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Encyclopedia > MSN Encarta

Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. As of 2005, the complete English version, Encarta Premium, consists of more than 68,000 articles, numerous images and movies, and homework tools, and is available on the World Wide Web by yearly subscription or by purchase on multiple CD-ROMs or DVD-ROM. Most articles can also be viewed online for free, a service supported by advertisements.[1] Image File history File links Encarta. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 115 KB)Encarta Encyclopedia 2006 (Premium Edition) Screen Shot. ... A digital system is one that uses numbers, especially binary numbers, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (an analog system) or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons. ... Multimedia is the use of several different media (e. ... Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia (alternatively encyclopaedia or encyclopædia, with ligature) is a written compendium of knowledge. ... Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, SEHK: 4338) is the worlds largest software corporation, with 2005 global annual sales of close to $40 billion USD and about 64,000 employees in 85 countries and regions. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This NeXTcube used by Berners-Lee at CERN became the first Web server. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... It has been suggested that Dual layer recording be merged into this article or section. ...


Microsoft publishes similar encyclopedias under the Encarta trademark in various languages, including German, French, Spanish, Dutch, Italian and Japanese. Localized versions may contain contents licensed from available national sources and may contain more or less content than the full English version. For example, the Dutch version has content from the Dutch Winkler Prins encyclopedia. A trademark (Commonwealth English: trade mark) is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ... Software localization is a process of translating software user interfaces from one language to another and adapting it to suit a foreign culture. ... The winkler prince is an encyclopedia, founded by the Dutch writer Anthony Winkler Prins. ...

Contents


History

Microsoft initiated Encarta by purchasing non-exclusive rights to the Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia, incorporating it into its first edition in 1993 (Funk and Wagnalls continued to publish revised editions for several years independently of Encarta, but then ceased printing in the late 1990s). Microsoft had originally approached Encyclopædia Britannica in the 1980s, but Britannica, believing its print media sales would remain strong, declined. Encyclopædia Britannica, the gold standard of encyclopedias for over a century, was forced to sell the company at below book value in 1996 when its print sales could no longer compete with Encarta and the Microsoft distribution channel which gave away free copies with computer systems. Funk and Wagnalls is a publisher based in New York City. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia, and is still...


In the late 1990s, Microsoft bought Collier's Encyclopedia and New Merit Scholar's Encyclopedia from Macmillan and incorporated them into Encarta. Thus the current Microsoft Encarta can be considered the successor of Funk and Wagnall, Collier, and New Merit Scholar encyclopedias. None of these formerly successful encyclopedias is still in print, being unable to adapt to the new market dynamics of electronic encyclopedias. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... Colliers Encyclopedia is a U.S. encyclopedia. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ...


Contents

Encarta's Visual Browser
Encarta's Visual Browser

Its standard and online edition includes approximately 41,000 articles, with additional images, videos and sounds. The premium editions contain approximately 68,000 articles and other multimedia content, such as 25,000 pictures and illustrations, over 300 videos and animations, and an interactive atlas with 1.8 million locations. Its articles are integrated with multimedia content and may have a collection of links to websites selected by its editors. A sidebar may display alternative views or original materials relevant to the topic. Image File history File links Bold textEncartas Visual Browser (fair use). ... Image File history File links Bold textEncartas Visual Browser (fair use). ... A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. ... An Editor is a person who prepares text—typically language, but also images and sounds—for publication by correcting, condensing, or otherwise modifying it. ...


Encarta's Visual Browser, available since the 2004 version, presents a user with a list of related topics. Its multimedia includes virtual 3-dimensional tours of ancient structures, for example the Acropolis; 2-dimensional panoramic images of world wonders or cities; and a virtual flight program which moves the user over landscape. Acropolis in Athens. ...

Timelines in Encarta
Timelines in Encarta

Encarta also includes a trivia game called "MindMaze" in which the player explored a castle by answering questions whose answers could be found in the encyclopedia's articles. Image File history File links Encartas timeline. ... Image File history File links Encartas timeline. ... The term trivia is widely used to refer to tidbits of unimportant (or trivial) information, but it can also refer to basic or elementary knowledge. ...


