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Encyclopedia > Macbeth
Charles Kean and his wife as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, in costumes aiming to be historically accurate (1858).
Charles Kean and his wife as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, in costumes aiming to be historically accurate (1858).

Macbeth is among the best known of William Shakespeare's plays, as well as his shortest surviving tragedy. It is frequently performed at professional and community theatres around the world. The play, loosely based upon the historical account of King Macbeth of Scotland by Raphael Holinshed and the Scottish philosopher Hector Boece,[1] is often seen as an archetypal tale of the dangers of the lust for power and betrayal of friends. It has frequently been adapted. In the theatrical world, many superstitions are associated with "Macbeth," all connected with the belief that the play is somehow "cursed." Many actors will not mention the name of the play aloud, referring to it as "the Scottish Play". For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ... Macbeth can refer to:- Macbeth, the play by William Shakespeare, Macbeth of Scotland, the historical monarch, Macbeth (Gargoyles), a fictional character based on the Shakespearean one Macbeth (opera), the opera by Verdi, Macbeth (band), a heavy metal band, Macbeth Footwear, a footwear company, Jesse Macbeth, an American soldier. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 472 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 888 pixels, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 472 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 888 pixels, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Charles John Kean (January 18, 1811 - January 22, 1868), was born at Waterford, Ireland, the son of the actor Edmund Kean. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sir John Gilberts 1849 painting: The Plays of William Shakespeare, containing scenes and characters from several of William Shakespeares plays. ... Shakespeare wrote tragedies from the beginning of his career. ... For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ... Raphael Holinshed (died c. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... Hector Boece (or Hector Boyce) (1465-1536) was a Scottish philosopher. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... This article is about the psychopathological condition. ...

Contents

Date and text

Due to significant evidence of later revisions, Macbeth cannot be precisely dated. Many scholars believe the most likely date of composition to be between 1603 and 1606.[2] They suggest the play is unlikely to be earlier than 1603 given that it seems designed to celebrate King James's ancestors and the Stuart accession to the throne in 1603 (James believed himself to be descended from Banquo)[3] and the parade of eight kings, which the witches show Macbeth in a vision in Act IV, is generally taken to be intended as a compliment to King James VI of Scotland. Other editors of the play suggest a more specific date of 1605-6; the principal reasons for this being possible allusions to the Gunpowder Plot and its ensuing trials. Specifically, the Porter's speech (Act II, scene III, lines1-21) may contain allusions to the trial of the Jesuit Henry Garnet in spring, 1606; "equivocator" (line 8) may refer to Garnet's defence of "equivocation" [see: Doctrine of mental reservation], and "farmer" (4) was one of Garnet's aliases.[4] However, farmer is a common word, and the concept of "equivocation" was also the subject of a 1583 tract by Queen Elizabeth's chief councillor Lord Burghley as well as the 1584 Doctrine of Equivocation by the Spanish prelate Martin Azpilcueta that was disseminated across Europe and into England in the 1590s. [5] James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Ghost of Banquo by Théodore Chassériau. ... James VI of Scotland and James I of England and Ireland (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... Henry Garnet or Garnett (1555 - May 3, 1606), English Jesuit, son of Brian Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was educated at Winchester and afterwards studied law in London. ... The doctrine of mental reservation, or the doctrine of mental equivocation, was a special branch of casuistry developed in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, and most often associated with the Jesuits and their resistance against the Protestant Reformation. ... Queen Elizabeth, or Elizabeth, may refer to: Elizabeth II, Queen regnant of the Commonwealth Realms Elisabeth I of Bohemia (1292-1330), daughter of Wenceslaus II, wife of John of Luxemburg, mother of Charles IV Elisabeth II of Bohemia (1409-1442), daughter of Emperor Sigismund (2nd son of Emperor Charles IV... Martín de Azpilcueta[1] (b. ...

Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches' conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer
Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches' conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer

Scholars also cite an entertainment seen by King James at Oxford in the summer of 1605 that featured three "sibyls" like the weird sisters; Kermode surmises that Shakespeare could have heard about this and alluded to it with the three witches.[6] However, A. R. Braunmuller in the New Cambridge edition finds the 1605-6 arguments inconclusive, and argues only for an earliest date of 1603.[7] The play is not considered to be any later than 1607, since, as Kermode notes, there are "fairly clear allusions to the play in 1607."[8] The earliest account of a performance of the play is April 1611, when Simon Forman recorded seeing it at the Globe Theatre.[9] Download high resolution version (506x800, 55 KB)Scene from Macbeth, by William Rimmer (American, 1816-1879) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (506x800, 55 KB)Scene from Macbeth, by William Rimmer (American, 1816-1879) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... William Rimmer (20 February 1816-20 August 1879) was an American artist born in Liverpool, England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... The word sibyl comes (via Latin) from the Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess. ... Simon Forman (December 30, 1552 – September, 1611) was a prominent Elizabethan occultist, astrologist and herbalist active in London. ... This article is about the Globe Theatre of Shakespeare (commonly known as Shakespeares Globe Theatre). ...


Macbeth was first printed in the First Folio of 1623 and the Folio is the only source for the text. The text that survives had been plainly altered by later hands. Most notable is the inclusion of two songs from Thomas Middleton's play The Witch (1615); Middleton is conjectured to have inserted an extra scene involving the witches and Hecate, because these scenes had proven highly popular with audiences. These revisions, which since the Clarendon edition of 1869 have been assumed to include all of Act III, scene v, and a portion of Act IV, scene I, are often indicated in modern texts.[10] On this basis, many scholars reject all three of the interludes with the goddess Hecate as inauthentic. Even with the Hecate material, the play is conspicuously short, indicating that the Folio text may derive from a promptbook that had been substantially cut for performance, or that an adapter cut the text himself. The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... Thomas Middleton (1580 – 1627) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet. ... The Witch is a play by Thomas Middleton. ... The Weird Sisters, (sometimes Wyrd Sisters or Three Weird Sisters), is the Germanic mythological group name given to the Nordic fates, or Norns. ... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ...


Characters

Duncan - King of Scotland Donnchad mac Crínáin (Anglicised Duncan) (born 15 August 1001 died 14 August 1040)[1] was king of Alba. ...

Macbeth - A general in the army of King Duncan.Thane of Glamis. Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Domnall mac Donnchada or Domnall Bán (anglicised Donald III) (c. ... For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ...

Banquo - Macbeth's friend and a general in the army of King Duncan. Lady Macbeth by George Cattermole, 1850 Lady Macbeth is a character in Shakespeares play Macbeth. ... The Ghost of Banquo by Théodore Chassériau. ...

Macduff - The Thane of Fife. Fleance is a fictional character in Shakespeares The Tragedy of Macbeth. ... Macduff is a fictional character in Shakespeares play Macbeth. ... Map of runestones raised over a thegn. ...

Lennox - A Scottish lord.
Ross - A Scottish lord.
Angus - A Scottish lord.
Mentieth - A Scottish lord.
Caithness - A Scottish lord.
Siward - Earl of Northumberland, General of the English forces. Lady Macduff is a fictional character from Shakespeares Macbeth. ...

  • Young Siward - The son of Siward.

Seyton - A servant.
Hecate - Chief witch/Goddess of Witchcraft
Samuel
Three Witches
Three Murderers
Porter (or Messenger)
English Doctor
Scottish Doctor
The Weird Sisters is a fictional band in the book, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. ...


Synopsis

Macbeth and Banquo with the Witches by Johann Heinrich Füssli.
Macbeth and Banquo with the Witches by Johann Heinrich Füssli.

The play opens amid thunder and lightning, with three Witches—the Weird Sisters—deciding that their next meeting shall be with a certain Macbeth. In the following scene, a wounded sergeant reports to King Duncan of Scotland that his generals, Macbeth (who is the Thane of Glamis) and Banquo, have just defeated an invasion by the allied forces of Norway and Ireland, led by the rebel Macdonwald. Macbeth, the King's kinsman, is particularly praised for his bravery and fighting prowess. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (548x700, 26 KB) Summary Macbeth, Banquo and the witches on the heath by Johann Heinrich Füssli. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (548x700, 26 KB) Summary Macbeth, Banquo and the witches on the heath by Johann Heinrich Füssli. ... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... “Witch” redirects here. ... The Weird Sisters, (sometimes Wyrd Sisters or Three Weird Sisters), is the Germanic mythological group name given to the Nordic fates, or Norns. ... Donnchad mac Crínáin (Anglicised Duncan) (born 15 August 1001 died 14 August 1040)[1] was king of Alba. ... This article is about the country. ... Map of runestones raised over a thegn. ... Glamis is a small village in Angus, Scotland and is home to the famous Glamis Castle. ... The Ghost of Banquo by Théodore Chassériau. ...


