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Encyclopedia > Macbeth of Scotland
Mac Bethad mac Findlaích
Rí Alban
"King of Scotland"

Early modern engraved depiction of the King
Reign 10401057
Born 1005
Scotland
Died 15 August 1057
Lumphanan or Scone
Buried Iona
Consort Gruoch
Father Findláech mac Ruaidrí
Mother unknown

Mac Bethad mac Findlaích (100515 August 1057), known in English as Macbeth, was King of Scots (or Alba) from 1040 until his death. He is best known as the subject of William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth and the many works it has inspired, although the play is historically inaccurate. The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... Events Malcolm II succeeds Kenneth III as king of Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... Lumphanan, is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland located 25 miles from Aberdeen and 10 miles from Banchory. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... Iona is a small island, in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. ... Queen Gruoch (1007 - 1060) was the daughter of Bodhe, prince of Scotland and thus granddaughter of the late King Kenneth III of Scotland. ... Findláech of Moray, or Findláech mac Ruaidrí, was the King or Mormaer of Moray, ruling from some point before 1014 until his death in 1020. ... Macbeth can refer to:- Macbeth, the play by William Shakespeare, Macbeth of Scotland, the historical monarch, Macbeth (Gargoyles), a fictional character based on the Shakespearean one Macbeth (opera), the opera by Verdi, Macbeth (band), a heavy metal band, Macbeth Footwear, a footwear company, Jesse Macbeth, an American soldier. ... Events Malcolm II succeeds Kenneth III as king of Scotland. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ...

Contents

Origins and Family

Main article: Mormaer of Moray

Mac Bethad was the son of Findláech mac Ruaidrí, Mormaer of Moray. His mother is sometimes supposed to have been a daughter of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda. This may be derived from Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland which makes Mac Bethad's mother a grand-daughter, rather than a daughter, of Máel Coluim. [1] The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ... Findláech of Moray, or Findláech mac Ruaidrí, was the King or Mormaer of Moray, ruling from some point before 1014 until his death in 1020. ... The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray (Middle Irish: Muireb or Moreb; Medieval Latin: Muref or Moravia; Modern Gaelic:Moireabh) was a lordship in High Medieval Scotland that was destroyed by King David I of Scotland in 1130. ... Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (anglicised Malcolm II) (c. ... Andrew of Wyntoun (?1350-?1420), author of a long metrical history of Scotland, called the Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, was a canon regular of St Andrews, and prior of St Serfs in Lochieven. ...


Mac Bethad's paternal ancestry can be traced in the Irish genealogies contained in the Rawlinson B.502 manuscript:

Mac Bethad son of Findláech son of Ruadrí son of Domnall son of Morggán son of Cathamal son of Ruadrí son of Ailgelach son of Ferchar son of Fergus son of Nechtan son of Colmán son of Báetán son of Eochaid son of Muiredach son of Loarn son of Ercc son of Eochaid Muinremuir.[2]

This should be compared with the ancestry claimed for Máel Coluim mac Cináeda which traces back to Loarn's brother Fergus Mór.[3] Several of Mac Bethad's ancestors can tentatively be identified: Ailgelach son of Ferchar as Ainbcellach mac Ferchair and Ferchar son of Fergus (correctly, son of Feredach son of Fergus) as Ferchar Fota, while Muiredach son of Loarn mac Eirc, his son Eochaid and Eochaid's son Báetán are given in the Senchus fer n-Alban. So, while the descendants of Cináed mac Ailpín saw themselves as being descended from the Cenél nGabráin of Dál Riata, the northern kings of Moray traced their origins back to the rival Cenél Loairn.[4] Fergus Mór mac Eirc (Scottish Gaelic: Fergus Mòr Mac Earca) was a legendary king of Dál Riata. ... Ainbcellach (Scottish Gaelic: Ainbcellach mac Ferchair) was king of the Cenél Loairn of Dál Riata, and perhaps of all Dál Riata, from 697 until 698, when he was deposed and exiled to Ireland. ... Ferchar Fota (Ferchar the Tall) (died c. ... Loarn mac Eirc was a legendary king of Dál Riata who may have lived in the 5th century. ... The Senchus Fer n-Alban was an ancient text created at some time during the 10th century and attributed to the 7th century. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... Gabrán mac Domangairt was king of Dál Riata in the middle of the 6th century. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Loarn mac Eirc was a legendary king of Dál Riata who may have lived in the 5th century. ...

An extract of a family tree describing the relations in the text. See the more complete version.
An extract of a family tree describing the relations in the text. See the more complete version.

