo The Panhellenic Socialist Movement, better known as PASOK (Greek: Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα, Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima, ΠΑΣΟΚ), is a Greek social democratic political party. ... For George Papandreous grandfather, also called George Papandreou, see George Papandreou, senior. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the senior minister at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece. ... The flag of the President of Greece This is a list of presidents of Greece. ... Combatants Republic of Macedonia National Liberation Army Commanders Boris Trajkovski Ljube BoÅ¡koski Ali Ahmeti Casualties 63 (Macedonian sources) 64 (NLA sources) Civilian casualties: 70 dead (60 ethnic Albanians, 10 ethnic Macedonians) Other: 2 EU monitors[1] 1 UK soldier killed[2] The 2001 Macedonia conflict was an armed conflict...


The Greek concerns can be analyzed as follows:


Historical concerns

Ancient Macedon.
Modern Macedonia in Greece.

The name is historically associated with Greek culture, notably that of the kingdom of Macedon. Greeks consider that the inhabitants of the neighbouring republic — most of whom are descendants of Slavic tribes who first immigrated into the region around the 6th century CE — have no historical right to claim the use of the name "Macedonia" for themselves.[26] Macedonian nationalists and communist-era Yugoslav propagandists have tried to associate the republic with ancient Macedon, making a number of historically dubious claims. These historic claims are continued in the present-day Republic and in the diaspora,[76] even by official sources,[77] and political actions (see plans to rename the Skopje Airport to "Alexander Makedonski"),[78] and are further reinforced by pseudoscientific theories (see The Arnaiz-Villena controversy).[79][80][81] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Image File history File links LocationMacedonia-HEL-2-z. ... Image File history File links LocationMacedonia-HEL-2-z. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Skopje Airport (IATA: SKP, ICAO: LWSK) (Аеродром Скопје, Aerodrom Skopje), also known as Petrovec Airport (named after its nearest village), is the largest and busiest international airport in the Republic of Macedonia. ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ... Sub-Saharan African DNA is scattered throughout the European continent. ...


The territory of the Republic of Macedonia was not called that as a political entity until 1944, when it ceased to be called South Serbia, and Yugoslavia was divided into separate republics. While it is certainly a small part of the historical region of Macedonia, there is no continuity, political, historical, ethnic, linguistic or otherwise, between ancient Macedon and the modern Republic of Macedonia.


Loring M. Danforth, a professor of anthropology working at Bates College in the United States who has written many award winning books and articles on Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Australia and nationalism, reports: Loring Danforth is an award winning professor of anthropology and author working at Bates College in the United States. ... Bates College is a private liberal arts college, founded in 1855 by abolitionists, located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. ...

Extreme Macedonian nationalists, who are concerned with demonstrating the continuity between ancient and modern Macedonians, deny that they are Slavs and claim to be the direct descendants of Alexander the Great and the ancient Macedonians. The more moderate [ethnic] Macedonian position, generally adopted by better educated Macedonians and publicly endorsed by Kiro Gligorov, the first president of the newly independent Republic of Macedonia, is that modern Macedonians have no relation to Alexander the Great, but are a Slavic people whose ancestors arrived in Macedonia in the sixth century AD. Proponents of both the extreme and the moderate Macedonian positions stress that the ancient Macedonians were a distinct non-Greek people.[82] For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For the full range of meanings of Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

The Times Guide to the Peoples of Europe[83] affirms that:

Macedonian rock groups may claim Alexander the Great as a forefather of their nation but even the recent scholarly histories of the Macedonians spanning three millennia are spurious and only lay the Macedonians open to the ridicule of those who would deny their nationhood; the Macedonian regional name is ancient but contemporary Macedonians are among the newest nations in Europe.

Territorial concerns

A map distributed by extreme Macedonian nationalists circa 1993. Shows the geographical region of Macedonia split with barbed wire between the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece.
The region of Macedonia as perceived by extremist ethnic Macedonian irredentists.
Republic of Macedonia 1992 banknotes, with a depiction of the White Tower of Thessaloniki, Greece; created by a private institution with government approval, but never placed in circulation.[84]

During the Greek Civil War, in 1947 the Greek Ministry of Press and Information published a book, I Enandion tis Ellados Epivoulis ("Designs on Greece"), namely of documents and speeches on the ongoing Macedonian issue, many translations from Yugoslav officials. It reports Josip Broz Tito using the term "Aegean Macedonia" on October 11, 1945 in the build up to the Greek Civil War; the original document is archived in ‘GFM A/24581/G2/1945’. For Athens in 1947, the “new term, Aegean Macedonia”, (also “Pirin Macedonia”), was introduced by Yugoslavs. Contextually, this observation indicates this was part of the Yugoslav offensive against Greece, laying claim to Greek Macedonia, but Athens does not seem to take issue with the term itself. The 1945 date concurs with Bulgarian sources. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (818x793, 159 KB) Summary Image was reproduced in a journal article from 1993. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (818x793, 159 KB) Summary Image was reproduced in a journal article from 1993. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the region spanning several countries in southeastern Europe. ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x725, 299 KB) Summary Created by User: Macedonia Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x725, 299 KB) Summary Created by User: Macedonia Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links ROM_currency_w_White_Tower. ... Image File history File links ROM_currency_w_White_Tower. ... The White Tower of Thessaloniki The White Tower of Thessaloniki (in Greek, Λευκός Πύργος, Lefkos Pyrgos, Macedonian: Бела Кула, Bela Kula) is a monument and museum on the waterfront of the city of Thessaloniki, capital of the region of Macedonia in northern Greece. ... A map distributed by extreme Macedonian nationalists circa 1993. ... The term Aegean Macedonia was used in Bulgaria from the end of 19th Century as according to Treaty of San Stefano the region was ceded to Bulgaria. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... The term Aegean Macedonia was used in Bulgaria from the end of 19th Century as according to Treaty of San Stefano the region was ceded to Bulgaria. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Tito's war time representative to Macedonia, General Tempo (Svetozar Vukmanovic), is credited with promoting the usage of the new regional names of the Macedonian region for irredentist purposes.


Greece suspects that the Republic of Macedonia has territorial ambitions in the northern Greek provinces of Macedonia. This has been a Greek concern for decades; as far back as 1957, the Greek government expressed concern about reported Yugoslav ambitions to create an "independent" People's Republic of Macedonia with the Greek city of Thessaloniki as its capital.[85] A map distributed by extreme Macedonian nationalists circa 1993. ... This article is about the region of Greece. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ...