For years, Encarta came in three primary software flavors: Basic, Premium, and Reference Library (price and features in that order.) Beginning in 2005, however, Microsoft added Microsoft Student as the premier Microsoft educational software program, bundling Encarta with graphing calculator software and templates for Microsoft Office. In addition, the Reference Library was discontinued, absorbed into a newer, more comprehensive Premium package. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Student is an addon product to the Microsoft Office. ... Microsoft Office is a suite of productivity programs created by Microsoft and developed for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems. ...


World Atlas

Encarta's dynamically generated globe
Encarta's dynamically generated globe

The dynamic maps are generated with the same engine that powered Microsoft MapPoint software. The map is a virtual globe that one can freely rotate and magnify to any location down to major streets for big cities. The globe has multiple surfaces displaying political boundaries, physical landmarks, and statistical information. One can selectively display different sized cities, various geological or man-made features and reference lines in a map. Microsoft Encarta Globe Mosaic File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Microsoft Encarta Globe Mosaic File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. ... A screenshot of MapPoint in action Microsoft MapPoint is both a technology and a specific piece of software created by Microsoft yearly that allows users to view, edit and intergrate maps. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... Google Earth, a highly detailed virtual globe that comes with atmosphere effects, seabed and even a simplified planetarium A virtual globe is a 3D software model or representation of the Earth. ... A street map is a map showing roads and other travelways. ... Sydney, Australia at Night. ... This article is about longitude and latitude; see also UTM coordinate system Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically); large version (pdf) The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which...


The maps contain hyperlinks to related articles ("Map Trek") and also supports a "Dynamic Sensor" that provides the latitude, longitude, placename, population and local time for any point on the globe. Encarta also generates a visible-light moon atlas with names of major craters and hyperlinks. However, it does not include a planetarium. // Headline text Media:Example. ... Latitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... Map of Earth showing lines of longitude, which appear curved and vertical in this projection, but are actually halves of great circles Longitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter λ, describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... See also List of time zones Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Bulk composition of the moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... This is a list of the craters on the Moon. ... A planetarium is a theater built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. ...

Options for level of detail on maps.
Options for level of detail on maps.

In addition to database generated maps, many other illustrative maps in Encarta ("Historical Maps") are drawn by artists. Some more advanced maps are interactive, for example, the large African map for Africana can display information such as political boundaries or the distribution of African flora. Download high resolution version (674x633, 96 KB)Microsoft Encarta Chiba Japan Mosaic File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (674x633, 96 KB)Microsoft Encarta Chiba Japan Mosaic File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... There are several conceptual views of interactivity, the most general being the contingency view. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ...


Encarta Dictionary

When Encarta was released as part of the "Reference Suite" in 1998 (through to 2000), Microsoft bundled "Microsoft Bookshelf" with the other three programs (Encarta Encyclopedia 98 Deluxe Edition, Encarta Virtual Globe '98, and Encarta Research Organizer). However, this was problematic. 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Microsoft Bookshelf (Reference Edition) already contained "Encarta Desk Encyclopedia" and "Encarta Desk Atlas", thus becoming redundant with the full editions provided as part of the suite.


In later editions (Encarta Suite 2000 and onwards) Bookshelf was replaced with a dedicated Encarta Dictionary, a superset of the printed edition.


There has been some controversy over the decision, since the dictionary lacks the other books provided in Bookshelf which many found to be a useful reference, such as Columbia Dictionary of Quotations (replaced with a quotations section in Encarta that links to relevant articles and people) and an Internet Directory (although now a moot point since many of the sites listed in offline directories aren't around anymore). This article is about the Internet, the extensive, worldwide computer network available to the public. ...