Mac Bethad's father Findláech was killed about 1020 - one obituary calls him king of Alba - most probably by his successor, his brother Máel Brigte's son Máel Coluim.[5] Máel Coluim died in 1029, the circumstances are unknown, but violence is not suggested; he is called king of Alba by the Annals of Tigernach.[6] However, king of Alba is by no means the most impressive title used by the Irish annals. Many deaths reported in the annals in the 11th century are of rulers called Ard Rí Alban - High-King of Scotland. It is not entirely certain whether Máel Coluim was followed by his brother Gille Coemgáin or by Mac Bethad.
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (842 × 632 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/png) The family tree of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, including the Kings of Scotland from Malcolm I to Duncans children hints at animosities For a smaller... Máel Coluim of Moray, or Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti was King or Mormaer of Moray (1020-1029), and, as his name suggests, the son of a Máel Brigte. ... The Annals of Tigernach (abbr. ... An number of Irish annals were compiled up to and shortly after the end of Gaelic Ireland in the 17th century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings, without the title of Emperor; compare King of Kings. ... Gilla Coemgáin or Gille Coemgáin of Moray was the King or Mormaer of Moray, a semi-autonomous kingdom centred around Inverness that stretched across the north of Scotland. ...


Gille Coemgáin's death in 1032 was not reported by Tigernach, but the Annals of Ulster record: The Annals of Ulster are a chronicle of medieval Ireland. ...

Gille Coemgáin son of Máel Brigte, mormaer of Moray, was burned together with fifty people.[7]

Some have supposed that Mac Bethad was the perpetrator.[8] Others have noted the lack of information in the Annals, and the subsequent killings at the behest of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda to suggest other answers.[9] Gille Coemgáin had been married to Gruoch, daughter of Boite mac Cináeda, with whom he had a son, the future king Lulach. Gruoch (1007 - 1060) was the daughter of Bodhe, prince of Scotland. ... Boite mac Cináeda (also, Bodhe, Boedhe, etc) (985-1058) was a Scottish prince, son of either King Cináed mac Maíl Choluim or King Cináed mac Duib. ... Lulach I of Scotland (c. ...


It is not clear whether Gruoch's father was a son of Cináed mac Duib (d. 1005) or of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim (d. 997), either is possible chronologically.[10] After Gille Coemgáin's death, Mac Bethad married his widow and took Lulach as his step-son. Gruoch's brother, or nephew (his name is not recorded), was killed in 1033 by Máel Coluim mac Cináeda.[11] Cináed mac Duib (anglicised Kenneth III) (before 967–1005) was King of Scots from 997 to 1005. ... Cináed mac Maíl Coluim (before 954–995) was King of Alba. ...


Mormaer and dux

When Canute the Great came north in 1031 to accept the submission of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, Mac Bethad too submitted to him: Canute II, or Canute the Great, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as Cnut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store, Danish: Knud den Store) (c. ...

... Malcolm, king of the Scots, submitted to him, and became his man, with two other kings, Mac Bethad and Iehmarc ...[12]

Some have seen this as a sign of Mac Bethad's power, others have seen his presence, together with Iehmarc, who may be Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, as proof that Máel Coluim mac Cináeda was overlord of Moray and of the Kingdom of the Isles.[13] Whatever the true state of affairs in the early 1030s, and it seems more probable that Mac Bethad was subject to the king of Alba, Máel Coluim died at Glamis, on 25 November 1034. The Prophecy of Berchan is apparently alone in near contemporary sources in reporting a violent death, calling it a kinslaying.[14] Tigernan's chronicle says only: Echmarcach mac Ragnaill was the Gall-Gaidhel King of the Isles, Dublin (1036-1038 & 1046-1052), and much of Galloway. ... MacDonald, Lord of the Isles For the series of fantasy novels by David Drake, see Lord of the Isles (David Drake). ... Glamis is a small village in Angus, Scotland and is home to the famous Glamis Castle. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 11 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael IV. Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Prophecy of Berchán, is a relatively large historical poem written in the Middle Irish language. ...