The concerns are further reinforced by the fact that extremist ethnic Macedonian nationalists of the "United Macedonia" movement have expressed irredentist claims to what they refer to as "Aegean Macedonia" (in Greece),[85][86][87] "Pirin Macedonia" (in Bulgaria),[88] "Mala Prespa and Golo Bardo" (in Albania),[89] and "Gora and Prohor Pchinski" (in Serbia).[90] Languages Macedonian Religions predominantly Macedonian Orthodox, but also some Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox,and others The Macedonians[18] (Macedonian: , Тransliteration: ) also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[19] are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... A map distributed by extreme Macedonian nationalists circa 1993. ... Irredentism is claiming a right to territories belonging to another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ... The region called Macedonia (or Makedonia) in Greece is a large section of the north-northwestern part of the country which collectivally with Thrace, is forming Northern Greece. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Blagoevgrad Province. ... Mala Prespa and Golo Bardo (Bulgarian:Мала Преспа и Голо Бърдо; Macedonian: Мала Преспа и Голо Брдо) is the name by which Bulgarians and ethnic Macedonians refer to an area in the southwest of their perception of the Macedonia region and in southeastern Albania (around the Lake Ohrid) corresponding roughly to the Korçë, Pogradec and Devoll districts (sometimes considered to... Former Gora municipality in Kosovo, marked in blue Gora (Гора) is a geographical region in southern Kosovo, inhabited by the Gorani people. ... Prohor Pčinjski (Serbian Cyrillic: Прохор Пчињски) is a Serb Orthodox monastery in the deep south of Serbia, located in Pčinja District near the border with the Republic of Macedonia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Greek Macedonians, Bulgarians, Albanians and Serbs form the overwhelming majority of the population of each part of the region respectively. The Vergina Sun, a symbol widely used by Greek Macedonians, both in Greece and in the diaspora. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


Schoolbooks and official government publications in the Republic have shown the country as part of an unliberated whole.[91][92][93][94][95][96][97]


Professor Loring M. Danforth, reports the following: Loring Danforth is an award winning professor of anthropology and author working at Bates College in the United States. ...

Although all Macedonians agree that Macedonian minorities exist in Bulgaria and Greece and that these minorities have been subjected to harsh policies of forced assimilation, there are two different positions with regard to what their future should be. The goal of more extreme Macedonian nationalists is to create a "free, united, and independent Macedonia" by "liberating" the parts of Macedonia "temporarily occupied" by Bulgaria and Greece. More moderate Macedonian nationalists recognize the inviolability of the Bulgarian and Greek borders and explicitly renounce any territorial claims against the two countries. They do, however, demand that Bulgaria and Greece recognize the existence of Macedonian minorities in their countries and grant them the basic human rights they deserve.

And...

...Greek fears that use of the name "Macedonia" by Slavs will inevitably lead to the assertion of irredentist claims to territory in Greek Macedonia are heightened by fairly recent historical events. During World War II Bulgaria occupied portions of northern Greece, while one of the specific goals of the founders of the People's Republic of Macedonia in 1944 was "the unification of the entire Macedonian nation," to be achieved by "the liberation of the other two segments" of Macedonia.[82]

Self-Determination

Macedonians (Greek) protest in Thessaloniki against what they see as appropriation of their name and heritage.
Apogevmatini headline quoting Kostas Karamanlis:
"I am a Macedonian, as are two and a half million Greeks."
See also: Macedonians (Greek), Greek Struggle for Macedonia, and Demographic history of Macedonia

According to both the official Greek position[26] and various public manifestations in Greece[98] and the Greek diaspora,[99] the Greek Macedonians feel that their right to self-determination is violated by what they regard as the monopolisation of their name by a neighbouring country. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Apogevmatini is a Greek newspaper that is published nationally. ... This article is about the Greek Prime Minister whose term began in 2004. ... The Vergina Sun, a symbol widely used by Greek Macedonians, both in Greece and in the diaspora. ... The Greek Struggle for Macedonia 1904-1908 (in Greek language: Μακεδονικός Αγῶν, Macedonian Struggle) is how the Greeks describe their military conflicts against the Bulgarians (VMRO) and the Turkish forces in Ottoman occupied Macedonia during the first decade of the 20th century. ... // Macedonia is known to have been inhabited from Neolithic times. ... ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece ΠΡΟΣΟΧΗ!! ΣΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΘΕ ΑΡΘΡΟΥ ΓΙΑ ΤΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΝΗΣΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΙΓΑΙΟΥ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΑΛΕΙ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΚΗ ΣΗΜΑΙΑ !!  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece  Greece... The Vergina Sun, a symbol widely used by Greek Macedonians, both in Greece and in the diaspora. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


The strong regional identity of the Macedonians was emphasized by the Prime Minister of Greece, Kostas Karamanlis, who in January 2007 during a meeting of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg declared that: The Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός in Greek) is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. ... This article is about the Greek Prime Minister whose term began in 2004. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... For other uses, see Strasburg. ...

I myself am a Macedonian, and another two and a half million Greeks are Macedonians.[100]

In Greece, the extreme position on the issue suggests that there must be "no Macedonia in the title" of a neighbouring country.[101]


Professor Danforth reports:

From the Greek nationalist perspective, then, the use of the name "Macedonian" by the "Slavs of Skopje" constitutes a "felony," an "act of plagiarism" against the Greek people. By calling themselves "Macedonians" the Slavs are "stealing" a Greek name; they are "embezzling" Greek cultural heritage; they are "falsifying" Greek history. As Evangelos Kofos, a historian employed by the Greek Foreign Ministry told a foreign reporter, "It is as if a robber came into my house and stole my most precious jewels - my history, my culture, my identity".[82]

More moderate positions suggest that a disambiguating element should be added to the name of the neighbouring state and its people (notably Slav- or Vardar or New), so as to illustrate the distinction between not just the two, but all groups of self-identifying Macedonians.[26]

Semiological confusion

Demographic Macedonia
Macedonians     
c. 5 million
All inhabitants of the region, irrespective of ethnicity
Macedonians
c. 1.3 million plus diaspora[102]
A contemporary ethnic group, also referred to as Slavomacedonians or Macedonian Slavs[103]
Macedonians
c. 2.0 million[102]
Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia irrespective of ethnicity
Macedonians
c. 2.6 million plus diaspora[104]
A Greek regional group, also referred to as Greek Macedonians or Aegean Macedonians.
Macedonians
(unknown population)
A group of antiquity
Macedonians
c. 0.3 million[105]
A Bulgarian regional group,[106]; also referred to as Piriners.
Macedo-Romanians
c. 0.3 million[107]*
An alternative name for Aromanians