Technology

Encarta made use of various Microsoft technologies. For example, the map engine is adapted from its MapPoint software. Unlike Microsoft Office, Encarta software only supports Microsoft Windows with Microsoft's Internet Explorer. Encarta 98 was the last version to be released for the Macintosh. However, an Apple Macintosh or Linux/Unix user with Internet connection may still access Encarta's website. Microsoft Office is a suite of productivity programs created by Microsoft and developed for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems. ... Microsoft Windows is a series of popular proprietary operating environments and operating systems created by Microsoft for use on personal computers and servers. ... Internet Explorer, abbreviated IE or MSIE, is a proprietary graphical web browser made by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. ... The Macintosh, or Mac, line of personal computers is designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... Tux is the official Linux mascot. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Guide to Unix Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy. ...


Encarta uses database technologies to generate many of its multimedia contents. For example, Encarta generates each zoomable map from a global geographic information system database on demand. A database is an organized collection of data. ... Earth is the third planet from the Sun. ... A geographic information system or geographical information system (GIS) is a system for creating and managing spatial data and associated attributes. ...


When a user uses the copy and paste function of Microsoft Windows on Encarta on more than five words, Encarta automatically appends a copyright boilerplate message after the paste. This page is about computer text editing. ... Copyright symbol. ... Boilerplate refers to any text that is or can be reused in new contexts or applications without being changed much from the original. ...


User editing of Encarta

Early in 2005, the online Encarta started to allow users to suggest changes to existing articles. Articles are not immediately updated. Instead, user feedback is submitted to Encarta's editors for review, copyediting, and approval. Contributors are also not credited for their submissions. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Criticism

Criticism of the encyclopedia has focused on some articles being slow to be updated. For example, an early 2005 edition of the article about the political philosopher John Rawls opens with "Rawls, John (1921- )", although he had died on November 24, 2002. Encarta failed to note the date of his passing until April 2005—about 2½ years after the event. As of July 2005, the web version of the Rawls article includes his date of death. [1]. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Political philosophy is the study of the fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, property, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in April • 26: Augusto Roa Bastos • 24: Ezer Weizman • 23: Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen • 23: John Mills • 16: Marla Ruzicka • 9: Andrea Dworkin • 6: Prince Rainier III • 5: Dale Messick • 5: Saul Bellow • 2: Pope John... Ongoing events • 2005 Atlantic and Pacific hurricanes • 2005 Maharashtra floods • 2005 Gujarat Flood • Expo 2005 in Aichi, Japan • Fuel prices • Gomery Comm. ...


Other critics dismiss Encarta as having neither the breadth, depth and authoritative contributors of other encyclopedias such as the Encyclopædia Britannica, nor the currency or open participatory nature of Wikipedia. Criticism has been leveled on Encarta's decision to accept users' editions of the articles to be submitted for approval, a move that is widely seen as a reaction to the success of collaborative projects such as Wikipedia in particular, but falling short of offering users editorial or copyright control over the result. Moreover, since Encarta remains primarily a paid subscription service, the users being asked to volunteer their work not only receive little reward, but may in fact be paying for the privilege. 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia, and is still... The Wikipedia logo. ...


Robert McHenry, while Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopædia Britannica, criticized [2] Encarta for its policy of 'localizing' versions of Encarta for national markets. McHenry described this as "pandering to local prejudices" instead of presenting subjects objectively. Robert Dale McHenry (born April 30, 1945) is an American editor and encyclopedist. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelt with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia, and is still...


Microsoft has been unable to maintain some local versions of Encarta. For example, the Brazilian version was published between 1999 and 2002, then discontinued. Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, SEHK: 4338) is the worlds largest software corporation, with 2005 global annual sales of close to $40 billion USD and about 64,000 employees in 85 countries and regions. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ...


Notes

  1. For the free service, one should use the URL http://search.msn.com/encarta/results.aspx rather than http://encarta.msn.com

See also

This article lists encyclopedias, including projects to create new works. ...

