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Encyclopedia > Maastricht Treaty
European Union

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The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. It led to the creation of the European Union and was the result of separate negotiations on monetary union and on political union. The Maastricht Treaty has been amended to a degree by later treaties. The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... François-Xavier Ortoli, Romano Prodi, José Manuel Barroso and Jacques Delors The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union bureaucracy. ... This article needs to be updated. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... The Justus Lipsius building, the headquarter of the EU Council in Brussels The Council of the European Union (French: Le Conseil de lUnion européenne, German: Rat der Europäischen Union) is a governing body that forms, along with the European Parliament, the legislative arm of the European Union... The European Council, informally called the European summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary body of the European Union. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... Prof. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ... In five European Union Member States (Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy and the United Kingdom), the national territory is divided into a number of constituencies for European elections. ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... Elections to the European Parliament will be held in June 2006 in the then–27 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... In early 2007, Bulgaria and Romania will elect their members of the European Parliament for the first time. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held from June 10, 2004 to June 13, 2004 in the 25 member states of the European Union, using varying election days according to local custom. ... Political Groups in the European Parliament combine the MEPs from European political parties, informal European political blocs, and independents, into powerful coalitions. ... The Standing Committees of the European Parliament are designed to aid the European Commission in initiating legislation. ... European Court of Justice building, Luxembourg The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court of the European Union (EU). ... As of August 17, 2006: Categories: | | | ... The Court of First Instance, created in 1989, is a court of the European Union. ... European Union Civil Service Tribunal, since December 2, 2005 a new specialised tribunal within the European Union institutional framework. ... The European Court of Auditors is one of five institutions of the European Union. ... Headquarters Frankfurt, Germany Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain Currency Euro -ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves >€4 billion Base borrowing rate 4. ... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... The European Investment Fund, established in 1994, is a European Union agency for the provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). ... The European Unions Economic and Social Committee is the consultative assembly of European social and economic partners. This phrase refers mainly to representatives of business, employers and trade unions. ... The Committee of the Regions (CoR) is an institution of the European Union created by the Treaty of Maastricht. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... The European Union is unique among international organisations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. ... The French term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire) is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... A directive is a legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. ... A European Union decision (defined in Article 249/EC) is one of the three binding instruments provide by secondary EU legislation. ... In European Union Law a recommendation Differs from regulations, directives and decisions, in that they are not binding for Member States. ... The European Union is unique among international organisations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. ... // Origins of the EU History of the European Union European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Euratom Single market. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1958 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... The majority of major political parties in Europe have aligned themselves into the pan-European political organisations listed below. ... The member-states of the European Union by the European party affiliations of their leaders, as of April, 2006. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province Limburg Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Third Delors Commission The Delors Commission was the European Commission that held office from 1985 until 1995, which consists of three terms. ...


A separate protocol linked to the treaty led to the creation of the euro, and introduced the Three pillars of the European Union (the European Communities pillar, the Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP pillar, and the Justice and Home Affairs pillar). The CFSP pillar was built on the foundation of European Political Cooperation (EPC), but brought it under a treaty and extended it. The JHA pillar introduced cooperation in law enforcement, criminal justice, civil judicial matters, and asylum and immigration. ISO 4217 Code EUR User(s) Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo, Luxembourg, Monaco, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Vatican City Inflation 1. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... The European political cooperation (EPC) was introduced informally in 1970 in response to the Davignon report and was formalised by the Single European Act with effect from 1987. ...


Originally, the European Community (EC) dealt mainly with economic, social and trade matters. The European Commission and the European Court of Justice, both operationally independent from the national governments, although appointed by them, had a lot of power within the system. The European Parliament, which was directly elected by the citizens of the EC member states, also had some power. The Governments retained the most power in the Council of Ministers, but since the mid-1980s had increasingly been taking decisions through qualified majority votes (about 71% of the votes). This system was called the Community method, or supranationalism, as institutions not directly controlled by the governments wielded significant power, and members could have decisions they disagreed with imposed upon them through majority votes. The European Community (EC), most important of two European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... European Court of Justice building, Luxembourg The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court of the European Union (EU). ... The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary body of the European Union. ... The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ...