The contemporary region of Macedonia is a wider region in the Balkan peninsula that spans across several modern states, mainly Greece (Greek Macedonia), Bulgaria (Blagoevgrad province), the Republic of Macedonia (formerly Vardar Macedonia), and Albania (around Lake Ohrid). The definite borders of the region are vague, but most contemporary geographers agree on its general location.[108] There are several ethnic groups in this region, mostly living within their respective states, all of which are technically Macedonians in the regional sense. The Republic itself, has a substantial minority (25.2%) of ethnic Albanians who are "Macedonians" both in the regional sense, and as legal citizens of the Republic.[102][109] For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Vihren from the south Kamenitsa Peak and the lake Tevno ezero Pirin range as seen from Kalimantsi village The Gazey peak looked from Polejan and the Upper Gazey Lake The Pirin Mountains (Bulgarian: Пирин) are a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, with Vihren (2,914 m high) the highest peak, situated... Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Aroumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Aroumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... This article is about the use of the name Macedonia and its derivatives. ... This article is about the region spanning several countries in southeastern Europe. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Blagoevgrad Province (Bulgarian: област Благоевград, oblast Blagoevgrad or Благоевградска област, Blagoevgradska oblast), also known as Pirin Macedonia (Bulgarian: Пиринска Македония, Pirinska Makedoniya), is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria. ... Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian: Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija; Bulgarian: Вардарска Македония, Vardarska Makedoniya), also known as Southern Serbia]/Old Serbia (Serbian:Јужна Србија / Стара Србија, Južna Srbija / Stara Srbija) is the north-western area of the Macedonia region. ... Lake Ohrid (Macedonian: Охридско Езеро, Ohridsko Ezero Albanian: Liqeni i Ohrit) straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern region of the Republic of Macedonia and eastern Albania. ...


The Greek position suggests that the monopolization of the name by the Republic and its citizens creates semiological confusion, as it becomes increasingly difficult to disambiguate which "Macedonia", which "Macedonians" and what "Macedonian language" are referred to in each occasion.


Bulgarians living in Blagoevgrad province (Bulgarian Macedonia) are reported to not self-identify with their regional term "Macedonians", so as not to be confused with the ethnic Macedonians.[106] Blagoevgrad Province (Bulgarian: област Благоевград, oblast Blagoevgrad or Благоевградска област, Blagoevgradska oblast), also known as Pirin Macedonia (Bulgarian: Пиринска Македония, Pirinska Makedoniya), is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria. ... Categories: Regions of Bulgaria | Macedonia | Bulgaria geography stubs ... The Macedonians (Македонци, Makedonci) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs [1] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ...


Macedo-Romanians (Aromanians) are often called "Machedoni" by Romanians, as opposed to the citizens of Macedonia, who are called "Macedoneni". Aromanians (also called: Arumanians or Macedo-Romanians; in Aromanian they call themselves Arumâni, Armâni, Ramani, Rumâni or Aromâni) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobrogea). ... Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Aroumans; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ...


The Greek Macedonians demonstrate a strong regional identity and self-identify as plain Macedonians, who live in plain Macedonia, speaking a Macedonian dialect of modern Greek. Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ...


The Macedonian (Greek) minority in the FYROM

There is a Macedonian (Greek) minority in what is now the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, a remnant of the formerly much larger indigenous Greek community of the wider region of Macedonia that fell within the borders of Serbia after the Balkan Wars of 1912-13. The official 2002 census figures cite a few hundred ethnic Greeks in the country,[102] but it is unknown how many of these consider themselves to be of indigenous Macedonian origin. In addition, Greek sources suggest that the Vlach minority in the country which numbered 250,000 in 1994 are of Greek origin. According to Victor Roudometof, the majority of the Vlachs in the region have historically self-identified as Greeks.[110] Population Some statistics are from the 2002 census data, while the rest are estimates from the CIA World Factbook publication. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Ethnic Macedonian position

Self-determination and self-identification

Skopje rejects many of Athens's objections due to what it sees as several errors in the Greek claims.


According to the government in Skopje, the preservation of the constitutional name both for domestic and international use is of utmost importance. The country asserts that it does not lay exclusive claim to the term Macedonia neither in the geographic nor the historic sense.[111] Various demonstrations and protests in the Republic of Macedonia,[112] Greece,[113] and the ethnic Macedonian diaspora, the ethnic Macedonians feel that their right to self-determination is violated by what they regard as the rejection of the name from the Greeks and their country. The Macedonian Academy of Arts and Scinces suggests: For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The Macedonians (Македонци, Makedonci) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs [1] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ...

And today Slavs have been living there (Macedonia) for a period of 1,400 years. What is more natural than that the Balkanized Slavs who have lived so long and continuously in Macedonia should be called Macedonians and their language Macedonian"[114]

It should be noted, however, that the Slavs inhabited Macedonia for more than a millennium before the name "Macedonians" was first used to distinguish a specific Slavic ethnic group in the first half of the twentieth century.


They also dismiss the idea that they are depriving Greek Macedonians of an identity and falsifying history, as the northern Greeks are free to call themselves such.[citation needed] They do, however, object to Greece's claims of ownership over the name Macedonia. Their views are outlined below.