The scene changes. Macbeth and Banquo enter into conversation, remarking on the weather and their win ("So foul and fair a day I have not seen"). While they wander into a heath, the three Witches who have been waiting greet them with prophecies. Even though it is Banquo who first challenges them, they address Macbeth. The first hails Macbeth as "Thane of Glamis", the second as "Thane of Cawdor", while the third proclaims that he shall "be King hereafter". Macbeth appears stunned into silence, so again Banquo challenges them. The Witches inform Banquo he shall father a line of kings. While the two men wonder at these pronouncements, the Witches vanish, and another Thane, Ross, a messenger from the King, soon arrives and informs Macbeth of his newly bestowed title—Thane of Cawdor. The first prophecy is thus fulfilled. Immediately, Macbeth begins to harbour ambitions of becoming king. Map of runestones raised over a thegn. ... Glamis is a small village in Angus, Scotland and is home to the famous Glamis Castle. ... Cawdor is a village and parish in Nairn, Highland council area, Scotland. ... Ross (Ros in Gaelic) , also anglicised to Ross-shire (Siorrachd Rois), is a region of Scotland and a former Mormaerdom, Earldom and county. ...


Macbeth writes to his wife about the Witches' prophecies. When Duncan decides to stay at the Macbeths' castle at Inverness, Lady Macbeth hatches a plan to murder him and secure the throne for her husband. Macbeth raises valid concerns about the regicide, but Lady Macbeth eventually persuades him to comply with her plan. This article is about the city in Scotland. ... Lady Macbeth by George Cattermole, 1850 Lady Macbeth is a character in Shakespeares play Macbeth. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ...


In the night of the visit, Macbeth kills Duncan. The deed is not seen by the audience, but it leaves Macbeth so shaken that Lady Macbeth (herself very jumpy) has to take charge. As per her plan, she frames Duncan's sleeping servants for the murder by planting their bloody daggers on them. Early the next morning, Lennox, a Scottish nobleman, and Macduff, the loyal Thane of Fife, arrive. The porter opens the gate and Macbeth leads them to the king's chamber, where Macduff discovers Duncan's corpse. In a sham fit of fury, Macbeth murders the servants before they can protest their innocence. Macduff is immediately suspicious of Macbeth, but does not disclose his suspicions publicly. Fearing for their lives, Duncan's sons flee, Malcolm to England and his brother Donalbain to Ireland. The rightful heirs' flight makes them suspect, and Macbeth assumes the throne as the new King of Scotland as a kinsman to the dead king. Macduff is a fictional character in Shakespeares play Macbeth. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Domnall mac Donnchada or Domnall Bán (anglicised Donald III) (c. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ...

Macbeth seeing the Ghost of Banquo by Théodore Chassériau.
Macbeth seeing the Ghost of Banquo by Théodore Chassériau.

Despite his success, Macbeth remains uneasy regarding the prophecy that Banquo would be the progenitor of kings. Hence Macbeth invites Banquo to a royal banquet and discovers that Banquo and his young son, Fleance, will be riding that night. He hires two men to kill Banquo and Fleance. (The third murderer mysteriously appears in the park before the murder). While the assassins succeed in murdering Banquo, Fleance is able to escape. At the banquet, Banquo's ghost enters and sits in Macbeth's place. Only Macbeth can see the ghost; the rest of the guests begin to panic at what they see as Macbeth raging at an empty chair, until a desperate Lady Macbeth orders them to leave. Image File history File links Banquo. ... Image File history File links Banquo. ... Théodore Chassériau (1819-1856), French painter, was born in Santo Domingo. ... State Banquet. ... Fleance is a fictional character in Shakespeares The Tragedy of Macbeth. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ...


Disturbed, Macbeth goes to the Witches once more. They conjure up three spirits with three further warnings and prophecies, which tell him to "beware Macduff", but also that "none of woman born shall harm Macbeth" and he will "never vanquish'd be until Great Birnam Wood to High Dunsinane Hill shall come against him". Since Macduff is in exile in England (he meets with Malcolm and together they begin to raise an army) Macbeth is safe, so he massacres everyone in Macduff's castle, including Macduff's wife and their young children. Birnam, is a town in Perthshire, Scotland. ... Dunsinane Hill is located in Scotland near Dundee. ... Lady Macduff is a fictional character from Shakespeares Macbeth. ...


Lady Macbeth eventually becomes racked with guilt from the crimes she and her husband have committed. In a famous scene, she sleepwalks and tries to wash imaginary bloodstains from her hands, all the while speaking of the terrible things she knows.

Lady Macbeth sleepwalking by Johann Heinrich Füssli.
Lady Macbeth sleepwalking by Johann Heinrich Füssli.

In England, Malcolm and Macduff plan the invasion of Scotland. Macbeth, now identified as a tyrant, sees many of his thanes defecting. Malcolm leads an army, along with Macduff and Englishmen Siward (the Elder), the Earl of Northumbria, against Dunsinane Castle. While encamped in Birnam Wood, the soldiers are ordered to cut down and carry tree limbs to camouflage their numbers, thus fulfilling the Witches' second prophecy. Meanwhile, Macbeth delivers a famous nihilistic soliloquy ("Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow") upon learning of Lady Macbeth's death (the cause is undisclosed, but it is assumed by some that she committed suicide, as the Malcolm's final reference to her reveals "'tis thought, by self and violent hands / took off her life"). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (506x710, 76 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Macbeth ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (506x710, 76 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Macbeth ... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... Sigurd the Dane, also known as Siward, was an English nobleman in the Eleventh Century, and the Earl of Northumbria. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... This article is about the philosophical position. ... Soliloquy is an audible oratory or conversation with oneself. ... Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow is the third sentence of one of the most famous soliloquies in Shakespeares tragedy Macbeth. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


A battle ensues, culminating in the slaying of the young Siward and Macduff's confrontation with Macbeth. Macbeth boasts that he has no reason to fear Macduff, as he cannot be killed by any man born of woman. Macduff declares that he was "from his mother's womb untimely ripp'd" (i.e., born by Caesarean section)—and was therefore not "of woman born". Too late, Macbeth realises the Witches have misled him. A fight ensues, which ends with Macduff beheading Macbeth off stage, thereby fulfilling the last of the prophecies. A caesarean section (AE cesarean section), or c-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ... A quibble is a common plot device, used to fulfil the exact verbal conditions of an agreement in order to avoid the intended meaning. ...


Although Malcolm is palced on the throne and not Fleance, the witches' prophecy concerning Banquo, "Thou shalt [be]get kings", was known to the audience of Shakespeare's time to be true, as James I of England was supposedly a descendant of Banquo. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...


Themes and motifs

Macbeth is an anomaly among Shakespeare's tragedies in certain critical ways. It is short: more than a thousand lines shorter than Othello and King Lear, and only slightly more than half as long as Hamlet. This brevity has suggested to many critics that the received version is based on a heavily cut source, perhaps a prompt-book for a particular performance. That brevity has also been connected to other unusual features: the fast pace of the first act, which has seemed to be "stripped for action"; the comparative flatness of the characters other than Macbeth; the oddness of Macbeth himself compared to other Shakespearean tragic heroes. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is a play by William Shakespeare, considered one of his greatest tragedies, based on the legend of King Lear of Britain. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...


Macbeth as a tragedy of character

At least since the days of Alexander Pope and Samuel Johnson, analysis of the play has centred on the question of Macbeth's ambition, commonly seen as so dominant a trait that it defines the character. Johnson asserted that Macbeth, though esteemed for his military bravery, is wholly reviled. This opinion recurs in critical literature. Like Richard III, but without that character's perversely appealing exuberance, Macbeth wades through blood until his inevitable fall. As Kenneth Muir writes, "Macbeth has not a predisposition to murder; he has merely an inordinate ambition that makes murder itself seem to be a lesser evil than failure to achieve the crown." Some critics, such as E. E. Stoll, explain this characterisation as a holdover from Senecan or medieval tradition. Shakespeare's audience, in this view, expected villains to be wholly bad, and Senecan style, far from prohibiting a villainous protagonist, all but demanded it. For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Yet for other critics, it has not been so easy to resolve the question of Macbeth's motivation. Robert Bridges, for instance, perceived a paradox: a character able to express such convincing horror before Duncan's murder would likely be incapable of committing the crime. For many critics, Macbeth's motivations in the first act appears vague and insufficient. John Dover Wilson hypothesised that Shakespeare's original text had an extra scene or scenes in which husband and wife discussed their plans.This interpretation is not fully provable; however, the motivating role of ambition for Macbeth is universally recognised. The evil actions motivated by his ambition seem to trap him in a cycle of increasing evil, as Macbeth himself recognises: "I am in blood; stepp'd insofar that, should I wade no more, returning were as tedious as to go o'er.". Bridges on the cover of Time in 1929 Robert Seymour Bridges, OM, (October 23, 1844 – April 21, 1930) was an English poet, holder of the honour of poet laureate from 1913. ... John Dover Wilson CH (July 13, 1881-January 15, 1969) was a professor and scholar of Renaissance drama, focusing particularly on the work of William Shakespeare. ...


