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Encyclopedia > Mace

An advance on the club, a mace is a strong, heavy wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel. A club, cudgel, truncheon, night stick, or bludgeon is among the simplest of all weapons. ...

Assorted maces
Assorted maces

The head is normally about the same or slightly thicker than the diameter of the shaft, shaped with flanges, or knobs to allow greater penetration of armour. The length of maces can vary considerably. The maces of foot soldiers were usually quite short (two or three feet). The maces of cavalrymen were longer and better designed for blows from horseback. Two-handed maces ("mauls") could be even larger. The flail is often, though incorrectly, referred to as a mace. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Look up maul in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flail The flail is a medieval weapon made of one (or more) weights attached to a handle with a hinge or chain. ...

Contents

History of the Mace

Prehistory

Earthenware mace found near Samotovac
Earthenware mace found near Samotovac
Sculpture of Hanuman carrying the Dronagiri mountain, with a mace in his left hand
Sculpture of Hanuman carrying the Dronagiri mountain, with a mace in his left hand

The mace was first developed around 12,000 BC and quickly became an important weapon. It was the first weapon made specifically for use against people rather than using hunting weapons to fight with. The usage of maces in warfare is described in the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabarata. These first wooden maces, studded with flint or obsidian, became less popular due to the development of leather armour that could absorb the blows. Some maces had stone heads. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x874, 149 KB) Сл. 58. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x874, 149 KB) Сл. 58. ... Earthenware is a common ceramic material, which is used extensively for pottery tableware and decorative objects. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1188x1485, 277 KB) Summary Sculpture of Hanuman in Terra cotta. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1188x1485, 277 KB) Summary Sculpture of Hanuman in Terra cotta. ... Hanuman tearing his chest open to reveal that Rama and Sita are literally in his heart Hanuman (Sanskrit: ; nominative singular ), known also as Anjaneya, is one of the most important personalities in the epic, the Ramayana. ... (Redirected from 12,000 BC) The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is the great religious, philosophical and mythological epic of India. ... A flint nodule from the Onondaga limestone layer, Buffalo, New York. ... Obsidian from Lake County, Oregon Counterclockwise from top: obsidian, pumice and rhyolite (light color) Obsidian is a rock which is a type of naturally occurring glass, produced by volcanoes (igneous origin) when a felsic lava cools rapidly and freezes without sufficient time for crystal growth (see glass transition temperature). ... Leather Armour is a form of warfare protection created with animal hides that have been cured or tanned. ...


The discovery of copper and bronze made the first genuine metal maces possible. General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ...


The ancient world

One of the earliest images of a mace- or club-like weapon is on the Narmer Palette. Maces were used extensively in the Bronze Age in the near east. Many early cultures were unable to produce long, sharp and sturdy metal blades, which made the mace very popular. Front and Back Sides of Narmer Palette, this facsimile on display at the Royal Ontario Museum, in Toronto, Canada. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ...


The mace passed out of general use in the Iron Age, when swords, spears and axes of iron became easier to make. The ancient Romans did not use maces, probably because they had no need for a heavy, armor-smashing weapon, or more likely due to the nature of the Roman infantry fighting style which involved the pilum (or spear) and the gladius (short sword used in a stabbing fashion). The use of a swinging-arc weapon in the well-disciplined tight formations of the Roman infantry would not be practical. The mace would be more useful to individual fighters, not units. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ... // Gladius is Latin for sword (in general). ...


The armies of the Byzantine Empire used maces, especially from horseback. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The European Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages metal armour and chainmail protected against the blows of edged weapons and block arrows and other projectiles. Solid metal maces and war hammers proved able to inflict damage on well armoured knights, as the force of a blow from a mace is large enough to cause damage without penetrating the armour. One example of a mace capable of penetrating armor is the flanged mace. What makes a flanged mace different from other maces is the flanges, protruding edges of metal that allow it to dent or penetrate even the thickest armor. This variation of the mace did not become popular until significantly after knobbed maces. Although there are some references to flanged maces as early as the Byzantine empire circa 1000, it is commonly accepted that the flanged mace did not become popular in Europe until the 12th century. However, flanged mace heads were popular in the northern Muslim world even earlier, as some mace heads have been found into even ancient times. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... David rejects the unaccustomed armour (detail of fol. ... A reproduction of a spiked war hammer A war hammer is an archaic weapon of war intended for close combat, the design of which resembles the hammer. ... Look up flange in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


Maces, being simple to make, cheap and straightforward in application, were quite common weapons. Peasant rebels and cheap conscript armies often had little more than maces, axes and pole arms. Few of these simple maces survive today. Most examples found in museums are of much better quality and often highly decorated. A mace type commonly used by the lower classes, called the Holy Water Sprinkler, was basically a wooden handle, with a wooden or metal head and radiating spikes; the name most likely originates from the similarity to the church object. In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ...