Historical Perspective

From a historical perspective, Macedonian Slav scholars point out that Greece has attempted to claim ownership over an ancient kingdom which, in their view, was not Greek. Whilst it adopted Attic Greek for official discourse, it had always been politically independent, though it should be noted that there was never a unified Greek state in antiquity prior to the expansion of the Macedonian kingdom under Philip IIi.e. Macedonia was independent of Athens in the same way that Sparta was, and vice versa. Greek scholars and lay people alike believe that there is an obvious continuity between the ancient Macedonians and modern Greeks, given that Greek is the closest living language to ancient Macedonian. This notion that the ancient Macedonians were Greeks has been accepted by many Western scholars. According to Macedonian Slav nationalists, the reason for this has been the lack of scrutiny or academic rigour on the part of these scholars.[citation needed] Conversely, a minority of Slav Macedonian scholars have attempted to show that ancient Macedonians were Slavic-speaking, a theory rejected by virtually all mainstream scholars, including mainstream Slav scholars. Most neutral scholars maintain that the ancient Macedonian language had an uncertain degree of affiliation to Greek. The ancient Macedonians ceased to exist as a distinct political entity after the Roman invasion. What is debated is the legacy of this once great kingdom. According to the Macedonian Slav view, flaws can be found with Greece's main objections about modern Macedonian Slavs: (1) Greece rejects any possible linkage between modern Macedonian Slavs and the ancient Macedonians, arguing that the Slavs are newcomers to the Balkans, arriving hundreds of years after, and (2) ancient Macedon was centred on what is now northern Greece (i.e. Greek Macedonia). However, historical records, anthropological theory, and now, population genetic studies suggest that the modern Slavic-speaking peoples of Macedonia have absorbed many elements of ancient populations that have lived in the Balkans, and Macedonia, since neolithic times.[115][116][117] The Slavic component was merely the latest addition. Most of the region of Macedonia was Slavicized in the 700s, leading to one of the main hypotheses of Macedonism, namely that there was active symbiosis of whatever original Macedonian people and culture remained and the new Slavic tribes. However, the ancient Macedonians were universally considered to be Greek at least after the 4th century BCE, meaning that any such cultural fusion can only have occurred via the Greek medium. In modern times, Greek Macedonia was only fully Hellenized after the Balkan and World Wars through active population exchanges. Greeks from Bulgaria and Turkey were settled into Greek Macedonia.[118] So the Macedonian Slav scholars find it arguable that these Greek people claim to be the 'true' legacy of ancient Macedon just because they now physically occupy the land loosely corresponding to the area of the ancient kingdom, when in fact their ancestors were actually Greeks who lived in Anatolia, not Macedonia. Nevertheless, there has been a continuous Greek presence in Macedonia since antiquity, with the Greek refugees that arrived in the first half of the twentieth century complementing the indigenous Macedonian Greek population of the region. Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... Cover of Ethnological differences between Macedonians and Bulgarians (Macedonian: ) by Alexander Donski. ... The Vergina Sun, a symbol widely used by Greek Macedonians, both in Greece and in the diaspora. ...


According to these theories, the ancient Macedonians imported a Hellenic way of life only after they conquered the Greek city-states. Proponents of this view argue that Greece should not hold exclusive 'rights' over the history and relics of a people whose affiliations and origins are controversial to this day. Moreover, they do not see that 'Slav Macedonians' hold any less legitimacy to also be proud of an ancient history that is common to the region of Macedonia,[citation needed] arguing that today's "ethnic" boundaries are artificially constructed borders which merely delineate linguistic jursidiction over a very mixed and heterogenous area.[119]


The ethnic Macedonian minority in Greece

In the 6th and 7th centuries AD Slavic-speaking populations overturned the Greek ethnic composition of the wider Macedonia region,[120] and Slavic languages have been spoken in the area alongside Greek in the region ever since. In parts of northern Greece, in the regions of Macedonia (Μακεδονία) and Thrace (Θράκη), Slavonic languages continue to be spoken by people with a wide range of self-identifications. The actual linguistic classification of these dialects is unclear, although most linguists will classify them as either Bulgarian or Macedonian Slavic taking into account numerous factors, including the resemblance and mutual intelligibility of each dialect to the standard languages (abstand), and the self-identification of the speakers themselves. As however the vast majority of these people don't have a non-Greek national identity, linguists will make their decisions based on abstand alone. The Slavic-speaking minority of northern Greece can be divided in to two main groups: Christians and Muslims. The latter has no reported connection to ethnic Macedonians. Map of Greece. ... The Macedonians (Македонци, Makedonci) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs [1] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Imagined Community is a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is socially constructed and ultimately imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article is about the region spanning several countries in southeastern Europe. ... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... This article is about the Slavic language. ... The Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache framework is a tool developed by sociolinguists, e. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The Christian portion of Greece's Slavic-speaking minority are commonly referred to as Slavophones (from the Greek Σλαβόφωνοι Slavophōnoi - lit. Slavic-speakers) or Dopii, which means "locals" in Greek. The vast majority of them espouse a Greek national identity and are bilingual in Greek. They live mostly in the Periphery of Western Macedonia and belong to the Greek Orthodox Church, which in conjunction with the millet system of the Ottoman Empire which occupied the region until 1913, may explain their self-identification as Greeks. In the 1951 census, 41,017 people claimed to speak the Slavic language. One unofficial estimate for 2000 puts their number at 1.8% of the Greek population, that is c.200,000.[121] West Macedonia is one of the thirteen peripheries of Greece, consisting of the western part of Greek Macedonia. ... The Church of Greece is one of the fifteenth autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches which make up the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Slavic (Greek: Σλάβικα Slávika, reported self-identifying names: endopika, makedonski (Macedonian), pomakika, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ...


This group has received some attention in recent years due to claims from the Republic of Macedonia that these people form an ethnic Macedonian minority in Greece. Multiple organisations and scholars of history and anthropology have stated that there is a minority within the Slavophone community in Greece which self-identifies as ethnic Macedonian.[122][123][124][125][126][127] For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Languages Macedonian Religions predominantly Macedonian Orthodox, but also some Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox,and others The Macedonians[18] (Macedonian: , Тransliteration: ) also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[19] are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... Map of Greece. ... The Macedonians (Македонци, Makedonci) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs [1] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who live in the southern Balkans region of Europe. ...


There is a dispute over the size of this alleged minority, with most Greeks denying it outright, and most ethnic Macedonians inflating the numbers substantially. The Greek Helsinki Monitor reports that, "difficult and therefore risky it is to declare a Macedonian minority identity in such an extremely hostile if not aggressive environment in Greece".[122] There are no official statistics to confirm or deny either claims. The Greek government has thus far refused on the basis that there is no significant such community and that the idea of minority status is not popular amongst the (Greek identifying) linguistic community of northern Greece as it would have the effect of them being marginalized.[128] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Professor Danforth reports:

...Finally, the Greek government denies the existence of a Macedonian minority in northern Greece, claiming that there exists only a small group of "Slavophone Hellenes" or "bilingual Greeks," who speak Greek and "a local Slavic dialect" but have a "Greek national consciousness".[82]

A political party promoting this line and claiming rights of what they describe as the "Macedonian minority in Greece" — the Rainbow (Виножито) — was founded in September 1998; it received a minimal support of 2,955 votes in the region of Macedonia in the latest elections (2004).[129] Party logo The Rainbow (Greek: Oυράνιο Tόξο, Macedonian: Виножито) is a political party in Greece. ...


Macedonian language

The name of the Macedonian language (Macedonian: Македонски јазик) as used by the people and defined in the constitution of the Republic of Macedonia is Macedonian (Macedonian: Македонски - Makedonski) . This is also the name used by international bodies, such as the United Nations and the World Health Organisation . ...

