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Encyclopedia > Ma clique
Flag of Xibei San Ma
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The Ma clique (Traditional Chinese: 馬家軍; Simplified Chinese: 马家军; pinyin: Mǎ Jiājūn; literally "Ma family army") was a family of warlords who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia from the 1910's until 1949. The three most prominent warlords were Ma Bufang, Ma Hongkui, and Ma Hongbin, collectively known as the Xibei San Ma (lit. Three Mas of the Northwest); other prominent Ma's included Ma Qi, Ma Lin, and Ma Zhongying. The Three Mas took control of the region during the Warlord Era, siding first with the Guominjun and then the Kuomintang; they fought against the Red Army during the Long March and the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During the final stages of the Chinese Civil War they fought for the Kuomintang side until the communists emerged victorious and established a unified Chinese state (the People's Republic of China) in 1949. Upon the arrival of communist forces, Ma Hongbin defected to the communists while Ma Bufang and Ma Hongkui fled with the Kuomintang. Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also Simplified Chinese: 简化字; Traditional Chinese: 簡化字; pinyin: jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)). This article describes the most common variant called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Warlord is a term that refers to one who has de facto military control of a subnational area, due to armed forces which are personally obedient to — somewhat circularly — that warlord. ... For other province-level divisions, see Political divisions of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; Pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia; Postal Pinyin: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏回族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏回族自治區; Pinyin: Níngxià Huízú ZìzhìqÅ«), is a Hui autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest Loess... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Nicknamed the Flutist, Ma Lin was one of the 108 Liangshan bandits in the epic Chinese tale the Water Margin. ... The warlord era represents the period in the history of the Republic of China from 1916 to 1928 when the country was divided by various military cliques. ... The Guominjun (Traditional Chinese: 國民軍; Simplified Chinese: 国民军; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuominchun), or Nationalist Army, refers to the military faction founded by Feng Yuxiang during Chinas Warlord Era. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhōngguó GuómíndÇŽng), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... Overview map of the course of the Long March The Long March (Chinese: 長征; Pinyin: ChángzhÄ“ng) was a massive military retreat undertaken by the armies of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the Peoples Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Tojo Hideki, Matsui Iwane, Minami Jiro, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Neiji Okamura. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalist Party Chinese Communist Party Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 3,600,000 circa June 1948 2,800,000 circa June 1948 The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: 國共内戰; Simplified Chinese: 国共内战; Pinyin: guógòng neìzhàn; literally Nationalist-Communist Civil War) was a conflict in... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


The Ma's were all ethnic Hui, an ethnic group in China noted for its adherence to Islam. Hui can refer to: Hui people, a Chinese ethnic group. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...


External links

  • Xibei San Ma at FOTW

 
 

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