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Encyclopedia > MPAA film rating system

The MPAA film rating system is a system used in the United States and territories and instituted by the Motion Picture Association of America to rate a movie based on its content. It is one of various motion picture rating systems used to help patrons decide which movies may be appropriate for children and/or adolescents. The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), originally called the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association, is a non-profit trade association based in the United States which was formed to advance the interests of movie studios. ... Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ... Motion picture rating systems are issued to give moviegoers an idea of the suitability of a movie for children and/or adults in terms of issues such as sex, violence and bad language. ...


In the United States, the MPAA rating system is the most recognized system for classifying potentially offensive content, but it is usually not used outside of the film industry because the MPAA has trademarks on each individual rating.

Contents

The 5 ratings

The current MPAA movie ratings consist of:

Image
Text
General Audiences
All ages admitted.
Parental guidance suggested
Some material may not be suitable for pre-teenagers.
Parents strongly cautioned
Some material may be inappropriate for children under 13.
Restricted
No one under 17 admitted unless accompanied by parent or adult guardian.
NC-17 rating symbol
NC-17
No one 17 and under admitted.

If a film has not been submitted for a rating, the label "NR" (Not Rated) is often used; however, NR is not an official MPAA classification. Films that have not yet received MPAA classification, but are expected to, are often advertised with the notice "This Film Is Not Yet Rated" or "Rating Pending". Image File history File links MPAARatingG.gif Logo for the Motion Picture Association of Americas G rating. ... Image File history File links MPAARatingPG.gif Logo for the Motion Picture Association of Americas PG rating. ... Logo for the Motion Picture Association of Americas PG-13 rating. ... Image File history File links MPAARatingR.gif Logo for the Motion Picture Association of Americas R rating. ... Image File history File links MPAARatingNC-17. ... This Film Is Not Yet Rated is an independent documentary film about the Motion Picture Association of Americas rating system and its effect on American culture, directed by Kirby Dick and produced by Eddie Schmidt. ...


History

Origins

The MPAA film rating system was instituted on November 1, 1968, as a response to complaints about the presence of sexual content, graphic violence, scatology, and profanity in American film following the MPAA revisions to the Production Code of America in 1966. Although the revisions allowed a designation of "SMA - Suggested for Mature Audiences", along with the Code seal, this warning was hardly very descriptive and its enforcement was far from standardized. (Please see Green Sheet for information about a related precursor to the ratings system.) The United States came rather late to motion picture rating, as many other countries had been using rating systems for decades. November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... In medicine and biology, scatology or coprology is the study of feces. ... Look up Profanity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. ... Before the formal application of film ratings by the MPAA CARA, the Green Sheet provided recommendations about age-suitability for major motion pictures in theatrical release. ...


The erosion of the film production code had several effects: while it allowed for certain kinds of artistic movies like Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960) to be filmed, it also sparked a rise in low budget exploitation films that became more and more explicit in their sexual and violent content. Sir Anna Josephina Hitchcock, KBE (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was a highly influential director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... Psycho (1960) is a suspense/thriller/horror film directed by world-renowned auteur Alfred Hitchcock. ... See also: 1959 in film 1960 1961 in film 1950s in film 1960s in film years in film film // Events April 20 - for the first time since coming home from military service in Germany, Elvis Presley returns to Hollywood, California to film G.I. Blues August 10 - Filming of West... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In 1967, two movies (Ulysses and I'll Never Forget What's'isname) were released containing the word "fuck" in their dialogue. This precipitated the public demand for the reintroduction of self-regulation. After a series of meetings with government representatives, the Motion Picture Association of America and National Association of Theatre Owners agreed to provide a uniform ratings system for all of its constituents' movies, a system that would be theoretically enforced by the film exhibitors. Film production companies that were not members of the MPAA were unaffected, and the ratings system had no official governmental enforceability due to the First Amendment of the United States Constitution as interpreted in regards to matters of sexuality, violence, and profanity in the media dating back to 1952's Joseph Burstyn, Inc v. Wilson decision. However, two important Supreme Court cases in 1968, Ginsberg v. New York and Interstate Circuit, Inc. v. Dallas, did lead to the creation of the MPAA rating system. // Events December 26 - The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour airs on British television. ... Ulysses is a film shot in 1967 and based on James Joyces novel Ulysses. ... Ill Never Forget Whats Isname (also released as Ill Never Forget Whatsisname) is a 1967 British film directed and produced by Michael Winner. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The National Association of Theatre Owners (NATO) is a trade organization based in the United States whose members are the owners of movie theaters. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Joseph Burstyn, Inc v. ...