Macbeth as a tragedy of moral order

The disastrous consequences of Macbeth's ambition are not limited to him, of course. Almost from the moment of the murder, the play depicts Scotland as a land shaken by inversions of the natural order. Shakespeare may have intended a reference to the great chain of being, although the play's images of disorder are mostly not specific enough to support detailed intellectual readings. He may also have intended an elaborate compliment to James's belief in the divine right of kings, although this hypothesis, outlined at greatest length by Henry N. Paul, is not universally accepted. As in Julius Caesar, though, perturbations in the political sphere are echoed and even amplified by events in the material world. Among the most frequently depicted of the inversions of the natural order is sleep. Macbeth's announcement that he has "murdered sleep" is figuratively mirrored in Lady Macbeth's sleepwalking. 1579 drawing of the great chain of being from Didacus Valades, Rhetorica Christiana The great chain of being or scala naturæ is a classical and western medieval conception of the order of the universe, whose chief characteristic is a strict hierarchical system. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. ...


Macbeth's generally accepted indebtedness to medieval tragedy is often seen as particularly significant in the play's treatment of moral order. Glynne Wickham connects the play, through the Porter, to a mystery play on the harrowing of hell. Howard Felperin argues that the play has a more complex attitude toward "orthodox Christian tragedy" than is often admitted; he sees a kinship between the play and the tyrant plays within the medieval liturgical drama. Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ... The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles Creed and the Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult), which states that Jesus descended into Hell. ... Herod was the name of several members of the Herodian Dynasty of Roman Iudaea Province: Herod the Great (c. ...


The theme of androgyny is often seen as a special aspect of the theme of disorder. Inversion of normative gender roles is most famously associated with the witches and with Lady Macbeth as she appears in the first act. Whatever Shakespeare's degree of sympathy with such inversions, the play ends with a fairly thorough return to normative gender values. Some feminist psychoanalytic critics, such as Janet Adelman, have connected the play's treatment of gender roles to its larger theme of inverted natural order. In this light, Macbeth is punished for his violation of the moral order by being removed from the cycles of nature (which are figured as female); nature itself (as embodied in the movement of Birnam Wood) is part of the restoration of moral order. Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theory, or by the politics of feminism more broadly. ... Psychoanalytic literary criticism is literary criticism which, in method, concept, theory or form, is influenced by the tradition of psychoanalysis begun by Sigmund Freud. ...


Macbeth as a poetic tragedy

Critics in the early twentieth century reacted against what they saw as an excessive dependence on the study of character in criticism of the play. This dependence, though most closely associated with Andrew Cecil Bradley, is evident as early as the time of Mary Cowden Clarke, who offered precise, if fanciful, accounts of the predramatic lives of Shakespeare's female leads. She suggested, for instance, that the child Lady Macbeth refers to in the first act died during a foolish military action. Andrew Cecil Bradley (1851–1935) was an English literary scholar. ... Mary Cowden Clarke, née Novello (22 June 1809 – 12 January 1898), was an English author. ...


From the viewpoint of New Criticism, Macbeth had to be read as poetry before all else. Its significance inhered in its language and style, rather than in the characters understood as "real" people. From Caroline Spurgeon and L. C. Knights to Cleanth Brooks, critics analysed the way in which imagery and metaphor created a pattern of meaning alongside the play's events. Image sets such as blood, which Shakespeare refers to more than forty times, and figures such as paradox, were seen to play a vital role in shaping audience response to the drama. . New Criticism was the dominant trend in English and American literary criticism of the early twentieth century, from the 1920s to the early 1960s. ... Caroline Spurgeon (b. ... Lionel Charles Knights (15 May 1906-8 March 1997) was an English literary critic, an authority on Shakespeare and his period. ... Cleanth Brooks (October 16, 1906 - 1994) was an influential American literary critic and professor. ...


The "Scottish Play"

While many today would simply chalk up any misfortune surrounding a production to coincidence, actors and other theatre people often consider it to be bad luck to mention Macbeth by name while inside a theatre, and usually refer to it superstitiously as The Scottish Play, "MacBee," "Mr. and Mrs. M," or sometimes, "The Scottish King". Coincidence is the noteworthy alignment of two or more events or circumstances without obvious causal connection. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... The Scottish play and The Bards play are euphemisms often used for William Shakespeares Macbeth. ...


This is said to be because Shakespeare used the spells of real witches in his text, so witches got angry and are said to have cursed the play. Thus, to say the name of the play inside a theatre is believed to doom the production to failure, and perhaps cause physical injury or worse to cast members. A large mythology has built up surrounding this superstition, with countless stories of accidents, misfortunes and even deaths, all mysteriously taking place during runs of Macbeth (or by actors who had uttered the name). [11]


An alternative explanation for the superstition is that struggling theatres or companies would often put on this popular 'blockbuster' in an effort to save their flagging fortunes. However, it is a tall order for any single production to reverse a long-running trend of poor business. Therefore, the last play performed before a theatre shut down was often Macbeth, and thus the growth of the idea that it was an 'unlucky' play.[citation needed]


Another explanation for this superstition is that theatre companies may have used this play as a back-up play if they were to lose an actor and were not able to perform the originally planned play for the performance. This is because this play requires less actors (when doubling of characters for actors occurs) and has the least amount of text for the actors to have memorized. "Macbeth" may have been the play kept in theatre companies back pocket, just in case some bad luck were to occur prior to any planning of a performance.


Performance history

Shakespeare's day

Apart from the one mentioned in the Forman document, there are no performances known with certainty in Shakespeare's era. Because of its Scottish theme, the play is sometimes said to have been written for, and perhaps debuted for, King James; however, no external evidence supports this hypothesis. The play's brevity and certain aspects of its staging (for instance, the large proportion of night-time scenes and the unusually large number of off-stage sounds) have been taken as suggesting that the text now extant was revised for production indoors, perhaps at the Blackfriars Theatre, which the King's Men acquired in 1608.[12] Blackfriars Theatre was the name of two separate theatres in the City of London, built on grounds previously belonging to a Dominican monastery. ...


Restoration and 18th century

In the Restoration, Sir William Davenant produced a spectacular "operatic" adaptation of Macbeth, "with all the singing and dancing in it" and special effects like "flyings for the witches" (John Downes, Roscius Anglicanus, 1708). Davenant's revision also enhanced the role of Lady Macduff, making her a thematic foil to Lady Macbeth. In an April 19, 1667 entry in his Diary, Samuel Pepys called Davenant's MacBeth "one of the best plays for a stage, and variety of dancing and music, that ever I saw." The Davenant version held the stage until the middle of the next century. It was this version that the famous Macbeths of the early eighteenth century, such as James Quin, employed. For other uses, see Restoration. ... William Davenant Sir William Davenant (February 28, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an English poet and playwright. ... John Downes worked as a prompter at the Dukes Company, and later the United Company, for most of the Restoration period 1660—1700. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... James Quin (February 24, 1693 - January 21, 1766), English actor of Irish descent, was born in London. ...


Charles Macklin, not otherwise recalled as a great Macbeth, is remembered for performances at the Covent Garden in 1773 at which riots broke out, related to Macklin's rivalries with Garrick and William Smith. Macklin performed in Scottish dress, reversing an earlier tendency to dress Macbeth as an English brigadier; he also removed Garrick's death speech and further trimmed Lady Macduff's role. The performance received generally respectful reviews, although George Steevens remarked on the inappropriateness of Macklin (then in his eighties) for the role. Charles Macklin (1697?‑1797) was an actor and dramatist born in the north of Ireland, and one of the most distinguished actors of his day, shining equally in tragedy and comedy. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... William Smith (1730-1819), known as Gentleman Smith, was a celebrated English actor of the 18th century who worked with David Garrick, and was the original creator of the role of Charles Surface in Richard Brinsley Sheridans The School for Scandal. // Smith was born in London in 1730 and... George Steevens (May 10, 1736 - January 22, 1800), was an English Shakespearean commentator. ...


After Garrick, the most celebrated Macbeth of the eighteenth century was John Philip Kemble; he performed the role most famously with his sister, Sarah Siddons, whose Lady Macbeth was widely regarded as unsurpassable. Kemble continued the trends toward realistic costume and to Shakespeare's language that had marked Macklin's production; Walter Scott reports that he experimented continually with the Scottish dress of the play. Response to Kemble's interpretation was divided; however, Siddons was unanimously praised. Her performance of the "sleepwalking" scene in the fifth act was especially noted; Leigh Hunt called it "sublime." The Kemble-Siddons performances were the first widely influential productions in which Lady Macbeth's villainy was presented as deeper and more powerful than Macbeth's. It was also the first in which Banquo's ghost did not appear onstage. John Philip Kemble (February 1, 1757 - February 26, 1823), was an English actor. ... Sarah Siddons as the Tragic Muse by Sir Joshua Reynolds (The Huntington, San Marino, California) Sarah Siddons (July 5, 1755 – June 8, 1831) was a British actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... An artists rendering of James Henry Leigh Hunt James Henry Leigh Hunt (October 19, 1784 - August 28, 1859) was an English essayist and writer. ...