It is popularly believed that maces were employed by the clergy in warfare to avoid shedding blood. The evidence for this is sparse and appears to derive almost entirely from the depiction of Bishop Odo of Bayeux wielding one at the Battle of Hastings in the Bayeux Tapestry the idea being either that he did so to avoid shedding blood or bearing the arms of war. The fact that his brother Duke William carries a similar item suggests that, in this context, the mace may have been simply a symbol of authority.[1] Certainly, other Bishops were depicted bearing the arms of a knight without comment, such as Archbishop Turpin who bears both a spear and a sword named "Almace" in the The Song of Roland or Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy, who also appears to have fought as a knight during the First Crusade, an expedition that Odo joined and died during. Odo of Bayeux (c. ... // Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons, Aquitanians, Flemings Anglo-Saxons Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, but significantly more than the Normans The Battle of Hastings was... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts scenes commemorating the Battle of Hastings in 1066, with annotations in Latin. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Turpin (d. ... In the legendary Song of Roland, Almace, Almice or Almacia is the sword of Turpin, Archbishop of Reims, one of the last three Franks to die at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass , along with Roland (Orlando in Italian) and Gualter de Hum. ... The Song of Roland (French: ) is the oldest major work of French literature. ... A mitred Adhemar carrying the Holy Lance in battle. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians Turkish people Muslims/Arabs The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims, and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim rule. ...


Much of the popularity of this view can be attributed to the Dungeons and Dragons game, which has had cause in the past to restrict its cleric class to using bludgeoning weapons and was widely imitated. The original Dungeons & Dragons set Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&D or DnD) is a fantasy role-playing game (RPG) published by Gary Gygax and David Arneson in January 1974. ... The cleric is a character class in Dungeons & Dragons and other fantasy role-playing games. ...


Eastern Europe

Mace used by the rotmistrzs of the private army of the Radziwiłł family.
Mace used by the rotmistrzs of the private army of the Radziwiłł family.

Maces were very common in eastern Europe, especially medieval Poland and Russia. Eastern European maces often had pear shaped heads. These maces were also used by Hungarian king Stephen the Great who used the mace in some of his wars. see - Bulawa Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 355 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mace (buzdygan) of private army of w:Radziwiłł family. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 355 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mace (buzdygan) of private army of w:Radziwiłł family. ... Rotmistrz of an armoured regiment. ... Radziwiłł (Lithuanian: ; Belarusian: ; Latin: ) is a family of high nobility which has been powerful and important for centuries, first in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Stephen the Great raising the double cross: equestrian sculpture by Alajos Stróbl, 1906, crowns the Fishermens Bastion, Budapest. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Parliamentary maces

Ceremonial maces are important in many parliaments following the Westminster system. They are carried in by the sergeant-at-arms or some other mace-bearer and displayed on the clerks' table while parliament is in session to show that a parliament is fully constituted. They are removed when the session ends. The mace is also removed from the table when a new speaker is being elected to show that parliament is not ready to conduct business. This article needs cleanup. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The Houses of Parliament in London The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modeled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A Serjeant at Arms (also spelt Sergeant at Arms, and sometimes Serjeant-at-Arms) is an officer appointed by a deliberative body, usually a legislature, to keep order during its meetings. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ...


The Scottish Parliament was presented with a mace by Her Majesty The Queen at the opening ceremony on 1 July 1999. It was designed and crafted by Michael Lloyd, a renowned silversmith who has a studio in south-west Scotland. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


The mace is constructed of Scottish silver with an inlaid band of gold panned from Scottish rivers. The gold band is intended to symbolise the marriage of the Parliament, the land and the people.


The words "Wisdom, Justice, Compassion, Integrity" are woven into thistles at the head of the mace to represent the aspirations of the Scottish people for the Members of their Parliament. The head of the mace is surrounded by the words "There shall be a Scottish Parliament - Scotland Act 1998". Images are shown here [5] and [6].


Ecclesiastical maces

The term mace is also used for:

  • A short, richly ornamented staff, often made of silver, the upper part furnished with a knob or other head-piece and decorated with a coat of arms, usually borne before eminent ecclesiastical corporations, magistrates and academic bodies as a mark and symbol of jurisdiction.
  • More properly, the club-shaped beaten silver stick (mazza) carried by papal mazzieri (mace-bearers), Swiss Guards (church vergers), in papal chapels, at the consecration of bishops, and by the cursores apostolici (papal messengers); they carry their mace on the right shoulder, with its head upwards. Formerly cardinals had mace-bearers. Mazzieri, once called servientes armorum, or halberdiers, were the bodyguard of the pope, and mazze (maces, Latin clavae, virgae) date back at least to the twelfth century (virgarii in chapter 40 of the Ordo of Cencius).

A verger (or virger, so called after the staff of the office) is a person, usually a layperson, who assists in the ordering of religious services, particularly in Anglican churches. ... Cursores is the plural of the Latin Cursor, runner, i. ... Swedish halberds from 16th century This article is about the weapon. ...

