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Encyclopedia > MPEG

The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. Since its first meeting in 1988 in Hanover, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members from various industries and universities. MPEG's official designation is ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11. Logo of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO or iso) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ...


MPEG (pronounced EM-peg) has standardized the following compression formats and ancillary standards:

  • MPEG-1: Initial video and audio compression standard. Later used as the standard for Video CD, and includes the popular Layer 3 (MP3) audio compression format.
  • MPEG-2: Transport, video and audio standards for broadcast-quality television. Used for over-the-air digital television ATSC, DVB and ISDB, digital satellite TV services like DirecTV, digital cable television signals, and (with slight modifications) for DVD video discs.
  • MPEG-3: Originally designed for HDTV, but abandoned when it was discovered that MPEG-2 was sufficient for HDTV.
  • MPEG-4: Expands MPEG-1 to support video/audio "objects", 3D content, low bitrate encoding and support for Digital Rights Management. Several new (newer than MPEG-2 Video) higher efficiency video standards are included (an alternative to MPEG-2 Video), notably, Advanced Simple Profile and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.
  • MPEG-7: A formal system for describing multimedia content.
  • MPEG-21: MPEG describes this future standard as a multimedia framework.

MPEG-1 is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group). ... Video CD or VCD is a standard format for storing video on a Compact Disc. ... MP3 is a popular digital audio encoding and lossy compression format invented and standardised in 1991 by a team of engineers working in the framework of the ISO/IEC MPEG audio committee under the chairmanship of Professor Hans Musmann (University of Hannover - Germany). ... MPEG-2 (1994) is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group), and published as the ISO/IEC 13818 international standard. ... The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) is the group that helped to develop the new digital television standard for the United States, also adopted by Canada, Mexico, and South Korea and being considered by other countries. ... DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) is the digital television (DTV) and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) format. ... DirecTV is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that broadcasts digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States and the rest of the Americas. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed optical... DVD is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... MPEG-3 is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group). ... It has been suggested that High Definition Video be merged into this article or section. ... MPEG-4, introduced in late 1998, is the designation for a group of audio and video coding standards and related technology agreed upon by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). ... Digital Rights Management (DRM)1 is an umbrella term referring to any of several technical methods used to control or restrict the use of digital media content on electronic devices with such technologies installed. ... MPEG-4 Part 2 is a video compression technology developed by MPEG. It belongs to the MPEG-4 ISO/ IEC standard. ... H.264, or MPEG-4 Part 10, is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the poo Joint Video Team... MPEG-7 is a multimedia content description standard. ... The MPEG-21 standard, from the Moving Picture Experts Group aims at defining an open framework for multimedia applications. ... A multimedia framework is a software structure (usually a set of software libraries) that allows to handle media on a computer and through a network. ...

How MPEG works

The MPEG codecs use lossy data compression using transform codecs. In lossy transform codecs, samples of picture or sound are taken, chopped into small segments, transformed into a frequency space, and quantized. The resulting quantized values are then entropy coded. Codec is a portmanteau of either Compressor-Decompressor or Coder-Decoder, which describes a device or program capable of performing transformations on a data stream or signal. ... A lossy data compression method is one where compressing data and then decompressing it retrieves data that may well be different to the original, but is close enough to be useful in some way. ... An image transform codec (compression/decompression algorithm) consists of three steps: 1) a reversible transform, often linear, of the pixels for the purpose of decorrelation, 2) quantization of the transform values, and 3) entropy coding of the quantized transform coefficients. ... Frequency domain is a term used to describe the analysis of mathematical functions with respect to frequency. ... Quantization of x using Q(x) = floor(Lx)/L. In digital signal processing, quantization is the process of approximating a continuous signal by a set of discrete symbols or integer values; that is, converting an analog signal to a digital one via analog-to-digital conversion. ... An entropy encoding is a coding scheme that assigns codes to symbols so as to match code lengths with the probabilities of the symbols. ...


The moving picture coding systems such as MPEG-1, MPEG-2, and MPEG-4 add an extra step, where the picture content is predicted from past reconstructed images before coding, and only the differences from the reconstructed pictures, and any extra information needed to perform the prediction, are coded.


MPEG standardizes only the bitstream format and the decoder. The encoder is not standardized in any way but there are reference implementations available for members that produce valid bitstreams. That means that any MPEG-4 decoder can decode any MPEG-4 material (of the same type) regardless of the encoder which produced that material. A file format is a particular way to encode information for storage in a computer file. ...


See also

An audio codec is a computer program that compresses/decompresses digital audio data according to a given audio file format or streaming audio format. ... A video codec is a device or software module that enables the use of compression for digital video. ... Video quality is a characteristic of video passed through a video processing system. ... Video compression deals with the compression of digital video data. ... The Professional-MPEG Forum is an association of broadcasters and program-makers, equipment manufacturers and component suppliers with interests in realizing interoperability of professional television equipment, according to the implementation requirements of broadcasters and other end-users. ...

External links

  • Official MPEG web site
  • MPEG-related pointers & resources
  • MPEG2 Overview
  • Open list of MPEG papers, libraries, sources

  Results from FactBites:
 
MPEG Home Page (262 words)
MPEG standards can be purchased directly from ISO by email, from their website or from a National Body.
Some MPEG standards are publicly available (including reference software of all MPEG standards).
MPEG is a committee of ISO/IEC that is open to experts duly accredited by an appropriate National Standards Body.
What is MPEG? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary (857 words)
MPEG algorithms compress data to form small bits that can be easily transmitted and then decompressed.
MPEG achieves its high compression rate by storing only the changes from one frame to another, instead of each entire frame.
MPEG uses a type of lossy compression, since some data is removed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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