Original ratings

The original movie ratings (in use 1968–1970) consisted of:

  • Rated G: Suggested for General Audiences. All ages admitted.
  • Rated M: Suggested for Mature Audiences. (Parental discretion advised)
  • Rated R: Restricted. Persons under 17 are not admitted unless accompanied by parent or adult guardian (age limit may vary in certain areas).
  • Rated X: Persons under 18 not admitted.

Originally, the X rating wasn't trademarked, under the plan; anyone not submitting his or her film for rating could self apply the X or any other symbol or description, except those trademarked by the rating program. The original plan had been to use only three rating categories, ending with R. X-rated, X certificate, X classification or similar terms are labels for movies implying strong adult content, typically pornography or violence. ...


The M rating gets replaced

Many parents were confused as to whether films rated M contained more mature content than those rated R; especially because during the pre-rating years of 1965 to 1968, an earlier form of crude classification allowed more content to be included so long as the film's advertising bore the notation "Suggested for Mature Audiences" (often abbreviated as "SMA"). This confusion led to its replacement in 1970 by the designation GP, for General Patronage: // Events February 11 - The film The Magic Christian, starring Peter Sellers and Ringo Starr premieres in New York City. ...

  • Rated GP: All Ages Admitted/Parental Guidance Suggested

The G in GP was meant to designate that the film had no age restrictions on audience admissions (like the G rating, "All Ages Admitted"), while the P in GP was to draw attention to a distinction that, although no ages would be restricted, guidance of parents was suggested. (The auditory similarity between G and GP soon caused this designation to be further revised into the PG rating, an acronym for Parental Guidance.)


Age problems with the R and X ratings

At the same time (1970) the ages on the R and X ratings were increased from 16 to 17 (where the R rating has remained ever since), although the age on the X rating would still vary in certain jurisdictions until it was officially changed to an NC-17. Some newspaper advertisements clearly show that ages on advertising even for R- and X-rated films would occasionally be altered to read 18 instead of 17. Other local boards (involved in the early negotiations of the rating system) even wished to classify the age as high as 21, depending on the board.


The GP rating gets replaced

By 1972, a number of problems with the GP rating emerged. First, the rating now sounded too permissive, and was not indicative of the film's actual content. During 1971 the MPAA experimented with designating some GP films with a special warning label. The exact wording would vary, but this label would generally read "Contains material not generally suitable for pre-teenagers" and thus was an early form of PG-13 rating. Since this added message was referred to with an asterisk next to the GP symbol, this brief rating can be called GP*. However, the percentage of GP* films quickly grew to outnumber GP films with no special advisory, and in early in 1972, as part of an overall standardization of the rating symbols as used in promotional material, both GP and GP* were redesignated with the new PG rating that would then be used throughout most of the 1970s.

  • Rated PG: Parental Guidance Suggested—Some Material may not be Suitable for Pre-Teenagers

Today the rating reads:

  • Rated PG Parental Guidance Suggested—Some material may not be suitable for children.

By this time, the familiar standardized boxes with boldfaced text, the MPAA logo, and the explanatory message underneath were now in common use.