It was desired to add competencies in foreign policy, military and criminal matters to the European Community. However, many member states considered that these areas were too sensitive to be managed by the mechanisms of the European Community, and that the power of governments in relation to these areas had to be stronger than the powers of governments in the European Community. That is, an intergovernmental, as opposed to supranational, system would have to be used. Other member states feared that this might threaten the power of the independent supranational institutions (the European Commission, European Court of Justice and European Parliament) in relation to the economic matters then dealt with by the European Community. The three pillar structure was then developed to isolate the traditional Community responsibilities in the area of the economy (the Community Pillar) from the new competencies in the areas of foreign policy and military matters (the CFSP pillar) and criminal matters (the JHA pillar). The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... European Court of Justice building, Luxembourg The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court of the European Union (EU). ... The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary body of the European Union. ...


Ratification

The process of ratifying the treaty was fraught with difficulties in three states. Denmark first rejected the treaty on 2 June 1992 by less than 50,000 votes. This sparked a referendum in France which only narrowly supported it, with 51.05% in favour. The treaty was ratified by Denmark on 18 May 1993 with the addition of the Edinburgh Agreement which lists four Danish exceptions. In the United Kingdom, an opt-out from the treaty's social provisions was opposed in Parliament by the opposition Labour and Liberal Democrat MPs and the treaty itself by the Maastricht Rebels within the governing Conservative Party. The number of rebels exceeded the Conservative majority in the House of Commons, and thus the government of John Major came close to losing the confidence of the House. June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Houses of Parliament, as seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In the politics of the United Kingdom, the Maastricht Rebels were MPs of the then governing Conservative Party who refused to support the government of John Major in a House of Commons vote to secure ratification by the United Kingdom of the Maastricht treaty (Treaty on European Union). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Sir John Major, KG, CH, PC (born 29 March 1943) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and leader of the British Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. ... In political science confidence refers to a governments support in the legislature. ...


External links

  • The Treaty on European Union - Online version (original, not the amended version)
    • Download version as PDF (Portable Document Format)
    • For other languages look at the EU page on the European Treaties
    • Currently established version in consolidated form
  • The History of the European Union - The Treaty of Maastricht
  • Maastricht Treaty European Navigator


Timeline of the Treaties and EU Constitution Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard. ...

European Union - treaties, structure, history
1952 1958 1967 1993 1999 2003 ?
EC - European Community... E U R O P E A N   U N I O N   ( E U )
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
European Economic
Community
(EEC)
European Community (EC)
...European Communities: ECSC, EEC (EC, 1993), Euratom Justice &
Home Affairs
 
Police & Judicial Co-operation
in Criminal matters (PJCC)
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community)
Treaty of
Paris
Treaties of
Rome
Merger
Treaty
Treaty of
Maastricht
Treaty of
Amsterdam
Treaty of
Nice
European
Constitution
"THREE PILLARS" - European Communities (EC, Euratom), Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal matters (PJCC)
Preceded by
Single European Act (1986)
EU treaties Succeeded by
Amsterdam Treaty (1997)

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Maastricht Treaty (115 words)
The Treaty on European Union initiated the road to political and economic and monetary union.
It was drafted at a historic juncture in which the reunification of Germany and the fall of the Soviet block made necessary a re-thinking of the European project.
Among several significant innovations, such as EU citizenship and the EMU, the Treaty of Maastricht created the so-called three pillar structure.
The Treaty of Maastricht or the European Union (1992) - The history of the European Union and European Citizenship (1655 words)
The Treaty on European Union raised Western European Union (WEU) to the rank of an integral part of the development of the Union and commissioned it the mission of elaborating and implementing decisions and actions with defence implications.
The ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht by the national parliaments was brimmed with difficulties.
In early 1996, in the European Council of Turin, an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) commenced with the purpose of elaborating a new treaty that reformed the Treaty of Maastricht.
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