Máel Coluim son of Cináed, king of Alba, the honour of western Europe, died.[15]

Máel Coluim's grandson Donnchad mac Crínáin was acclaimed as king of Alba on 30 November 1034, apparently without opposition. Donnchad appears to have been tánaise ríg, the king in waiting, so that far from being an abandonment of tanistry, his kingship was a vindication of the practice. Previous successions had involved strife between various rígdomna - men of royal blood.[16] Far from being the aged King Duncan of Shakespeare's play, the real Donnchad was a young man in 1034, and even at his death in 1040 his youthfulness is remarked upon.[17] Donnchad mac Crínáin (Anglicised Duncan) (died 15 August 1040) was king of Alba. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 11 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael IV. Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Perhaps due to his youth, Donnchad's early reign was apparently uneventful. His later reign, in line with his description as "the man of many sorrows" in the Prophecy of Berchán, was not successful. In 1039, Strathclyde was attacked by the Northumbrians, and a retaliatory raid led by Donnchad against Durham in 1040 turned into a disaster. Later that year Donnchad led an army into Moray, where he was killed by Mac Bethad on 15 August 1040 at Pitgaveny near Elgin.[18] Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Durham (IPA: locally, in RP) is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham in North East England. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... For other uses, see Elgin. ...


High-King of Alba

On Donnchad's death, Mac Bethad became king. No resistance is known at this time, but it would be entirely normal if his reign were not universally accepted. In 1045, Donnchad's father Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in a battle between two Scots armies.[19] Crínán of Dunkeld (died 1045) was the lay abbot of the diocese of Dunkeld, and perhaps the Mormaer of Atholl. ...


John of Fordun wrote that Donnchad's wife fled Scotland, taking her children, including the future kings Máel Coluim III and Domnall Bán with her. Based on the author's beliefs as to whom Donnchad married, various places of exile, Northumbria and Orkney among them, have been proposed. However, the simplest solution is that offered long ago by E. William Robertson: the safest place for Donnchad's widow and her children would be with her or Donnchad's kin and supporters in Atholl.[20] John of Fordun (d. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Domnall mac Donnchada or Domnall Bán (anglicised Donald III) (Donald Bain) (before 1040–1097 or later) was King of Scots. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... The Highlands district of Atholl or Athole in the north of Perthshire in Scotland lies between Braemar, Badenoch, Breadalbane and Lochaber. ...


After the defeat of Crínán, Mac Bethad was evidently unchallenged. Marianus Scotus tells how the king made a pilgrimage to Rome in 1050, where, Marianus says, he gave money to the poor as if it were seed. Marianus Scotus (1028-1082 or 1083), chronicler (who must be distinguished from his namesake Marianus Scotus, d. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Karl Hundason

The Orkneyinga Saga says that a dispute between Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, and Karl Hundason began when Karl Hundason became "King of Scots" and claimed Caithness. The identity of Karl Hundason, unknown to Scots and Irish sources, has long been a matter of dispute, and it is far from clear that the matter is settled. The most common assumption is that Karl Hundason was an insulting byname (Old Norse for "Churl, son of a Dog") given to Mac Bethad by his enemies. [21] Skene's suggestion that he was Donnchad mac Crínáin has been revived in recent years. Lastly, the idea that the whole affair is a poetic invention has been raised.[22] The Orkneyinga saga (also called the History of the Earls of Orkney) is an unique historical narrative of the history of the Orkney Islands from their capture by the Norwegian king in the 9th century onwards until about 1200 AD. The saga was written around 1200 AD by an unknown... Thorfinn Sigurdsson (c. ... Earl of Orkney - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... William Forbes Skene (1809–1892), Scottish historian and antiquary, was the second son of Sir Walter Scotts friend, James Skene (1775–1864), of Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, and was born on June 7 1809. ...


According to the Orkneyinga Saga, in the war which followed, Thorfinn defeated Karl in a sea-battle off Deerness at the east end of the Orkney Mainland. Then Karl's nephew Mutatan or Muddan, appointed to rule Caithness for him, was killed at Thurso by Thorkel the Fosterer. Finally, a great battle on the south side of the Dornoch Firth ended with Karl defeated and fugitive or dead. Thorfinn, the saga says, then marched south through Scotland as far as Fife, burning and plundering as he passed. A later note in the saga claims that Thorfinn won nine Scottish earldoms.[23] The Mainland, Orkney shown within The Orkney Islands The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. ... This article refers to the town in Scotland. ... Dornoch Firth is an inlet in northern Scotland, near the Black Isle. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ...


Whoever Karl son of Hundi may have been, it appears that the saga is reporting a local conflict with a Scots ruler of Moray or Ross: Map of Scotland showing the historic district of Ross Ross (Ros in Scottish Gaelic) is a region of Scotland and a former mormaerdom, earldom, sheriffdom and county. ...