Kemble's Macbeth struck some critics as too mannered and polite for Shakespeare's text. His successor as the leading actor of London, Edmund Kean, was more often criticised for emotional excess, particularly in the fifth act. Kean's Macbeth was not universally admired; William Hazlitt, for instance, complained that Kean's Macbeth was too like his Richard III. As he did in other roles, Kean exploited his athleticism as a key component of Macbeth's mental collapse. He reversed Kemble's emphasis on Macbeth as noble, instead presenting him as a ruthless politician who collapses under the weight of guilt and fear. Kean, however, did nothing to halt the trend toward extravagance in scene and costume. Edmund Kean (March 17, 1787 – May 15, 1833) was an English actor, regarded in his time as the greatest ever. ... // William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, often esteemed the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ...


Nineteenth century

The Macbeth of the next predominant London actor, William Charles Macready, provoked responses at least as mixed as those given Kean. Macready debuted in the role in 1820 at Covent Garden. As Hazlitt noted, Macready's reading of the character was purely psychological; the witches lost all superstitious power, and Macbeth's downfall arose purely from the conflicts in Macbeth's character. Macready's most famous Lady Macbeth was Helena Faucit, who debuted dismally in the role while still in her mid-20s, but who later achieved acclaim in the role for an interpretation that, unlike Siddons', accorded with contemporary notions of female decorum. After Macready "retired" to America, he continued to perform in the role; in 1849, he was involved in a rivalry with American actor Edwin Forrest, whose partisans hissed Macready at Astor Place, leading to what is commonly called the Astor Place Riot. William Charles Macready (March 3, 1793 - April 27, 1873), English actor, was born in London, and educated at Rugby. ... Covent Garden is a district in London, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest corner of the London Borough of Camden. ... Helena Saville Faucit (1817 - 31 October 1898) was an English actress. ... This photograph of Edwin Forrest was taken by Matthew Brady. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The two most prominent Macbeths of midcentury, Samuel Phelps and Charles Kean, were both received with critical ambivalence and popular success. Both are famous less for their interpretation of character than for certain aspects of staging. At Sadler's Wells Theatre, Phelps brought back nearly all of Shakespeare's original text. He brought back the first half of the Porter scene, which had been ignored by directors since D'Avenant; the second remained cut because of its ribaldry. He abandoned Irving's music and reduced the witches to their role in the folio. Just as significantly, he returned to the folio treatment of Macbeth's death. Not all of these decisions succeeded in the Victorian context, and Phelps experimented with various combinations of Shakespeare and D'Avenant in his more than a dozen productions between 1844 and 1861. His most successful Lady Macbeth was Isabella Glyn, whose commanding presence reminded some critics of Siddons. Samuel Phelps (1804-1878) was an English actor, born in Devonport. ... Charles John Kean (January 18, 1811 - January 22, 1868), was born at Waterford, Ireland, the son of the actor Edmund Kean. ... Sadlers Wells theatre, 2005 Sadlers Wells Theatre is located on Rosebery Avenue, Clerkenwell, London. ... Isabella Glyn Dallas (1823-1889) was a well-known Victorian-era Shakespearean actress. ...


The outstanding feature of Kean's productions at the Princess's Theatre after 1850 was their accuracy of costume. Kean achieved his greatest success in modern melodrama, and he was widely viewed as not prepossessing enough for the greatest Elizabethan roles. Audiences did not mind, however; one 1853 production ran for twenty weeks. Presumably part of the draw was Kean's famous attention to historical accuracy; in his productions, as Allardyce Nicoll notes, "even the botany was historically correct." The Princesss Theatre or Princess Theatre was a theatre in Oxford Street, London. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... John Ramsay Allardyce Nicoll (1894 - 1976) was an English literary scholar and teacher. ...


Henry Irving's first attempt at the role, at the Lyceum Theatre, London in 1875, was a failure. Under the production of Sidney Frances Bateman, and starring alongside Kate Josephine Bateman, Irving may have been affected by the recent death of his manager Hezekiah Linthicum Bateman. Although the production lasted eighty performances, his Macbeth was judged inferior to his Hamlet. His next essay, opposite Ellen Terry at the Lyceum in 1888, fared only slightly better. Friends such as Bram Stoker defended his "psychological" reading, based on the supposition that Macbeth had dreamed of killing Duncan before the start of the play. His detractors, among them Henry James, deplored his somewhat arbitrary word changes ("would have" for "should have" in the speech at Lady Macbeth's death) and his "neurasthenic" approach to the character. Sir Henry Irving, as Hamlet, in an 1893 illustration from The Idler magazine John Henry Brodribb (February 6, 1838 – October 13, 1905), knighted in 1895, as Sir Henry Irving, was one of the most famous stage actors of the Victorian era. ... The Lyceum Theatre is a theatre located in London, on Wellington Street near Covent Garden in the West End. ... Sidney Frances Bateman (1823 - January 13, 1881), daughter of Joseph Cowell, an English actor who had settled in America, was married to Hezekiah Linthicum Bateman and also an actor. ... Kate Josephine Bateman (Mrs. ... Hezekiah Linthicum Bateman (December 6, 1812 - March 22, 1875), American actor and manager, was born in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Dame Ellen Terry, GBE (February 27, 1848 – July 21, 1928) was an English stage actress. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ...


Twentieth century to present

Barry Vincent Jackson staged an influential modern-dress production with the Birmingham Repertory in 1928; the production reached London, playing at the Royal Court Theatre. It received mixed reviews; Eric Maturin was judged an inadequate Macbeth, though Mary Merrall's vampish Lady was reviewed favourably. Though The Times judged it a "miserable failure," the production did much to overturn the tendency to scenic and antiquarian excess that had peaked with Charles Kean. Sir Barry Vincent Jackson, (1879–3 April 1961), was a distinguished theatre director and the founder of the Birmingham Repertory Theatre. ... Birmingham Rep (formerly Birmingham Repertory Theatre) is a theatre in Birmingham, England. ... The Royal Court Theatre is a non-commercial theatre in Sloane Square, in the Chelsea area of London noted for its contributions to modern theatre. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...


Among the most publicised productions of the twentieth century was mounted by the American Negro Theater at the Lafayette Theatre in Harlem in 1936. Orson Welles, in his first stage production, directed Jack Carter and Edna Thomas (Canada Lee played Banquo) in an all-African-American production. Welles set the play in post-colonial Haiti, and his direction emphasised spectacle and suspense: his dozens of "African" drums recalled Davenant's chorus of witches. The American Negro Theater (ANT) was formed in Harlem on June 5, 1940 by writer Abram Hill and actor Frederick ONeal. ... The Lafayette Theatre, also known as the House Beautiful was located at 132nd Street and 7th Avenue. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Canada Lee, born Lionel Cornelius Canegata, (March 3, 1907– May 9, 1952) was an American actor who pioneered roles for African Americans. ...


Laurence Olivier played Malcolm in the 1929 production and Macbeth in 1937 at the Old Vic Theatre in a production that saw the Vic's artistic director Lilian Baylis pass away the night before it opened. Olivier's makeup was so thick and stylised for that production that Vivien Leigh was quoted as saying "You hear Macbeth's first line, then Larry's makeup comes on, then Banquo comes on, then Larry comes on". [13] Olivier's later starred in what is probably the most famous twentieth-century production, by Glen Byam Shaw at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1955. Vivien Leigh played Lady Macbeth. The supporting cast, which Harold Hobson denigrated, included many actors who went on to successful Shakespearean careers: Ian Holm played Donalbain, Keith Michell was Macduff, and Patrick Wymark the Porter. Olivier was the key to success. The intensity of his performance, particularly in the conversation with the murderers and in confronting Banquo's ghost, seemed to many reviewers to recall Edmund Kean. Plans for a film version faltered after the box-office failure of Olivier's Richard III. It was of this performance that Kenneth Tynan asserted flatly that "no one has ever succeeded as Macbeth—until Olivier. Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... The Old Vic is a theatre in the Waterloo area of London. ... The Old Vic is a theatre in the Waterloo area of London. ... The Old Vic Theatre. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Vivien Leigh, Lady Olivier (November 5, 1913 – July 8, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award winning English actress. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Glen Byam Shaw (December 13, 1904 - April 29, 1996) was a British actor and theatre director. ... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... Vivien Leigh, Lady Olivier (November 5, 1913 – July 8, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award winning English actress. ... Sir Harold Hobson (1904-1992) was an influential English drama critic and author. ... Sir Ian Holm Sir Ian Holm CBE (born 12 September 1931), born as Ian Holm Cuthbert, is an English actor. ... Keith Michell (born 1 December 1928) is an Australian actor. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Richard III is a 1955 British film adaptation of William Shakespeares historical play Richard III, including elements of Henry VI, part 3. ... Kenneth Peacock Tynan (April 2, 1927 - July 26, 1980), was an influential and often controversial British theatre critic and writer. ...