Macedonian (Slavic)

The name of the Macedonian language (Macedonian: македонски јазик - makedonski jazik) as used by the people and defined in the constitution of the Republic of Macedonia is "Macedonian" (Macedonian: македонски - makedonski).[130] This is also the name used by international bodies, such as the United Nations[131] and the World Health Organisation.[132] The name is also used by convention in the field of Slavic Studies.[133] This article is about the Slavic language. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Slavistics or Slavic Studies is the study of Slavic languages, literature and culture. ...


However, for historical reasons, as well as due to a naming dispute with Greece, several other terms of reference are used when describing or referring to the language. Some of the names use the family to which the language belongs to disambiguate it from the undoubtedly non-Slavic and entirely different ancient Macedonian language, or from the homonymous dialect of modern Greek; sometimes the autonym "Makedonski" is used in English for the modern Slavic language, with "Macedonian" being reserved for the ancient language.[134] // The Republic of Macedonia became a member state of the United Nations on April 8, 1993, eighteen months after its independence from the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ...


Professor Loring M. Danforth, reports the following: Loring Danforth is an award winning professor of anthropology and author working at Bates College in the United States. ...

In addition to affirming the existence of the Macedonian nation, Macedonians are concerned with affirming the existence of a unique Macedonian language as well. While acknowledging the similarities between Macedonian and other South Slavic languages, they point to the distinctions that set it apart as a separate language. They also emphasize that although standard literary Macedonian was only formally created and recognized in 1944, the Macedonian language has a history of over a thousand years dating back to the Old Church Slavonic used by Sts. Cyril and Methodius in the ninth century. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Old Church Slavonic (pol. ... Monument to Sts. ...

Nevertheless, standard Macedonian is mutually intelligible with standard Bulgarian and until the late 1940s, all activists and leaders of the Macedonian movement, including the leftists, used standard Bulgarian in documents, press publications, correspondence and memoirs and nothing indicates they viewed it as a foreign language.[135] This is characteristic even of the members of IMRO (United) well into the 1920's and 1930's, when the idea of a distinct Macedonian nation was taking shape.[136] A pair of languages is said to be mutually intelligible if speakers of one language can readily understand the other language. ... The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (United) (1925-1936) (in Slavo-Macedonian: Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija (Obedinena), Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, in Bulgarian: Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyucionna Organizaciya (?), Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация, VMRO), commonly known in English as IMRO (United) or VRMO (United), was the name of a revolutionary political organization active in Macedonia. ...


Macedonian (modern Greek)

There is also a dialect of modern Greek called Macedonian, spoken by the Macedonians.[137][138] Greek, including all its modern variations, is the closest living language to ancient Macedonian, and has no relation to the Slavic languages except for their mutual inclusion in the Indo-European family and the Balkan sprachbund.[139] This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Balkan sprachbund or linguistic area is the ensemble of areal features—similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various branches of Indo-European, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ...


Macedonian (ancient)