Pre-Columbian America

The cultures of pre-Columbian America used clubs and maces extensively.


The warriors of the Inca Empire used maces with bronze, stone or copper heads and wooden shafts. Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua Government Monarchy Sapa Inca  - 1197–1220 Manco Capac  - 1532-1533 Atahualpa  - 1570-1572 Túpac Amaru History  - Established 1197  - Spanish conquest 1532–1537  - Disestablished 1572 Area  - 1527 2,000,000 km2 772,204 sq mi Population  - 1527 est. ...


The Aztecs used a type of wooden club with sharp obsidian blades on the side (the macuahuitl), which can be regarded as a cross between club and sword. The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... Obsidian from Lake County, Oregon Counterclockwise from top: obsidian, pumice and rhyolite (light color) Obsidian is a rock which is a type of naturally occurring glass, produced by volcanoes (igneous origin) when a felsic lava cools rapidly and freezes without sufficient time for crystal growth (see glass transition temperature). ... Drawing of a 15th century macahuitl The maquahuitl, an Aztec obsidian-edged sword-club, was a devastating cutting weapon capable of easily cleaving to bone (according to a Spanish account, it was capable of easily decapitating a horse), but lacked a point (and thus couldnt be used for thrusting...


Modern maces

Mace-like weapons made a brief reappearance in the vicious trench warfare of World War I. Trench maces were hand-made and often crude weapons and used in the hand-to-hand combat of trench raiding operations, not unlike the bayonet which, on the other hand, is anything but blunt. Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... Melée generally means hand-to-hand combat or mano-a-mano. ... Trench raiding was an often brutal feature of trench warfare that came into being in World War I, and was the practice of making small scale surprise attacks on enemy positions. ... The US Marine Corps OKC-3S Bayonet A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife- or dagger-shaped weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle of a rifle barrel or similar weapon. ...


Parade maces

Maces are also used as a parade item, rather than a tool of war, notably in military bands. Specific movements of the mace from the Drum Major will signal specific orders to the band he leads. The mace can signal anything from a step-off to a halt, from the commencement of playing to the cut off. Many drum majors also add an element of showmanship with the mace, spinning it and tossing it in the air. (Some drum majors substitute a smaller baton known as a military baton.) A high school drum major uses hand gestures to lead his band. ...


Heraldic use

Like many weapons, especially from feudal times, one heraldry originated as a military discipline, maces have been used in blazons, either as a charge on the shield or as external ornament(s).


Thus, in France:

  • the city of Cognac (in the Charente département): Argent on a horse sable harnessed or a man proper vested azure with a cloak gules holding a mace, on a chief France modern
  • the city of Colmar (in Haut-Rhin): per pale gules and vert a mace per bend sinister or. Three maces, probably a canting device (Kolben means mace in German, cfr. Columbaria the Latin name of the city) appear on a 1214 seal. The arms in a 15th c. stained-glass window show the mace per bend on argent.
  • the duke of Retz (a pairie created in 1581 for Albert de Gondy) had Or two maces or clubs per saltire sable, bound gules
  • the Garde des sceaux ('keeper of the seals', still the formal title of the French Republic's Minister of Justice) places behind the shield, two silver and gilded maces in saltire, and the achievement is surmounted by a mortier (magistrate's hat)

Cognac is a commune in the French département of Charente, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Charente is a département in central France named after the Charente River. ... Petite Venise Colmar is a town and commune in the Haut-Rhin département of Alsace, France. ... Haut-Rhin is a French département, named after the Rhine river. ... The French word pairie is the equivalent of the English peerage, in the sense of an individual title carrying the rank of Pair (peer in English), which derives from the Latin par equal, and signifies the members of an exclusive body of noblemen and prelates, considered to be the highest... Mortier is a well known organ manufacter from Antwerp, Belgium that made orchestrions, fairground organs, and mostly dance organs from 1898 until 1950. ...

Notes

  1. ^ See the following images of William, an unidentified companion and Odo carrying Mace like objects in the Bayeux Tapestry [1][2][3][4]

See also

The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

Sources and External links

(incomplete)

This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (830 words)
Maces were used extensively in the bronze age in the near east.
Although there are some references to flanged maces as early as the Byzantine empire circa 1000, it is commonly accepted that the flanged mace did not become popular in Europe until the 12th century.
Trench maces were hand-made and often crude weapons and used in the hand-to-hand combat of trench raiding operations, not unlike the bayonet which however is anything but blunt.
Mace - definition of Mace in Encyclopedia (606 words)
An advance on the club, a mace is a wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel.
The mace passed out of general use in the iron age, where swords, spears and axes became the dominant weapons.
Ceremonial maces are still used to represent authority and prestige, as in the House of Commons in a Westminster System parliament.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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