Olivier's co-star in his 1937 Old Vic Theatre production, Judith Anderson, had an equally triumphant association with the play. She played Lady Macbeth on Broadway opposite Maurice Evans in a production directed by Margaret Webster that ran for 131 performances in 1941, the longest run of the play in Broadway history. Anderson and Evans performed the play on television twice, in 1954 and 1962, with Maurice Evans winning an Emmy Award the 1962 production and Anderson winning the award for both presentations. Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... The Old Vic is a theatre in the Waterloo area of London. ... Dame Judith Anderson, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Dame Judith Anderson, AC DBE (February 10, 1897–January 3, 1992), born Frances Margaret Anderson-Anderson, was an Tony award and Emmy winning stage and film actress who was also nominated for a Grammy and an Oscar. ... Lady Macbeth was the title of Queen Gruoch of Scotland (queen consort to King Macbeth of Scotland) before her husband ascended to the throne of Scotland. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Maurice Evans (born June 3, 1901 in Dorset; died March 12, 1989 in East Sussex) was a British-born actor who became a US citizen in 1941. ... Margaret Webster (1905-1972) was an important United States born theater actress, producer and director. ... Dame Judith Anderson, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Dame Judith Anderson, AC DBE (February 10, 1897–January 3, 1992), born Frances Margaret Anderson-Anderson, was an Tony award and Emmy winning stage and film actress who was also nominated for a Grammy and an Oscar. ... Maurice Evans (born June 3, 1901 in Dorset; died March 12, 1989 in East Sussex) was a British-born actor who became a US citizen in 1941. ... An Emmy Award. ...


After the Olivier performance, the most notable twentieth-century production is that of Trevor Nunn for the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1976. Nunn had directed Nicol Williamson and Helen Mirren in the play two years earlier, but that production had largely failed to impress. In 1976, Nunn produced the play with a minimalist set at The Other Place; this small, nearly round stage focused attention on the psychological dynamics of the characters. Both Ian McKellen in the title role and Judi Dench as Lady Macbeth received exceptionally favourable reviews. Dench won the 1997 SWET Best Actress award for her performance and in 2004, members of the RSC voted her performance the greatest by an actress in the history of the company. Sir Trevor King (born 14 January 1940) is a loser and film director. ... Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a British theatre company. ... Nicol Williamson as Merlin in Excalibur Nicol Williamson (b. ... Dame Helen Mirren, DBE (born July 26, 1945), is an English stage, television and film actress. ... The Other Place is a black box theatre near to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CBE (born May 25, 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of a Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE, FRSA, (born 9 December 1934), usually known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, Tony, three-time BAFTA, and six-time Laurence Olivier Award-winning English actress. ... The Society of London Theatre (previously The Society of West End Theatre) is an umbrella organization for West End theatre in London. ...


Nunn's production transferred to London in 1977 and was later filmed for television. It was to overshadow Peter Hall's 1978 production with Albert Finney as Macbeth and Dorothy Tutin as Lady Macbeth. But the most infamous recent Macbeth was staged at the Old Vic in 1980. Peter O'Toole and Frances Tomelty took the leads in a production (by Bryan Forbes) that was publicly disowned by Timothy West, artistic director of the theatre, before opening night, despite being a sellout because of its notoriety. As critic Jack Tinker noted in the Daily Mail: "The performance is not so much downright bad as heroically ludicrous."[14] Sir Peter Reginald Frederick Hall CBE (born 22 November 1930) is an English theatre and film director. ... Albert Finney (born May 9, 1936 in Salford, Lancashire, England) is a five-time Academy Award-nominated English actor of Irish descent. ... Dame Dorothy Tutin Order of the British Empire|DBE (8 April 1930–6 August 2001), was a highly-regarded English actress of stage, film, and television. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Frances Tomelty (born 1956 in Belfast, Northern Ireland) is a Northern Irish actress, perhaps most famous for being the first wife of Sting. ... Timothy West CBE (born October 20, 1934) is a British film, stage and television actor. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper and the oldest tabloid, first published in 1896. ...


On the stage, Lady Macbeth is considered one of the more "commanding and challenging" roles in Shakespeare's work.[15] Lady Macbeth by George Cattermole, 1850 Lady Macbeth is a character in Shakespeares play Macbeth. ...


A performance was staged in the real Macbeth's home of Moray, produced by the National Theatre of Scotland to take place at Elgin Cathedral. Professional actors, dancers, musicians, school children, and a community cast from the Moray area all took part in what was an important event in the Highland Year of Culture, 2007.


In the same year there was general consent among critics that Rupert Goold's production for the Chichester Festival 2007, starring Patrick Stewart and Kate Fleetwood, rivalled Trevor Nunn's acclaimed 1976 RSC production. And when it transferred to the Gielgud Theatre in London, Charles Spencer reviewing for the Daily Telegraph pronounced it the best Macbeth he had ever seen [1]. At the Evening Standard Theatre Awards 2007 the production won both the Best Actor award for Stewart, and the Best Director award for Goold.[2]. This article is about the actor. ... Schillers Don Carlos starring Derek Jacobi as Philip II of Spain at the Gielgud Theatre, February 2005 The Gielgud Theatre, named after British actor John Gielgud, is a West End theatre in Londons Shaftesbury Avenue at the corner of Rupert Street. ... Charles Spencer is a current American Football offensive guard for the Houston Texans. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... The Evening Standard Awards are presented annually for oustanding achievements in London Theatre. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Adaptations and cultural references

Film versions

See also: Shakespeare on screen#Macbeth
The Three Witches as portrayed in the 2006 film.
The Three Witches as portrayed in the 2006 film.

It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Image File history File links Witches_2006macbeth. ... Image File history File links Witches_2006macbeth. ... Macbeth is a 1908 film directed by J. Stuart Blackton. ... James Stuart Blackton (January 5, 1875 - August 13, 1941), usually known as J. Stuart Blackton, was an American film producer of the Silent Era, the founder of Vitagraph Studios and among the first filmmakers to use the techniques of stop-motion and drawn animation. ... William V. Ranous (12 March 1857 – 1 April 1915), was an American silent film actor and director. ... Macbeth marked Orson Welless return to Shakespearean interpretation, following his departure from Hollywood, with this 1948 version of the Scottish Play. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Jeanette Nolan (December 30, 1911 – June 5, 1998) was an American actress, born in Los Angeles, California. ... Roderick Andrew Anthony Jude McDowall (September 17, 1928 – October 3, 1998) was an English/American actor. ... Dan OHerlihy (May 1, 1919–February 17, 2005) was an Irish film actor. ... This still from The Big Combo (1955) demonstrates the visual style of film noir at its most extreme. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Throne of Blood , lit. ... Kurosawa redirects here. ... Toshiro Mifune in the film Drunken Angel. ... Macbeth (1971) is a film directed by Roman Polanski, based on William Shakespeares The Tragedy of Macbeth, about the Scots Lord who becomes King of Scotland through deceit, treachery, and murder. ... Roman Polanski (born August 18, 1933) is an Academy Award-winning film director, writer, actor, and producer. ... Sir Trevor King (born 14 January 1940) is a loser and film director. ... Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a British theatre company. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CBE (born May 25, 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of a Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE, FRSA, (born 9 December 1934), usually known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, Tony, three-time BAFTA, and six-time Laurence Olivier Award-winning English actress. ... Men of Respect is a 1991 film adaptation of William Shakespeares play Macbeth starring John Turturro as Mike Battaglia, a mafia hitman who climbs his way to the top by killing his own boss. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... This article is about the state. ... Brian Blessed at Cambridge Film Festival 2007 Brian Blessed (or, in the tradition of English poetry, Blessèd; pronounced //) (born 9 October 1937 in Mexborough, near Doncaster) is an English actor, who came to fame as PC Fancy Smith in the BBC TV police drama series Z Cars. ... Jason Joseph Connery (born January 11, 1963) is an English actor. ... Helen Baxendale (born 1969 in Lichfield, Staffordshire, England) is a British TV, film and stage actress. ... Pornography (from Greek πορνογραφια pornographia — literally writing about or drawings of harlots) is the representation of the human body or human sexual behaviour with the goal of sexual arousal, similar to, but (according to some) distinct from, erotica. ... Mike Horner (born February 3, 1955) is an American porn star. ... Kylie Ireland (born May 26, 1973 in Longmont, Colorado, USA) is a pornographic actress, company owner (SlutWerkz), director, publicist and radio show host. ... Scotland, Pa. ... An independent film, or indie film, is usually a low-budget film that is produced by a small movie studio. ... This article is about a tone of comedy. ... Maqbool (2004), directed by Vishal Bharadwaj and starring Pankaj Kapoor, Irfan Khan and Tabu is an adaptation of the play macbeth by Shakespeare Categories: Movie stubs ... Vishal Bhardwaj is an Indian film director, writer and music composer. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Irfan Khan is an Indian actor in film and theater. ... Tabu (born Tabassum Hashmi on November 4, 1970 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India) is an award-winning Indian actress who has acted in Hindi, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam and English films. ... Om Puri, OBE (Honorary) (born October 18, 1950 in Ambala, Haryana, India) is an Indian actor who has appeared in both mainstream Bollywood films as well as art films. ... Naseeruddin Shah in the role of Mirza Ghalib Naseeruddin Shah aka Nasiruddin Shah (b. ... Macbeth (also known as M) is a 2006 Australian film, adapted from the William Shakespeare classic, directed by Geoffrey Wright and starring an ensemble cast including Sam Worthington, Victoria Hill and Lachy Hulme. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... Geoffrey Wright is an Australian film director born in Melbourne in 1959. ...

