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Encyclopedia > Ma malakat aymanukum
This is a sub-article to Islamic military jurisprudence and Prisoner of war

Part of a series on the
Islamic Jurisprudence

– a discipline of Islamic studies This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Laws of war. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ...

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Ma malakat aymanukum ("what your right hands possess" ما ملكت أيمانهن) is a scriptural reference in the Qur'an to female slaves. This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... Marriage in Islam is considered to be of the utmost importance. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... There are two types of armed religious warfare in Islam, namely the defensive Jihad and the offensive Jihad. ... There are two types of armed religious warfare in Islam, namely the defensive Jihad and the offensive Jihad. ... Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, in order to rearm for the next battle, although the latter part of the definition is often lost in the media. ... Istijarah (Arabic: إستجارة) is an Islamic term for Asylum, accepting a person at risk as a member of own tribe [1]. In the Pre-Islamic era there was a system of clan protection, and a people without a clan would stand without protection. ...

Contents

Overview

The term itself is normally considered to refer to prisoners of war, or more broadly to slaves in general, according to the classic tafsirs (e.g., Ibn Kathir); however, some (e.g., Muhammad Asad) have proposed alternative explanations, whereby it would mean "one's rightful spouse" [1] Bernard Lewis proposes the translation "those whom you own."[2] A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...



The general term maa malakat aymanukum (literally "what your right hands possess" or "anything owned blessed to you") appears fourteen times in the Qur'an, in the following Arabic variations: This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...

Arabic Literal translation
ما ملكت أيمانكم what your (masculine plural) right hands possess
ما ملكت أيمانهم what their (masculine plural) right hands possess
ما ملكت أيمانهن what their (feminine plural) right hands possess
ما ملكت يمينك what your right hands possess
الذين ملكت أيمانكم Those whom your (masculine plural) right hands possess

"Ma malakat aymanukum" in the Qur'an

The main points about "those whom one's right hands possess" in the Qur'an are: This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ...


Sexual Intercourse

In Islamic Divine Law (Arabic: Sharia), Ma malakat aymanukum is the term for slaves or captives of war. In Islamic Divine Law (Arabic: Sharia), Ma malakat aymanukum is the term for captives of war. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Divine law is any law (or rule) that comes directly from the will of God (or a god), such as from the Bible in Christianity or in Islam the Quran from Allah himself, etcetera. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... It has been suggested that Rule of sharia be merged into this article or section. ...


It is lawful to have sexual intercourse with those "that your right hand possess" (i.e. female slaves owned by the master) according to the translations of the Quran by Yusufali, Pickthal, and Shakir.[2]


Dress codes

An-Nur 30–33, in the course of laying down the familiar dress code of Islam, explains that women "should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty" except to various familiar people, including those "whom their right hands possess". Al-Ahzab 55 makes it explicit that the same liberty is given to the Prophet's wives. Surat An-Nur (Arabic: سورة النور ) (The Light) is the 24th sura of the Quran with 64 ayat. ... Clothing has various sociological functions, including: conspicuous consumption stating or claiming identity establishing, maintaining and defying sociological group norms Thus wearing specific types of clothing or the manner of wearing clothing can convey messages about class, income, belief and attitude. ... Surat Al-Ahzab (The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces) is the 33rd sura of the Quran with 73 ayat. ...


An-Nur 58 says that "those whom your right hands possess" and underage children should ask a believer's permission (before they come to their presence) at the three times of day when one is likely to be undressed. Surat An-Nur (Arabic: سورة النور ) (The Light) is the 24th sura of the Quran with 64 ayat. ...


They should not be forced into prostitution if they desire chastity

An-Nur 24:44 states, "But force not your maids to prostitution when they desire chastity, in order that ye may make a gain in the goods of this life. But if anyone compels them, yet, after such compulsion, is Allah, Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (to them)," Surat An-Nur (Arabic: سورة النور ) (The Light) is the 24th sura of the Quran with 64 ayat. ...