[T]he whole narrative is consistent with the idea that the struggle of Thorfinn and Karl is a continuation of that which had been waged since the ninth century by the Orkney earls, notably Sigurd Rognvald's son, Ljot, and Sigurd the Stout, against the princes or mormaers of Moray, Sutherland, Ross, and Argyll, and that, in fine, Malcolm and Karl were mormaers of one of these four provinces.[24]

Earl Sigurd Hlodvirsson (Sigurd the Stout) was the 14th Jarl of Orkney and a key figure in the Battle of Clontarf. ...

Final years

In 1052, Mac Bethad was involved indirectly in the strife in the Kingdom of England between Godwin, Earl of Wessex and Edward the Confessor when he received a number of Norman exiles from England in his court, perhaps becoming the first king of Scots to introduce feudalism to Scotland. In 1054, Edward's Earl of Northumbria, Siward, led a very large invasion of Scotland. The campaign led to a bloody battle in which the Annals of Ulster report 3,000 Scots and 1,500 English dead, which can be taken as meaning very many on both sides, and one of Siward's sons and a son-in-law were among the dead. The result of the invasion was that Máel Coluim - not Máel Coluim (III) mac Donnchada - "son of the king of the Cumbrians" was restored to his throne, i.e., as ruler of the kingdom of Strathclyde.[25] It may be that the events of 1054 are responsible for the idea, which appears in Shakespeare's play, that Máel Coluim III was put in power by the English. Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Earl of Northumbria was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. ... Sigurd the Dane, also known as Siward, was an English nobleman in the Eleventh Century, and the Earl of Northumbria. ... The Annals of Ulster are a chronicle of medieval Ireland. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ...


Mac Bethad certainly survived the English invasion, for he was defeated and mortally wounded or killed by Máel Coluim mac Donnchada on the north side of the Mounth in 1057, after retreating with his men over the Cairnamounth Pass to take his last stand at the battle at Lumphanan.[26] The Prophecy of Berchán has it that he was wounded and died at Scone, sixty miles to the south, some days later.[27] Mac Bethad's stepson Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin was installed as king soon after. The Mounth is the range of hills on the southern edge of Strathdee in northeast Scotland. ... Cairnamounth is a crossing route of the Mounth in the Grampian Mountains of Scotland. ... Lumphanan, is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland located 25 miles from Aberdeen and 10 miles from Banchory. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ...


Unlike later writers, no near contemporary source remarks on Mac Bethad as a tyrant. The Duan Albanach, which survives in a form dating to the reign of Máel Coluim (III) mac Donnchada calls him "Mac Bethad the renowned". The Prophecy of Berchán, a verse history which purports to be a prophecy, describes him as "the generous king of Fortriu", and says: The Duan Albanach (Song of the Scots) is a Middle Gaelic poem found with the Lebor Bretnach, a Gaelic version of the Historia Brittonum of Nennius, with extensive additional material (mostly concerning Scotland). ... Fortriu or the the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for an ancient Pictish kingdom, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general. ...

The red, tall, golden-haired one, he will be pleasant to me among them; Scotland will be brimful west and east during the reign of the furious red one.[28]

Life to Legend

Macbeth and the witches by Henry Fuseli (Johann Heinrich Füssli) (1741-1825)
Macbeth and the witches by Henry Fuseli (Johann Heinrich Füssli) (1741-1825)
Main article: Macbeth

Mac Bethad's life, like that of Donnchad, had progressed far towards legend by the end of the 14th century, when John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun wrote their histories. Hector Boece, Walter Bower, and George Buchanan all contributed to the legend. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (548x700, 26 KB) Summary Fuseli, Henry (Johann Heinrich Füssli) (1741-1825), Macbeth and the Witches. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (548x700, 26 KB) Summary Fuseli, Henry (Johann Heinrich Füssli) (1741-1825), Macbeth and the Witches. ... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ... Andrew of Wyntoun (?1350-?1420), author of a long metrical history of Scotland, called the Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, was a canon regular of St Andrews, and prior of St Serfs in Lochieven. ... Hector Boece (or Hector Boyce) (1465-1536) was a Scottish philosopher. ... Walter Bower or Bowmaker (1385-1449), Scottish chronicler, was born about 1385 at Haddington, East Lothian. ... George Buchanan. ...