Literary versions

  • MacBird, a 1966 counterculture drama by Barbara Garson featuring US President Lyndon B. Johnson as Macbeth
  • Macbett — 1972 play by Eugène Ionesco which satirises the original.
  • "Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District", short story by Nikolai Leskov only loosely related to Shakespeare's play
  • Light Thickens — 1982 Inspector Alleyn mystery novel by Ngaio Marsh. This, her last novel, concerns five weeks of rehearsal for a London production of the play. The dramatic and literary detail is vivid and compelling, as the author knows her business.
  • Macbeth — 1988 Greek novel by Apostolos Doxiadis
  • Wyrd Sisters — 1988 novel by Terry Pratchett, whose plot combines those of Macbeth and Hamlet. One of many novels set in the Discworld fantasy world.
  • MacBeth — 1999 Finnish comic book, adapted by Petri Hannini and artwork by Petri Hiltunen.
  • The Third Witch — 2001 novel by Rebecca Reisert, told from the point of view of one of the witches in the play.
  • La señora Macbeth[4]2004, by Griselda Gambaro. An Argentinian play, told from the point of view of Lady Macbeth and her arguing with the three witches that harass her during the victories and later death of her husband.
  • American Ambition[5]2006, by John Hamilton Allen sets the story in the contemporary United States and the struggle for the White House.

MacBird is a notorious 1966 counterculture drama by Barbara Garson which satrically depicts President Lyndon Johnson as Macbeth. ... Barbara Garson (born July 7, 1941 in Brooklyn, New York City) is an American playwright, author and social activist. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Macbett is Eugene Ionescos satire on Shakespeares MacBeth. ... Eugène Ionesco Eugène Ionesco, born Eugen Ionescu, (November 26, 1909 – March 29, 1994) was a French-Romanian playwright and dramatist, one of the foremost playwrights of the Theatre of the Absurd. ... Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (1865) is the most famous story of the Russian writer Nikolai Leskov. ... Nikolai Leskov by Valentin Serov, 1894 Nikolai Semyonovich Leskov ((Russian: , 16 February 1831 - 5 March 1895) was a Russian journalist, novelist and short story writer. ... Apostolos Doxiadis (Greek: Απόστολος Δοξιάδης) (b. ... This article is about the novel. ... Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novels. ... Petri Hiltunen is a Finnish cartoonist and illustrator. ... The Third Witch The Third Witch is a novel written by Rebecca Reisert. ... Griselda Gambaro (born Buenos Aires, July 28, 1928) is a major Latin American playwright and novelist. ...

Television versions (a selection)

Hallmark Hall of Fame is a long running anthology program on American television. ... Maurice Evans (1901 - 1989) was an English actor. ... Dame Judith Anderson, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Dame Judith Anderson, AC DBE (February 10, 1897–January 3, 1992), born Frances Margaret Anderson-Anderson, was an Tony award and Emmy winning stage and film actress who was also nominated for a Grammy and an Oscar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Ian Bannen (June 29, 1928 - November 3, 1999) was a Scottish character actor and occasional leading man. ... Peter Jeremy William Huggins (November 3, 1933 – September 12, 1995), better known as Jeremy Brett, was an English actor famous for his portrayal of the detective Sherlock Holmes in the British television series The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. ... BBC One (or BBC1 as it was formerly styled) is the oldest United Kingdom, and indeed, the world. ... Eric Richard Porter (April 8, 1928 - May 15, 1995) was a distinguished English actor who appeared on stage as well as in cinema and television. ... Janet Suzman (born February 9, 1939) is a South African actress. ... John Alderton (born November 27, 1940), is a popular British actor. ... The Right Honourable Sir Geoffrey Winston Russell Palmer, AC, KCMG (born 21 April 1942), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from August 1989 until September 1990, leading the Labour Party. ... John Thaw (left) as Inspector Morse John Edward Thaw CBE (3 January 1942 – 21 February 2002) was an English actor who achieved his first starring role in the military police television drama Redcap (1964 – 1966), and subsequently appeared in a range of television, stage and cinema roles. ... Tony Caunter Tony Caunter (born 22 September 1937 in Southampton, Hampshire, England) is a British actor best known for his portrayal of Roy Evans in Eastenders from 1994-2003. ... The BBC Television Shakespeare was a set of television adaptations of the plays of Shakespeare, produced by the BBC between 1978 and 1985. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Nicol Williamson as Merlin in Excalibur Nicol Williamson (b. ... Jane Lapotaire (born 26 December 1944) is a British actress born in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. ... This article is about the British television station. ... Sean Pertwee (born June 4, 1964) is a British actor. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... ShakespeaRe-Told is the umbrella title for a series of four adaptions of William Shakespeares plays broadcast on BBC One through November 2005. ...

Musical adaptations

For other uses, see Macbeth (disambiguation). ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Macbeth is an opera in three acts, with music by Ernest Bloch to a libretto by Edmond Fleg, after the eponymous play of William Shakespeare. ... Ernest Bloch with children This article is about the composer. ... Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (Леди Макбет Мценского уезда in Russian; Ledi Makbet Mtsenskovo Uyezda in transliteration) is an opera in four acts by the Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovich to a Russian libretto by Alexander Preis and the composer, inspired by and named after the famous story by Nikolai Leskov. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... In popular music, a concept album is an album which is unified by a theme, which can be instrumental, compositional, narrative, or lyrical (Shuker 2002, p. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rebellion is a German heavy-metal band. ... Performing Arts Centre, South Bank, Brisbane, Queensland Part of the Queensland Cultural Centre, the Queensland Performing Arts Centre, also known as QPAC, is situated at South Bank, Queensland, Australia, , near the Brisbane Central Business District (CBD). ... Shaka Shaka (sometimes spelled Chaka) (ca. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The Market Theatre in Johannesburg, South Africa was established in 1976 as an independent non-racial theatre under apartheid South Africa. ... David Hobson (born 1960 in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia), is an Australian opera singer. ...