The origins of the ancient Macedonian language are currently debated. It is as yet undetermined whether it was a Greek dialect which was part of or closely related to the Doric[140][141] and/or Aeolic[142] dialects, a sibling language of ancient Greek forming a Graeco-Macedonian or Hellenic supergroup, or an independent Indo-European language close to the Greek, Thracian and Phrygian languages.[143] The scientific community generally agrees that, although some sources are available (e.g. Hesychius' lexicon, Pella curse tablet)[144] there is no decisive evidence for supporting either hypothesis.[145] Nevertheless, Attic Greek, a form of the Greek language, eventually supplanted it entirely in Macedonia, and ancient Macedonian became extinct during the first few centuries of the Common Era. Attic Greek evolved into Koine Greek and in turn into Byzantine and modern Greek[146]. This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... Ancient Greek, in classical antiquity before the development of the Koiné as the lingua franca of Hellenism, was divided into several dialects. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Aeolic Greek is a linguistic term used to describe a set of rather archaic Greek sub-dialects, spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece), in Lesbos (an island close to Asia Minor) and in other Greek colonies. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ... page of Marc. ... The Pella katadesmos: from Prof. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... “BCE” redirects here. ... Koine redirects here. ... Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική) is a linguistic term that describes the fourth period in the history of the Greek language. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d Thanos Veremis, Greece, pp. 315-316. C. Hurst & Co, 2002. ISBN 185065462X
  2. ^ "Recognition of States - Annex 2", Declaration on Yugoslavia (Extraordinary EPC Ministerial Meeting, Brussels, 16 December 1991)
  3. ^ a b Theodore A. Couloumbis, Theodore C. Kariotis, Fotini Bellou, Greece in the Twentieth Century, pp. 146-147. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0714654078
  4. ^ a b c John Shea, Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation, p. 185-188, ISBN-13: 978-0786402281, ISBN-10: 0786402288, published by McFarland & Company (February 1997)
  5. ^ European Council in Lisbon, 26/27 June 1992, Conclusions of the Presidency, Annex II, p. 43
  6. ^ Graham T. Allison, Kalypso Nicolàeidis, The Greek Paradox: Promise Vs. Performance, p. 120. MIT Press, 1997. ISBN 0262510928
  7. ^ "Former Yugoslavia - UNPROFOR", Department of Public Information, United Nations. 31 August 1996
  8. ^ "Compromise Likely to Take Macedonia Into U.N.", New York Times, January 26, 1993
  9. ^ a b c d Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council Twelfth Supplement 1993-1995, Chapter VII: Practice relative to recommendations to the General Assembly regarding membership in the United Nations 1993-1995
  10. ^ John B. Allcock, "Macedonia". In Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, ed. Bernard Anthony Cook, p. 807. Taylor & Francis, 2001. ISBN 0815340583
  11. ^ a b c Tom Gallagher, The Balkans in the New Millennium: In the Shadow of War and Peace, pp. 7-8. Routledge, 2005. ISBN 0415349400
  12. ^ a b Daniel L. Bethlehem, Marc Weller, The 'Yugoslav' Crisis in International Law, p. xlv. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN 0521463041
  13. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 817, 7 April 1993
  14. ^ "Admission of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to membership in the United Nations", United Nations General Assembly Resolution 225, 8 April 1993
  15. ^ a b c d e f Jochen Abr. Frowein, Rüdiger Wolfrum, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 1997, p. 239. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1998.
  16. ^ Ian Jeffries, The Former Yugoslavia at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century, p. 54. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0415281903
  17. ^ Robert Bideleux, Richard Taylor, European Integration and Disintegration: East and West, p. 136. Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0415137403
  18. ^ John Phillips, Macedonia: Warlords and Rebels in the Balkans, p. 56. I.B.Tauris, 2004. ISBN 186064841X
  19. ^ Dennis Ernest Ager, Language, Community and the State, p. 63. Intellect Books, 1997. ISBN 1871516943
  20. ^ "Interim Accord", 13 September 1995
  21. ^ Edmund Jan Osmanczyk, "Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic of", in Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements ed. Anthony Mango, p. 1355. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0415939208
  22. ^ See e.g. the Agreement on a five year development cooperation programme 2002-2006 between the Government of the Party of the First Part to the Interim Accord September 13, 1995 and the Government of the Party of the Second Part to the Interim Accord September 13, 1995
  23. ^ Floudas, Demetrius Andreas; "A Name for a Conflict or a Conflict for a Name? An Analysis of Greece's Dispute with FYROM”,. 24 (1996) Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 285. Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  24. ^ Kyriakos Kentrotis, "Echoes from the Past: Greece and the Macedonian Controversy", p. 100 in Mediterranean Politics, ed. Richard Gillespie. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996. ISBN 0838636098
  25. ^ David Turncock, The Human Geography of East Central Europe, p. 33. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0415121914
  26. ^ a b c d e f Hellenic Republic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (English). Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) — The Name Issue. Retrieved on July 17, 2006.
  27. ^ a b (Greek) Eleftherotypia. George's "No" to Nimitz proposals. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  28. ^ a b "Greece considers Macedonia name", BBC News, 2005-04-08. Retrieved on 2006-11-19. 
  29. ^ a b Nikolovski, Zoran (2005-04-14). Nimitz Proposal For Macedonia's Name Sparks Debate. Southeast European Times. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  30. ^ (Greek) Skai News, Συμβιβασμός ή βέτο (Compromise or Veto), Retrieved on 2007-10-14. The source uses original quotes from an interview of MFA Dora Bakoyannis in Kathimerini newspaper where she supports a composite name solution.
  31. ^ (English) Hellenic Republic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Interview of FM Ms. D. Bakoyannis in the Athens daily Kathimerini, with journalist Ms. D. Antoniou (Sunday, 14 October 2007), [full text], Retrieved on 2007-10-15
  32. ^ "Macedonians in Favour of NATO Accession Under Constitutional Name", A1 TV, 12 June 2004
  33. ^ a b "New Draft Resolution Won't Change US Position Towards Macedonia - Foreign Ministry", MIA news agency, Skopje. 9 August 2007
  34. ^ Duncan M. Perry, "The Republic of Macedonia: finding its way", in Democratization and Authoritarianism in Postcommunist Societies, ed. Karen Dawisha, Bruce Parrott, p. 270. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN 0521597331
  35. ^ National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia. Annual Report 2003 (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  36. ^ United States Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2006-03-09). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2005 (HTML). Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  37. ^ "Matthew Nimitz Will Not Present a New Proposal on the Name date=2005-10-14", OneWorld Southeast Europe. Retrieved on 2006-11-19. 
  38. ^ Kathimerini. A stir over name of Skopje’s airport (Friday December 29, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  39. ^ Makfax vesnik. Nimetz's talks in Athens included "Alexander the Great" (Friday, 12.01.2007). Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  40. ^ Southeast European Times. Greece to veto Macedonia's EU, NATO bids if name issue not resolved. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  41. ^ a b Embassy of Greece - Washington, DC (English). Answer of FM Ms. D. Bakoyannis regarding the FYROM name issue. Retrieved on September 11, 2006.
  42. ^ United Macedonian Diaspora. Interview with Greek Foreign Minister Dora Bakoyannis. Retrieved on November 2, 2006.
  43. ^ United Macedonian Diaspora. Interview with Greek Foreign Minister Dora Bakoyannis. Retrieved on November 2, 2006.
  44. ^ To Vima. "I Never Used the Word Veto" (September 11, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  45. ^ Eleútheros Týpos. "Karamanlis: No accession without a solution for the name" (October 19, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  46. ^ People's daily. China, Macedonia Sign Joint Communique on Normalization of Relations. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  47. ^ PM Gruevski signs Yeltsin book of condolence. Retrieved on 2007-09-20.
  48. ^ Country Profiles: Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  49. ^ Background Note: Macedonia. Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  50. ^ a b c d e f CEFTA 2006 text, signed by "the Republic of Macedonia" and "the Republic of Montenegro", Stability Pact for Southeast Europe, Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  51. ^ Ministarstvo vanjsklh poslova I europsklh integracija. Republika Makedonija - Uspostava diplomatskih odnosa: 30.3.1992. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  52. ^ Embassy of the Republic of Serbia. Skopje Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  53. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia. Macedonia. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  54. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, Diplomatic Missions, Macedonia. Retrieved on 2007-01-25
  55. ^ Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Country and Regional Information: Macedonia, Retrieved on 2007-09-20
  56. ^ (Macedonian) A1 News, Канада ја призна Македонија под уставното име, Retrieved on 2007-09-20
  57. ^ Embassy of the Republic of Hungary. Skopje Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  58. ^ Free Trade Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Moldova and the Government of the Republic of Macedonia, Stability Pact for Southeast Europe, Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  59. ^ Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Polish Missions Abroad, Retrieved on 2007-04-12
  60. ^ Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Embassies in Poland, Retrieved on 2007-04-12
  61. ^ Ambasada României. Skopje. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  62. ^ NATO Update - Week of 9-15 June 1999. Retrieved on 2007-09-18.
  63. ^ Australian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Australian Consulate in Skopje, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of, Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  64. ^ French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (French) Macédoine (ARYM) [ancienne République yougoslave de Macédoine], Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  65. ^ German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (German) Ehemalige jugoslawische Republik Mazedonien, Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  66. ^ Indian Ministry of External Affairs, Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia, Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  67. ^ Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (Italian) Ex Repubblica Jugoslava di Macedonia, Retrieved on 2007-08-20
  68. ^ Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (Spanish) Ex-República Yugoslava De Macedonia (ERYM), Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  69. ^ Bilateral and multilateral relations of the Holy See
  70. ^ Albanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Diplomatic Representativ Of Albania, Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  71. ^ Stability Pact for Southeast Europe, Agreement of free trade between the Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of Albania, Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  72. ^ Legal Information System of the Republic of Austria (RIS), Abkommen zwischen der Republik Österreich und der Republik Mazedonien über die Förderung und den Schutz von Investitionen, Retrieved on 2007-06-29
  73. ^ Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Diplomatische Vertretungen in Österreich, Retrieved on 2007-06-29
  74. ^ NATO NATO Freedom Consolidation Act of 2007 (Enrolled as Agreed to or Passed by Both House and Senate). Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  75. ^ United Nations. Admission of the State whose application is contained in document A/47/876-S/25147 to membership in the United Nations. Retrieved on July 17, 2006.
  76. ^ The Vergina Sun adopted as the official seal of the Liqenas (Macedonian: Pustec) municipality of the Mala Prespa region in eastern Albania.
    Makedonskosonce.com (pdf). MAKEDONCITE NA BALKANOT. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  77. ^ Official site of the Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia in London. An outline of Macedonian history from Ancient times to 1991. Retrieved on October 19, 2006.
  78. ^ Kathimerini. A stir over name of Skopje’s airport. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  79. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Dimitroski K., Pacho A. et al (2001). HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks. (theory considered to "lack scientific merit", see below). Blackwell Publishing, Inc.. DOI:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057002118.x. Retrieved on July 23, 2006.
  80. ^ Cavalli-Sforza, Luca, L.; Piazza A., Risch, N. (10 January 2002). "Comment on the above theory: Dropped genetics paper lacked scientific merit". Nature (415): 115. Nature Publishing Group. doi:10.1038/415115b. Retrieved on 2006-07-23. 
  81. ^ McKie, Robin (November 25, 2001). Article regarding above theory. Journal axes gene research on Jews and Palestinians. The Observer International. Retrieved on July 23, 2006.
  82. ^ a b c d Danforth, Loring M.. How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian?. Retrieved on 2007-01-02. 
  83. ^ Fernández-Armesto, F. (editor), The Times Guide to the Peoples of Europe, Times Books (Jan 1994), ISBN 0723006245, p. 223-224
  84. ^ Michel P. Marks, "Moving at Different Speeds: Spain and Greece in the European Union", p. 149; in Tamed Power: Germany in Europe, ed. Peter J. Katzenstein. Cornell University Press, 1997
  85. ^ a b Greek Macedonia "not a problem", The Times (London), August 5, 1957
  86. ^ Patrides, Greek Magazine of Toronto, September — October, 1988, p. 3.
  87. ^ Simons, Marlise. "As Republic Flexes, Greeks Tense Up", New York Times, February 3, 1992. 
  88. ^ Lenkova, M.; Dimitras, P., Papanikolatos, N., Law, C. (eds) (1999). Greek Helsinki Monitor: Macedonians of Bulgaria (pdf). Minorities in Southeast Europe. Greek Helsinki Monitor, Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe — Southeast Europe. Retrieved on July 24, 2006.
  89. ^ Rainbow — Vinozhito political party. The Macedonian minority in Albania. Retrieved on July 22, 2006.
  90. ^ Makedonija — General Information. Retrieved on July 22, 2006.
  91. ^ The vision of "Greater Macedonia". Retrieved on September 14, 2006.
  92. ^ The vision of "Greater Macedonia". Specific examples (I). Retrieved on September 14, 2006.
  93. ^ The vision of "Greater Macedonia". Specific examples (II). Retrieved on September 14, 2006.
  94. ^ The Macedonian Times, semi-governmental monthly periodical, Issue number 23, July-August 1996:14, Leading article: Bishop Tsarknjas
  95. ^ Facts About the Republic of Macedonia - annual booklets since 1992, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia Secretariat of Information, Second edition, 1997, ISBN 9989-42-044-0. p.14. 2 August 1944.
  96. ^ MIA (Macedonian Information Agency), Macedonia marks 30th anniversary of Dimitar Mitrev's death, Skopje, February 24, 2006
  97. ^ Official site of the Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia in London. An outline of Macedonian history from Ancient times to 1991. Retrieved on October 19, 2006.
  98. ^ Liotta, P. H. and Simons, A. Thicker than Water? Kin, Religion, and Conflict in the Balkans, from Parameters, Winter 1998, pp. 11-27.
  99. ^ Jupp, J. The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins, Cambridge University Press, October 1, 2001. ISBN 0-521-80789-1, p. 147.
  100. ^ ΕΡΤ online Stark message to Skopje, 2007-01-24. Retrieved on 2007-01-25
  101. ^ Ελληνικές Γραμμές (Hellenic lines - official site of the L.A.O.S. party). Η Μακεδονία είναι μόνο Ελληνική (Macedonia is only Greek). Retrieved on December 27, 2006.
  102. ^ a b c d State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia (pdf) (English). 2002 census 34. Retrieved on July 21, 2006.
  103. ^ MSN Encarta. Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved on September 9, 2006.
  104. ^ (Greek) General Secretariat of National Statistical Service of Greece (zip xls). 2001 census. Retrieved on July 21, 2006.
  105. ^ (Bulgarian) National Statistical Institute (of Bulgaria). 2001 census. Retrieved on August, 3, 2006.
  106. ^ a b British Council — Bulgaria. Macedonians of Bulgaria. Retrieved on September 11, 2006.
  107. ^ Ethnologue. Report for Macedo-Romanian language. Retrieved on August, 3, 2006.
    *The figure includes Aromanians in all countries.
  108. ^ Wilkinson, H. R. (1951). Maps and Politics; a review of the ethnographic cartography of Macedonia. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, pp.1-4. LCC DR701.M3 W5. 
  109. ^ International Constitutional Law (English translation). Macedonia — Constitution. Retrieved on July 20, 2006.
  110. ^ Johns Hopkins University Press: Victor Roudometof, Nationalism and Identity Politics in the Balkans: Greece and the Macedonian Question
  111. ^ Annual address of the President of the Republic of Macedonia, Mr. Branko Crvenkovski in the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, on 2005-12-22, Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  112. ^ Eurominority. Macedonians protest Concil of Europe decision on their Country's name. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  113. ^ Rainbow — Виножито Political party. Promotion of the Macedonian Language Primer at the Annual OSCE Human Dimension Implementation Meeting. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  114. ^ Council for Research into South-Eastern Europe of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje, 1993
  115. ^ The Balkans, From Constantinople to Communism. D P Hupchik
  116. ^ The new Cambridge Medieval History. Paul Fouracre
  117. ^ ^ Pericić M, Lauc LB, Klarić IM, et al (2005). "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (10): 1964-75. DOI:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443
  118. ^ The Balkans, From Constantinople to Communism. D P Hupchik
  119. ^ Encyclopedia of Greece & the Hellenic Tradition, Volume II, Editor: Graham Speake
  120. ^ Macedonia. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service: [1]
  121. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, World Data Greece. Called "Macedonians" in this source.
  122. ^ a b Greek Helsinki Monitor. Greece against its Macedonian minority The "Rainbow" trial. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  123. ^ Hill, P. (1999) "Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A Comparative study of recent developments". Nationalities Papers Volume 27, Number 1, 1 March 1999, pp. 17-30(14)
  124. ^ Eurominority. Macedonians in Greece. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  125. ^ Danforth, L. (1995) The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World ISBN 0691043574
  126. ^ The Guardian. Bittersweet return for Greek civil war's lost victims. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  127. ^ Shea, J. (1997) Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation
  128. ^ Rainbow — Vinozhito political party. Greek Diplomats and Members of the Greek Parliament Lie to the Council of Europe. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  129. ^ Ministry of Interiors, Greece (Greek). 2004 Election results. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  130. ^ Republic of Macedonia - Constitution
  131. ^ Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights - FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION - OSCE/ODIHR Election Observation Mission - Final Report
  132. ^ World Health Organization - WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
  133. ^ Sussex, R. (2006) The Slavic Languages (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press) ISBN 0-521-22315-6
  134. ^ Joseph, B. (1999) Romanian and the Balkans: Some Comparative Perspectives In S. Embleton, J. Joseph, & H.-J. Niederehe (eds.) The Emergence of the Modern Language Sciences. Studies on the Transition from Historical-Comparative to Structural Linguistics in Honour of E.F.K. Koerner. Volume 2: Methodological Perspectives and Applications. Amsterdam: John Benjamins (1999), pp. 218-235
  135. ^ Иван Михайлов. Promacedonia.org. КАК ПИШЕХА НАШИТЕ НАРОДНИ БУДИТЕЛИ И ГЕРОИ. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  136. ^ Димитър Влахов. Promacedonia.org. Борбите на македонския народ за освобождение. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  137. ^ Ανδριώτης (Andriotis), Νικόλαος Π. (Nikolaos P.) (1995). Ιστορία της ελληνικής γλώσσας: (τέσσερις μελέτες) (History of the Greek language: four studies). Θεσσαλονίκη (Thessaloniki): Ίδρυμα Τριανταφυλλίδη. ISBN 960-231-058-8. 
  138. ^ Vitti, Mario (2001). Storia della letteratura neogreca. Roma: Carocci. ISBN 88-430-1680-6. 
  139. ^ Lindstedt, J. (2000). “Linguistic Balkanization: Contact-induced change by mutual reinforcement”, D. G. Gilbers & al. (eds.): Languages in Contact, (Studies in Slavic and General Linguistics, 28.), Amsterdam & Atlanta, GA, 2000: Rodopi, 231–246. ISBN 90-420-1322-2.
  140. ^ Masson, Olivier [1996] (2003). in S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth (eds.): The Oxford Classical Dictionary, revised 3rd ed., USA: Oxford University Press, 905-906. ISBN 0-19-860641-9. 
  141. ^ Hammond, N.G.L. (1989), The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-814927-1, pp 12-13
  142. ^ (German) Ahrens, F. H. L. (1843), De Graecae linguae dialectis, Göttingen, 1839-1843 ; Hoffmann, O. Die Makedonen. Ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum, Göttingen, 1906
  143. ^ Mallory, J.P. and Adams, D.Q. (eds.) (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, Taylor & Francis Inc., ISBN 1-884964-98-2, p.361
  144. ^ (French) Dubois L. (1995) Une tablette de malédiction de Pella : s'agit-il du premier texte macédonien ?, Revue des Études Grecques (REG) 108:190-197
  145. ^ (French) Brixhe C., Panayotou A. (1994) Le Macédonien in: Langues indo-européennes, ed. Bader, Paris, pp 205–220
  146. ^ Brian D. Joseph, Greek, Modern, Ohio State University, Department of Linguistics