Being good to them

An-Nisa 36 reminds us that a believer should do good to a variety of people, including "what your right hands possess". Surat An-Nisa (The Women) is the 4th sura of the Quran, with 176 ayat. ...


an-Nahl 71 and ar-Rum 28 both use the same metaphor: just as the fortunate among people do not share their wealth with "those whom their right hands possess" to the point of making them equals, nor fear them as they fear each other, so does God with people, bestowing more on some than others, but never making them equals, let alone fearing them. Surat an-Nahl (The Bee) is the 16th sura of the Quran. ... Surat Ar-Rum (The Romans, The Byzantines) is the 30th sura of the Quran with 60 ayat. ...


Traditional Sunni and Shi'a viewpoints

According to all four Sunni madhhabs and Shi'a Islam, the rights and duties of those "right hand possessions" are as follows:[citation needed] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...

  • Juridically they were considered as property or at least the responsibility of their master.
  • They could not marry or divorce without their master's permission.
  • Her master had the right to dissolve her marriage if he did not approve it.
  • Her master was allowed to have sex with her if she was unmarried.

As soon as she was impregnated by her master, her status changed to "mudabbar", which entitled her to additional rights:[3]

  • She was entitled to the same treatment as the master's regular wives.
  • Her offspring were considered as legitimate children of her master, i.e. they were not slaves anymore.
  • She could not be sold to others.
  • After his death she was manumitted and enjoyed the same treatment as other wives; e.g., she got an equal share in the inheritance. For the Shia, this manumission was dependent on the condition that her child still be alive.[3]

Manumission is the act of freeing a slave, done at the will of the owner. ...

List

A list of Ma malakat aymanukum include:

1st century AH:

2nd century AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X – X CE. Battle of Badr Dhu al-Qidah: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah[1]. Safar: Battle of Khaybar [citation needed] Dhu al-Qidah: The first pilgrimage [2] Jumada al-awwal: Battle of Mutah [3] Jumada... Rayhana bint Amr ibn Khunafa was a Jewish woman from the Banu Qurayza tribe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Safiyya bint Huyayy (Arabic: صفية بنت حيي, c. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Maria al-Qibtiyya (Arabic: مارية القبطية) (alternatively, especially in non-Arabic traditions, Maria Qupthiya), or Maria the Copt, was a Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628 CE. According to most Islamic accounts, she was Muhammads wife. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Note: This article mixes info about two different persons: 1. ... Hasan al-Basri (حسن البسری) [Abu Said al-Hasan ibn Abi-l-Hasan Yasar al-Basri], (642 - 728 or 737), Arab theologian, was born at Medina. ...

See also

It has been suggested that Mutta marriage be merged into this article or section. ... Nikah Misyar or travellers marriage (Arabic: ‎) is the Sunni Muslim Nikah (marriage) contract carried out via the normal contractual procedure, with a negotiated understanding between the couple that the husband is not obliged to fulfill his usual financial commitments, and the wife lives a separate or independent life also free... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... A Pilegesh is a concubine. ...

References

  1. ^ [1].
  2. ^ Bernard Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East, page 146.
  3. ^ a b "Abd". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Clifford Edmund Bosworth (born December 29, 1928, Sheffield, United Kingdom) is a British historian and orientalist, specializing in Arabic studies. ...

External links

Traditional Sunni viewpoints

Traditional Shi'a viewpoints

  • Slavery in islam

Critical viewpoints


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ma Malakat Aimanukum - Female slaves? Think again (830 words)
“Ma Malakat Aimanukum” is one of the most misunderstood, misused and abused term of the Quran.
In the term “Ma Malakat Aimanukum”, the word MALAKAT is in the PAST tense, which signifies “What you ALREADY have”, or “what you ALREADY possess” or “what CAME in your possession”.
In the term “ma malakat aymanukum” refers to those married women which are wives of the disbelievers [as explained in 60:10].
Ma malakat aymanukum at AllExperts (937 words)
The term Ma malakat aymanukum is traditionally considered to refer to prisoners of war, or more broadly to slaves in general, according to the usual tafsirs (eg Ibn Kathir); however, some (eg Muhammad Asad) have proposed alternative explanations, whereby it would mean "one's rightful spouse"[1].
A minority group of progressive Muslims [4] rejects this traditional interpretation as a falsification of later centuries which is at odds with the Qur'an.According to them, the Qur'anic references to ma malakat amaynukum refer to fiancees[5] rather than slaves.
Safiyya bint Huyayy was breafly a Ma malakat aymanukum until she was set free and married Muhammad.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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