External links

Microsoft Corporation

Software: Windows | Office | Server System | Dynamics | Internet Explorer | Outlook Express | Windows Media Player | Windows Update | .NET | Visual Studio | DirectX | Encarta | Works | Money | Windows Defender
Internet and mass media: Passport | MSNBC | MSN.com | Hotmail | Live.com | MSN Messenger | MSN Groups
Gaming: Microsoft Game Studios | Zone.com | Xbox | Xbox 360 | Xbox Live
Hardware: MSN TV | Natural Keyboard | Mouse | Fingerprint | Sidewinder
Education and Training: MCPs | MSDN | MSDNAA | MSCA | Microsoft Press The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA), formerly known as ARENA, is a pro-Israel media watchdog group. ... Dr. Molefi Asante, PhD Molefi Kete Asante (born 1942) is a controversial African-American scholar who has written more than 60 books and 300 scholarly articles. ... Educational Technology & Society is a journal for articles about subjects of interest to developers, implementors and managers of educational systems. ... Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, SEHK: 4338) is the worlds largest software corporation, with 2005 global annual sales of close to $40 billion USD and about 64,000 employees in 85 countries and regions. ... Microsoft Windows is a series of popular proprietary operating environments and operating systems created by Microsoft for use on personal computers and servers. ... Microsoft Office is a suite of productivity programs created by Microsoft and developed for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh operating systems. ... Windows Server System is an integrated set of server software, from Microsoft, that forms the infrastructure for operating the backend of an institutionss information technology system. ... Microsoft Dynamics is the next generation software for business solutions made by Microsoft. ... Internet Explorer, abbreviated IE or MSIE, is a proprietary graphical web browser made by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. ... Microsoft Outlook Express is an e-mail and news client bundled with certain versions of Microsoft Windows starting with Windows 95 OSR-2. ... Windows Media Player is a proprietary freeware software media player used for playing audio, as well as viewing video and images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... Windows Update version 5 through Netscape Browser 8. ... The Microsoft . ... Microsoft Visual Studio is an advanced integrated development environment by Microsoft. ... DirectX is a collection of APIs for easily handling tasks related to game programming on the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... Microsoft Works is an office suite available from the Microsoft Corporation. ... Microsoft Money is Microsofts personal finance software for computers using the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... Windows Defender, previously known [1] as Microsoft AntiSpyware, is a software product from Microsoft designed to remove, quarantine or prevent a spyware presence on Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Vista operating systems. ... Microsoft Passport Network is a unified-login service provided by Microsoft that allows users to log in to many websites using one account. ... MSNBC (a portmanteau of Microsoft and NBC) is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States. ... MSN (or Microsoft Network) is an internet service provider and web portal (initially meant to be a parallel net to the Internet) created by Microsoft on August 24, 1995, coinciding with the release of Windows 95. ... Hotmail is a free webmail e-mail service, which is accessible via a web browser. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Windows Live. ... MSN Messenger is Microsofts instant messaging client for Windows computers aimed toward the home user. ... MSN Groups (previously known as MSN Communities) is a site created by Microsoft. ... Microsoft Game Studios (MGS), formerly the Microsoft Game Division, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Microsoft Corp. ... Microsoft Zone (also known as Zone. ... This article is becoming very long. ... X Box 360 Xbox 360 is the successor to Microsofts original Xbox. ... Xbox Live is a subscription-based online gaming service for Microsofts Xbox and Xbox 360 video game consoles. ... MSN TV (formerly WebTV) is a service that provides dial-up web access to consumers, using a television for display rather than a monitor. ... The Microsoft Natural Keyboard was introduced by Microsoft in 1995. ... First-generation Microsoft Sidewinder Microsoft Sidewinder is the general name given to the family of digital game controllers developed by Microsoft for PCs. ... The Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) program is an IT professional certification for Microsoft products. ... The Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) is the portion of Microsoft responsible for managing the firms relationship with developers. ... MSDN Academic Alliance is a Microsoft program which provides MSDN subscriptions for free for computer science students (and possibly other students or faculty as well). ... Microsoft Campus Agreement or MSCA is a program intended to RAPE students, faculty, and staff of select universities which enter into AN ETERNAL BLOOD TRUCE with Microsoft. ...


 
 

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