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dora Bakoyianni Dora Bakoyianni (born 1954), is the mayor of Athens, capital of Greece. ... Kathimerini (Greek: Η Καθημερινή, Translation: The Daily) is a daily newspaper published in Athens. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Department of State redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vergina Sun or Star of Vergina is a symbol of a stylised star with sixteen rays. ... Mala Prespa and Golo Bardo (Bulgarian:Мала Преспа и Голо Бърдо; Macedonian: Мала Преспа и Голо Брдо) is the name by which Bulgarians and ethnic Macedonians refer to an area in the southwest of their perception of the Macedonia region and in southeastern Albania (around the Lake Ohrid) corresponding roughly to the Korçë, Pogradec and Devoll districts (sometimes considered to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born January 25, 1922) is an Italian population geneticist born in Genoa, who has been a professor at Stanford University since 1970 (now emeritus). ... Neil Risch Neil Risch is a the Lamond Distinguished Professor in Human Genetics and Director of the Center for Human Genetics at the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Jupp (1932 - ) is a British-Australian political scientist and author. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Library of Congress reading room The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... The Oxford Classical Dictionary (OCD) is the standard one-volume encyclopedia in English of topics relating to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. ... Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond (born November 15 1907; died March 24 2001) was a British scholar of ancient Greece of great accomplishment and an operative for the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) in occupied Greece during World War Two. ... Franz Heinrich Ludolf Ahrens (June 6, 1809 - September 25, 1881), was a German philologist. ... This article is about the archaeologist James JP Mallory. ...