Cultural references

  • Macbeth is a recurring character in the television series Gargoyles. His backstory is a very loose version of the play, bearing similarities also to the real Macbeth's actual history. Macbeth is an immortal who has a long link and grudge with a renegade Gargoyle, Demona, and originally harassed the Manhattan clan in hopes of drawing her to him. The Weird Sisters, taking the form of the three witches, had given them both immortality, and gave Macbeth the prophecy that he and his son, would each become king. Duncan had murdered the remaining Gargoyles in order to prevent the prophecy from coming true. Macbeth's reaction to the play sharply differs between fans and the series' creator, Greg Weisman.
  • Macbeth is the name of a planet in the video games Starfox and Star Fox 64. The boss of the planet is called Mechbeth.
  • The historical comedy series Blackadder includes three episodes featuring references to Macbeth. In the episode, "The Foretelling" (the first episode of the first series), Prince Edmund (the main protagonist) meets three witches who tell him that he will be king, although after he departs it is revealed that they had mistaken him for Henry Tudor. Blackadder also sees the ghost of Richard III, whom he had accidentally killed, in his chair at a banquet. In the fourth episode of the third series, "Sense and Senility", the Macbeth ritual is parodied. Also, in the final episode of the third series, "Duel and Duality", the Prince Regent recounts a dreams in which "Duncan's horses did turn and eat each other...as usual", prophesying his death later in the episode.
  • An episode of The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius, "Out, Darn Spotlight", is about a school play called Macbeth in Space.
  • The original Star Trek episode "The Conscience of the King" begins with a theater performance of the scene in Macbeth in which Macbeth kills King Duncan.
  • The graphic novel and 2006 film V for Vendetta features the title character using direct quotations from Macbeth (the first thing he says in the novel is a quote from the second scene of the first act, where a bloody captain is describing the feats of Macbeth to the king). The first three lines spoken by the principal character in the film are Shakespeare quotations. Other literary works of William Shakespeare are referenced as well, such as Richard III, Twelfth Night and Hamlet.
  • The title of the Ray Bradbury novel, "Something Wicked This Way Comes" is taken from a line in Macbeth. There is also an album of the same name, unrelated to the novel, by the heavy metal band Iced Earth.
  • In the film version of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the song done by the students at Hogwarts features many lines from the story, specifically from Act 4 Scene 1 of the Macbeth tragedy. This includes the famous line, "Something wicked this way comes", and "double double, toil and trouble."
  • The Weird Sisters are a popular wizarding band in the Harry Potter series.
  • In the Night's Dawn trilogy by Peter F. Hamilton, the starship that Joshua Calvert inherits from his father Marcus is called Lady MacBeth.
  • William Faulkner took the title of his novel, The Sound and The Fury, from Macbeth's famous speech in Act 5, Scene 5. ("Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player / That struts and frets his hour upon the stage / And then is heard no more. It is a tale / Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, / Signifying nothing.")
  • The title of the movie Double, Double, Toil and Trouble is a line spoken by the three witches in Macbeth.
  • Grey's Anatomy Episode 3:09 "From a Whisper to a Scream" storyline parallels the Macbeth theme of betrayal.
  • The Simpsons Episode The Regina Monologues in which Bart annoys guest star Ian McKellen by saying the name Macbeth outside of an English theatre, an act which, according to superstition, invites horrible consequences. Ian McKellen then endures a series of accidents such as being struck by lightning and having the marquee fall on top of him.
  • In the BBC comedy series The Young Ones, Vyvyan finds the three sisters in the cupboard under the stairs. The sisters see him and say "Hail MacVyvyan, Thane of corridor".
  • In CSI:Crime Scene Investigation, Grissom has been known to quote lines out of Macbeth during his investigations.
  • In the TV series 24, Sherry Palmer is often called Lady MacBeth, Lady Mac, or Lady Palmer by 24 fans who compare her to Macbeth's wife.
  • In the West Wing episode Bad Moon Rising, Abigail Bartlet is called Lady Macbeth by her husband Jed Bartlet.
  • The story of Shiro in Guild Wars Factions is based on the story of MacBeth.
  • Tom DeLonge and Mark Hoppus have a brand that includes apparel and optics named Macbeth.
  • The second season of the television series Slings and Arrows centers around a production of Macbeth.
  • In the Beauty and the Beast song, "The Mob Song", the Macbeth quote, "Screw your courage to the sticking place" is used.
  • The beginning of the Bugs Bunny cartoon, "A Witch's Tangled Hare" shows a Shakespeare-looking man writing a play entitled "Macbeth" and Witch Hazel reciting the famous "double, double toil and trouble" line while making a brew.
  • The Cosby Show episode, "Theo and Cockroach" prominently features Shakespeare's Macbeth as a work of literature the two are studying in school and are about to have a big test on. Actually, Theo and Cockroach (Walter) do everything they can to prepare for the Macbeth test, short of actually reading the play, such as listening to the record and planning to watch the play, which both fail. Denise then tells them about "Cleland Notes" (an obvious take-off on CliffsNotes), which the two boys then use to study for their Macbeth test, with somewhat successful results (or so Theo boasts to his parents). This whole episode was intended to illustrate how such study guides, while not a bad idea for studying, are by no means substitutions for reading the actual material, because then Clair threatens another Macbeth test for the weekend and this time Theo has to read the actual play, and there will be no questions whatsoever from Cleland Notes. In fact, earlier in the episode, right after Denise suggests Cleland Notes to Theo and Cockroach, and they decide they can use them alone to study for the Macbeth test, she adds: "They don't recommend that."
  • Popular hip-hop artist MC Lars produced a rap version of Macbeth, appropriately titled RapBeth, which focuses on the comedic irony in the story and comment on The Scottish Play superstition. The famous quote from the play 'Double, double, toil and trouble. Fire burn, and cauldron bubble...' is used as the refrain throughout the song.
  • On Bruce Dickinson's 2005 album, Tyranny of Souls, the title track "Tyranny of Souls" is somewhat based on Macbeth, and includes direct quotes and lines from the play throughout the song.
  • In the British Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles comic, Shredder is visited by Macbeth's three witches, who advise him to kill Krang and achieve victory over the turtles. After giving him this advice, they realise they were supposed to visit Macbeth instead, and later inform Shredder that the correct advice was to give up his villainous career and become a hero. The reason for this slip up was that the witches are only trainee witches.
  • In the Universal film "The Chronicles Of Riddick", references are made to the production of Macbeth in its commentary and "Making of". The references mainly focus on the characters of Lord Vaako and Dame Vaako, upon learning of a prophesy which foretells the downfall of the Lord Marshall, Dame Vaako sets about conspiring to have her husband take his place but the conspiracy ultimately fails when Riddick kills the Lord Marshall and takes his place.
  • In the videogame The Legend of Zelda: Link's Awakening a witch quotes the line Double double, toil and trouble.
  • After Hamlet, Macbeth is the second Shakespeare play to be performed on a bouncy castle at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. [6]
  • In the hit new television show "The Best Years", the acting students have been trying out for a role in their next play 'Macbeth'. They said a few lines from the play, but the most famous was when they read the letter to Macbeth from Lady Macbeth, read by Dawn Vargaz.
  • Barbara Garson wrote a notorious 1966 counterculture drama entitled MacBird, which satirically depicts then-President Lyndon Johnson as Macbeth.
  • In the sixth season of the HBO television series Oz, the prisoners get to play Macbeth. Only, in tradition of the cursed play, several lead players either get killed or thrown in solitary.
  • The "too late to cancel" album by Mitch Benn and The Distractions contains a bonus live track called "macbeth (my name is)".
  • On the episode "Lady of the lake" of Upright Citizens Brigade, the first seven lines of the "Is this a dagger which I see before me" soliloquy are spoken verbatim by the character Arby, in response to being presented a knife.
  • In the Doctor Who episode "The Shakespeare Code" the enemies where three witches trying to take over the world.