The influence of William Shakespeare's Macbeth towers over mere histories, and has made the name of Macbeth infamous. Even his wife has gained some fame along the way, lending her Shakespeare-given title to a short story by Nikolai Leskov and the opera by Dmitri Shostakovich entitled Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk. The historical content of Shakespeare's play is drawn from Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, which in turn borrows from Boece's 1527 Scotorum Historiae which flattered the antecedents of Boece's patron, King James V of Scotland. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ... Nikolai Leskov by Valentin Serov, 1894 Nikolai Semyonovich Leskov ((Russian: , 16 February 1831 - 5 March 1895) was a Russian journalist, novelist and short story writer. ... Dmitri Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Raphael Holinshed (died c. ... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ...


In modern times, Dorothy Dunnett's novel King Hereafter aims to portray a historical Macbeth, but proposes that Mac Bethad and his rival and sometime ally Thorfinn of Orkney are one and the same (Thorfinn is his birth name and Macbeth is his baptismal name). John Cargill Thompson's play Macbeth Speaks 1997, a reworking of his earlier Macbeth Speaks, is a monologue delivered by the historical Macbeth, aware of what Shakespeare and posterity have done to him. Scottish author Nigel Tranter based one of his historical novels on the historical figure (MacBeth the King). Dorothy Dunnett (August 25, 1923 – November 9, 2001) was a Scottish historical novelist. ... Thorfinn Sigurdsson (c. ... Nigel Tranter (November 23, 1909 – January 9, 2000) was a Scottish historian and author. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, where the time the action takes place in predates the time of the first publication -- distinguish and contrast the genre of alternate history. ... Nigel Tranter is a Scottish author who wrote many novels based on actual historical events and characters. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Hudson, Prophecy of Berchán, pp. 224–225, discusses the question, and the reliability of Wyntoun's chronicle.
  2. ^ Rawlinson B. 502 ¶1698 Genelach Ríg n-Alban.
  3. ^ Rawlinson B. 502 ¶1696 Genelach Ríg n-Alban.
  4. ^ Duncan, Kingship of the Scots, p. 32; Sellar, "Moray".
  5. ^ Annals of Tigernach 1020.8; Annals of Ulster 1020.6.
  6. ^ Annals of Tigernach 1029.5; Annals of Ulster 1029.7.
  7. ^ Annals of Ulster 1032.2.
  8. ^ Sellar, "Moray".
  9. ^ Duncan, Kingship of the Scots, p. 32.
  10. ^ See Duncan, Kingship of the Scots, p. 345; Lynch, Oxford Companion, p. 680; Woolf, "Macbeth".
  11. ^ Annals of Ulster 1033.7. The victim is reported as M. m. Boite m. Cináedha, which is variously read as "the son of the son of Boite" or as "M. son of Boite".
  12. ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Ms. E, 1031.
  13. ^ Compare Duncan, Kingship of the Scots, pp. 29–30 with Hudson, Prophecy of Berchán, pp. 222–223.
  14. ^ Hudson, Prophecy of Berchán, p. 223; Duncan, Kingship of the Scots, p. 33.
  15. ^ Annals of Tigernach 1034.1
  16. ^ Donnchad as tánaise ríg, the chosen heir, see Duncan, The Kingship of the Scots, pp. 33–34; Hudson, Prophecy of Berchán,pp. 223–224, where it is accepted that Donnchad was king of Strathclyde. For tanistry, etc., in Ireland, see Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland, 63–71. Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, pp. 35–39, offers a different perspective.
  17. ^ Annals of Tigernach 1040.1.
  18. ^ Hudson, Prophecy of Berchán, p.223–224; Duncan, The Kingship of the Scots, pp.33–34.
  19. ^ Annals of Tigernach 1045.10; Annals of Ulster 1045.6.
  20. ^ Robertson, Scotland under her Early Kings, p. 122. Hudson, Prophecy of Berchán, p. 224, refers to Earl Siward as Máel Coluim mac Donnchada's "patron"; Duncan, The Kingship of the Scots, pp. 40–42 favours Orkney; Woolf offers no opinion. Northumbria is evidently a misapprehension, further than that cannot be said with certainty.
  21. ^ However Mac Bethad's father may be called "jarl Hundi" in Njál's saga; Crawford, p. 72.
  22. ^ Anderson, ESSH, p. 576, note 7, refers to the account as "a fabulous story" and concludes that "[n]o solution to the riddle seems to be justified".
  23. ^ Orkneyinga Saga, cc. 20 & 32.
  24. ^ Taylor, p. 338; Crawford, pp. 71–74.
  25. ^ Florence of Worcester, 1052; Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Ms. D, 1054; Annals of Ulster 1054.6; and discussed by Duncan, The Kingship of the Scots, pp. 38–41.
  26. ^ Andrew Wyntoun, Original Chronicle, ed. F.J. Amours, vol. 4, pp 298-299 and 300-301 (c. 1420)
  27. ^ The exact dates are uncertain, Woolf gives 15 August, Hudson 14 August and Duncan, following John of Fordun, gives 5 December; Annals of Tigernach 1058.5; Annals of Ulster 1058.6.
  28. ^ Hudson, Prophecy of Berchán, p. 91, stanzas 193 and 194.

Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Njáls saga (also known as The Story of Burnt Njál) is an epic of Icelandic literature from the 13th century that describes the progress of a 50-year blood feud. ... Florence of Worcester (died July 7, 1118) was a 12th century English chronicler. ...

References

Primary sources

  • CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork including:
    • Genealogies from Rawlinson B.502 (no translation available)
    • Gaelic notes from the Book of Deer (with translation)
    • The Annals of Ulster (translation)
    • The Annals of Tigernach (translation in progress)
    • The Chronicon Scotorum reproduces a considerable part of the Annals of Tigernach and is available in translation.
  • The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Mss. D and E, various editions including an XML version by Tony Jebson.
  • The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba
  • The Chronicon ex chronicis attributed to Florence of Worcester.

The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ...

Secondary sources

  • Barrell, A.D.M., Medieval Scotland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000. ISBN 0-521-58602-X
  • Barrow, G.W.S., Kingship and Unity: Scotland 1000–1306. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, (corrected ed.) 1989. ISBN 0-7486-0104-X
  • Byrne, Francis John, Irish Kings and High-Kings. Batsford, London, 1973. ISBN 0-7134-5882-8
  • Crawford, Barbara, Scandinavian Scotland. Leicester University Press, Leicester, 1987. 0-7185-1282-0
  • Duncan, A.A.M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8
  • Hudson, Benjamin T., The Prophecy of Berchán: Irish and Scottish High-Kings of the Early Middle Ages. Greenwood, London, 1996.
  • McDonald, R. Andrew, Outlaws of medieval Scotland: Challenges to the Canmore kings, 1058–1266. Tuckwell, East Linton, 2003. 1-86232-236-8
  • Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí, Early Medieval Ireland: 400–1200. Longman, London, 1995. ISBN 0-582-01565-0
  • Sellar, W.D.H., "Moray: to 1130" in Michael Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2001. ISBN 0-19-211696-7
  • Smyth, Alfred P., Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–1000. Edinburgh UP, Edinburgh, 1984. ISBN 0-7486-0100-7
  • Taylor, A.B., "Karl Hundason: King of Scots" in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, LXXI (1937), pp. 334–340.
  • Woolf, Alex, "Macbeth" in Lynch (2001).

Geoffrey W.S. Barrow is a Scottish historian and academic. ... Francis John Byrne (born 1934) is an Irish historian. ... Archibald Alexander McBeth Duncan (born 17 October 1926), FBA, FRHistS, FRSE, is a Scottish historian. ... The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is an archaeological learned society formed for the purpose of studying the history of Scotland. ... Alex Woolf is a British medievalist based at the University of St Andrews, and one of the most pioneering scholars in British medieval studies. ...

Further Reading

  • Tranter, Nigel MacBeth the King Hodder & Stoughton, 1978.
  • Aitchison, Nick Macbeth Sutton Publishing, 2001 , ISBN 0750926406.
  • Dunnett, Dorothy King Hereafter Knopf, 1982 , ISBN 0394523784.
  • Ellis, Peter Berresford Macbeth: High King of Scotland 1040-57 Learning Links, 1991 , ISBN 0856404489.
  • Marsden, John Alba of the Ravens: In Search of the Celtic Kingdom of the Scots Constable, 1997, ISBN 0094757607.
  • Walker, Ian Lords of Alba Sutton Publishing, 2006, ISBN 0750934921.
Macbeth of Scotland
Born: 1005 Died: 15 August 1057
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Donnchad I
King of Scots
1040-1057
Succeeded by
Lulach
Preceded by
Gille Coemgáin
Mormaer of Moray
1032-1057

  Results from FactBites:
 
Macbeth of Scotland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2088 words)
Macbeth and the witches by Henry Fuseli (Johann Heinrich Füssli) (1741-1825)
The historical content of Shakespeare's play, unlikely to have greatly concerned him, is drawn from Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, which draws on Hector Boece's 1527 Scotorum Historiae which flattered the antecedents of Boece's patron, king James V of Scotland.
Taylor, A.B., "Karl Hundason: King of Scots" in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, LXXI (1937), pp.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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