See also

Notice: Hyperlinks and emphasis in the quotations appearing in this article were not in the original source being quoted, but are merely used for disambiguation purposes. This article is about the region spanning several countries in southeastern Europe. ... This article is about the use of the name Macedonia and its derivatives. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Foreign relations of the Republic of Macedonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (936 words)
Greece objected to Yugoslavia's use of the name "Macedonia" to name its southernmost constituent republic.
The name: Macedonia was claimed to be a Greek name, already in use for the Greek region of Macedonia.
The flag: the sixteen-ray "Vergina Sun" symbol that appeared on the flag of the Republic of Macedonia was a symbol of the ancient state of Macedon, to which Greece claimed to be the sole heir.
Republic of Macedonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1809 words)
The Greek government objected to the Republic's use of the name "Macedonia" on the grounds that it was a Greek name that was already in use by Greek Macedonia.
The lands governed by the Republic of Macedonia were part of a number of ancient states and former empires; Paionia, the ancient Macedon (which established the name of the whole Macedonian region), the Roman and Byzantine empires as well as medieval Bulgarian and Serbian states.
The Republic of Macedonia is a parliamentary democracy with an executive government composed of a coalition of parties from the unicameral legislature (Собрание, Sobranie), and an independent judicial branch with a constitutional court.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m