Enter Macbeth Macbeth is a fictional character from the Disney animated television series Gargoyles, voiced by John Rhys-Davies. ... This article is about the animated series. ... Demona is one of the primary antagonists of the animated television series Gargoyles. ... In the fictional universe of the animated series Gargoyles, the name Oberons children is given to the so-called Third Race of beings (the other two being humans and gargoyles). ... Greg Weisman (born September 28, 1963 in Los Angeles, California) is an American animation writer and producer most famous as the creator of the animated television series Gargoyles. ... Star Fox ) (also known as Star Wing in Europe due to trademark issues) is the first game in the Star Fox series of video games. ... Star Fox 64 ), known in Australia and Europe as Lylat Wars due to trademark issues, is a scrolling shooter video game for the Nintendo 64 video game console. ... For other uses, see Blackadder (disambiguation). ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... The Scottish play and The Bards play are euphemisms often used for William Shakespeares Macbeth. ... The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius is a spin-off of the Oscar-nominated computer-animated movie; Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius, first officially aired in September 2002. ... The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... The Conscience of the King is an episode of Star Trek: The Original Series. ... This article is about the comic book series. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... Twelfth Night has at least three meanings: Twelfth Night (holiday), celebrated by some Christians Twelfth Night, or What You Will, a comedic play by William Shakespeare Twelfth Night (band), a progressive rock band This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... Something Wicked This Way Comes is a 1962 novel by Ray Bradbury. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... Iced Earth is an American heavy metal band that combine influences from thrash metal, power metal, progressive metal, opera, speed metal and NWOBHM. In 1999 their leader and songwriter Jon Schaffer teamed up with Blind Guardian vocalist Hansi Kürsch to form a side project called Demons & Wizards. ... Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is a 2004 fantasy adventure film, based on the novel of the same name by J. K. Rowling. ... The Weird Sisters, (sometimes Wyrd Sisters or Three Weird Sisters), is the Germanic mythological group name given to the Nordic fates, or Norns. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... British author Peter F. Hamiltons The Nights Dawn Trilogy consists of three epic science fiction novels: The Reality Dysfunction (1996), The Neutronium Alchemist (1997), and The Naked God (1999). ... Peter F. Hamilton Peter F. Hamilton Peter F. Hamilton (born 1960, Rutland, England), is a British science fiction author. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... The Sound and the Fury is a Southern Gothic novel written by American author William Faulkner, which makes use of the stream of consciousness narrative technique pioneered by European authors such as James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. ... Double, Double, Toil and Trouble is a 1993 Halloween childrens TV movie, starring Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen as twin sisters Kelly and Lynn, whose family is in deep debt and may have to sell their house. ... This article is about the television series. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CBE (born May 25, 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of a Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... The Young Ones was a popular British sitcom, first seen in 1982, which aired on BBC2. ... For other uses, see 24 (disambiguation). ... Sherry Palmer is a fictional character on the television series 24, played by Penny Johnson Jerald. ... “The West Wing” redirects here. ... Bad Moon Rising is the 41st episode of The West Wing. ... Dr. Abigail Ann Abbey Bartlet, M.D., former First Lady of the United States, was a fictional character played by Stockard Channing on the television serial drama The West Wing. ... For the signatory of the Declaration of Independence, see Josiah Bartlett. ... Guild Wars Factions is a computer game released in 2006 by ArenaNet and is the first stand-alone campaign expanding on Prophecies, the original Guild Wars game. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Markus Allan Hoppus (born March 15, 1972 in Ridgecrest, California[1]) is an American musician, producer, and was one of the founding members of the pop-punk band Blink-182 and the pop-punk/alternative band +44. ... Slings and Arrows is a Canadian TV series set at the fictional New Burbage Festival, a troubled Shakespearean festival similar to the real-world Stratford Festival. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ... Bugs Bunny is an animated hare who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... Witch Hazel is a animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros. ... Photo of the entire cast of The Cosby Show. ... CliffsNotes for Romeo and Juliet CliffsNotes (often, incorrectly, CliffNotes) are a series of student study guides available primarily in the United States. ... Andrew Robert Nielsen (born October 6, 1982) is an American rapper, known by his stage name MC Lars. ... The Scottish play and The Bards play are euphemisms often used for William Shakespeares Macbeth. ... For the record producer in the Saturday Night Live skit, see More cowbell. ... Tyranny of Souls is a heavy metal album and it was released on May 23, 2005 (see 2005 in music) by Bruce Dickinson. ... The Chronicles of Riddick is a 2004 American science fiction / fantasy / thriller film. ... Dame Vaako is a fictional and primary character appearing in the The Chronicles of Riddick universe, created by David Twohy and played by Thandie Newton. ... Lord Marshal may refer to one of the following Lord Marshal of England Earl Marischal Lantmarskalk was the speaker of the Riksdag. ... Vin Diesel as Riddick. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into moonwalk (bounce house). ... Categories: Festival stubs | Edinburgh ... The Best Years is a teen drama series set in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Barbara Garson (born July 7, 1941 in Brooklyn, New York City) is an American playwright, author and social activist. ... MacBird is a notorious 1966 counterculture drama by Barbara Garson which satrically depicts President Lyndon Johnson as Macbeth. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Mitch Benn (born Mitchell John Benn 20 January 1970) is a British musician of Liverpudlian/Scottish descent and stand-up comedian known for his satirical songs performed on BBC radio. ... The Upright Citizens Brigade is an improvisational comedy and sketch comedy group that emerged from Chicagos ImprovOlympic in 1990. ...

References

  1. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition
  2. ^ A.R. Braunmuller, ed. Macbeth (CUP, 1997), 5-8.
  3. ^ Braunmuller, Macbeth, pp. 2-3.
  4. ^ Frank Kermode, "Macbeth," The Riverside Shakespeare (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974), p. 1308; for details on Garnet, see Perez Zagorin, "The Historical Significance of Lying and Dissimulation—Truth-Telling, Lying, and Self-Deception," Social Research, Fall 1996.
  5. ^ Mark Anderson, Shakespeare By Another Name, 2005, pp. 402-403
  6. ^ Kermode, Riverside Shakespeare, p. 1308.
  7. ^ Braunmuller, Macbeth, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997; pp. 5-8.
  8. ^ Kermode, Riverside Shakespeare, p. 1308.
  9. ^ If, that is, the Forman document is genuine; see the entry on Simon Forman for the question of the authenticity of the Book of Plays.
  10. ^ Brooke, Nicholas, ed. The Tragedy of Macbeth Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998:57
  11. ^ http://www.austinchronicle.com/gyrobase/Issue/story?oid=oid%3A78882
  12. ^ For the date of acquisition, see, for instance, Adams, J. Q., Shakespearean Playhouses, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1917: 224; Bentley, G. E. The Jacobean and Caroline Stage, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1941: 6.13-17; Chambers, E. K., The Elizabethan Stage, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923: 2.498. For Macbeth as an indoor play, see, for instance Bald, R.C., "Macbeth and the Short Plays," Review of English Studies 4 (1928): 430; Shirley, Frances, Shakespeare's Use of Off-stage Sounds, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1963: 168-89.
  13. ^ Robert Tanitch, Olivier, Abbeville Press (1985)
  14. ^ London Stage in the 20th Century by Robert Tanitch, Haus Publishing (2007) ISBN 9781904950745
  15. ^ Brown, Langdon. Shakespeare around the Globe: A Guide to Notable Postwar Revivals. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986: 355.

Simon Forman (December 30, 1552 – September, 1611) was a prominent Elizabethan occultist, astrologist and herbalist active in London. ... Joeph Quincy Adams (March 23, 1881 – November 10, 1946) was a prominent Shakespeare scholar and the first director of the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C. Adams, a scion of the famous Adams family that produced two American Presidents, John Adams and John Quincy Adams, was born in Greenville... Robert Tanitch is an author, playwright and biographer of theater and film actors including such luminaries as Alec Guinness and Lawrence Olivier. ...

External links

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Performances

  • Performances and Photographs from London and Stratford performances of Macbeth 1960 - 2000 - From the Designing Shakespeare resource
  • Watch Macbeth on Teachers TV now

Text of play

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

Commentary

The "curse" of Macbeth

  • The Straight Dope on Macbeth's "curse"
William Shakespeare and his works
General information Biography | Style | influence | Reputation | Religion | Sexuality | Shakespearean Authorship Question
Tragedies Antony and Cleopatra | Coriolanus | Hamlet | Julius Caesar | King Lear | Macbeth | Othello | Romeo and Juliet | Timon of Athens | Titus Andronicus | Troilus and Cressida
Comedies All's Well That Ends Well | As You Like It | The Comedy of Errors | Cymbeline | Love's Labour's Lost | Measure for Measure | The Merchant of Venice | The Merry Wives of Windsor | A Midsummer Night's Dream | Much Ado About Nothing | Pericles, Prince of Tyre | The Taming of the Shrew | The Tempest | Twelfth Night | The Two Gentlemen of Verona | The Two Noble Kinsmen | The Winter's Tale
Histories King John | Richard II | Henry IV, Part 1 | Henry IV, Part 2 | Henry V | Henry VI, part 1 | Henry VI, part 2 | Henry VI, part 3 | Richard III | Henry VIII
Poems Sonnets | Venus and Adonis | The Rape of Lucrece | The Passionate Pilgrim | The Phoenix and the Turtle | A Lover's Complaint
Apocrypha and Lost Plays Edward III | Sir Thomas More | Cardenio (lost) | Love's Labour's Won (lost) | The Birth of Merlin | Locrine | The London Prodigal | The Puritan | The Second Maiden's Tragedy | Richard II, Part I: Thomas of Woodstock | Sir John Oldcastle | Thomas Lord Cromwell | A Yorkshire Tragedy | Fair Em | Mucedorus | The Merry Devil of Edmonton | Arden of Faversham | Edmund Ironside | Vortigern and Rowena
Other play information Shakespeare's plays | Shakespeare in performance | Chronology of Shakespeare plays | Oxfordian chronology | Shakespeare on screen | BBC Television Shakespeare | Titles based on Shakespeare | List of characters A-K · L-Z | Problem Plays | List of historical characters | Ghost characters

  Results from FactBites:
 
Enjoying "Macbeth" by William Shakespeare (8222 words)
Macbeth's mother's name is unknown, but she is variously said to have been the daughter of King Kenneth II or the daughter of King Malcolm II.
Macbeth allied with Thorfinn of Orkney, a Norseman.
Macbeth verbally abuses and bullies the people who he needs to defend him (and who are abandoning him), while reflecting to himself on the emptiness and futility of it all.
Macbeth (887 words)
That same Macbeth, who once as a warrior could spurn at death, now that he dreads the prospect of the life to come, clings with growing anxiety to his earthly existence the more miserable it becomes, and pitilessly removes out of the way whatever to his dark and suspicious mind seems to threaten danger.
Lady Macbeth, who of all the human participators in the king's murder is the most guilty, is thrown by the terrors of her conscience into a state of incurable bodily and mental disease; she dies, unlamented even by her husband.
Macbeth is still found worthy to die the death of a hero on the field of battle.
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