From the adoption of the system through the mid-1970s, it was not uncommon for mainstream films such as Airport, Planet of the Apes, The Green Berets, The Odd Couple, Tora! Tora! Tora! and 2001: A Space Odyssey to be released with G ratings, but by 1978 (with increasing use of the phrase "children" rather than "pre-teenagers" on the PG rating), the G rating had become increasingly associated with films intended specifically for children, while the PG rating became increasingly acceptable for designating "family" films. Most of the G-rated films from the early years of the rating system contain content equivalent to stronger (PG and PG-13) ratings used in later years. Planet of the Apes is a 1968 science fiction film in which an astronaut finds himself 2,000+ years in the future stranded on an earth-like planet, in which humans are enslaved by apes. ... The Green Berets is the title of a 1968 film starring John Wayne and featuring George Takei, David Janssen, Jim Hutton, and Aldo Ray. ... See Odd Couple (disambiguation) for other works with the same title Jack Lemmon & Walter Matthau, stars of film adaption Tony Randall & Jack Klugman, stars of TV adaption The Odd Couple was a hit 1965 Broadway play by Neil Simon, followed by a successful film and television series, as well as... Tora! Tora! Tora! ) is a 1970 film that dramatizes the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the series of American blunders that unintentionally improved its effectiveness. ...


There have been some rating choices which, in retrospect, can be considered odd, though it must be remembered that the rating system was in its relative infancy at this time. The 1967 G-rated film The Battle of Britain had mild British profanity ("arse"; "shitehawk", "silly bitch") as well as several fairly graphic scenes of both RAF and Luftwaffe aircrew being killed. In one scene, blood is shown spattering throughout the bombardier's nose of a German bomber, and in another, Christopher Plummer's character is shown being burnt in the cockpit of his fighter. Another example is Larry Cohen's cult horror film It's Alive (about a mutant killer infant). This was originally released in 1974 and re-released in 1977. It was rated PG despite being fairly bloody for its time. Its two sequels (It Lives Again, 1978; and It's Alive III: Island of the Alive, direct-to-video, 1987) both received R ratings. All three Alive films were banned in Finland under their rating system. Look up arse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Christopher Plummer photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1959 Christopher Plummer, CC (born Arthur Christopher Orme Plummer on December 13, 1927), is a Canadian theatrical, film and television actor. ... The Larry Cohen Collection Larry Cohen (born 15 July 1941, Kingston, New York, USA) is an American film producer, director, and screenwriter. ... Its Alive was a 1974 horror film written and directed by Larry Cohen. ... A film that is released direct-to-video (also straight-to-video) is one which has been released to the public on home video formats first rather than first being released in movie theaters. ...


By the late 1970s, the PG ratings on some films were reworded, and the pre-teenagers phrase became used less frequently, with the word children substituted instead. An analysis of the proportion of films rated G and PG at this time (corresponding with a conservative shift in the rating standards) shows that fewer G ratings were issued while more family films were rated as PG with the less restrictive sounding "children" label. No clear system of applying either label was known to be a part of MPAA policy during the late 1970s, but by the early 1980s, the phrase "pre-teenagers" became little used, and in 1984 the PG-13 rating was established and effectively restored the clear distinction (see GP and GP* above) between films with lighter and heavier content levels. The end of the 1970s also saw, with the release of Star Trek: The Motion Picture in December 1979, what was probably the end of mainstream (mega-marketed, non animated) big studio films with a G rating. Ever since, such productions would be released with at least a PG rating (and even "Star Trek: The Motion Picture" itself was subsequently re-rated PG for its DVD release). This period of transition was also the time when live action Disney productions, such as The Black Hole, The Watcher in the Woods, and The Devil and Max Devlin, began to routinely receive PG ratings. Star Trek: The Motion Picture (Paramount Pictures, 1979; see also 1979 in film) is the first feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series and is released on Friday, December 7. ... The Black Hole is a 1979 science fiction movie directed for Walt Disney Productions by Gary Nelson. ... The Watcher in the Woods is a 1980 film best known as an atypical live action Disney movie that has become a cult classic. ... The Devil And Max Devlin is a motion picture from Walt Disney studios released in early 1981 starring Elliott Gould and Bill Cosby. ...


The addition of the PG-13 rating

Prior to 1984, when two films associated with Steven Spielberg triggered widespread calls for a revision to the ratings system, there was a minor trend of films straddling the PG and R ratings (as shown by the MPAA records of appeals board decisions of the early 1980s). This suggested that there needed to be a middle ground between PG and R. The summer of 1982 featured Poltergeist, which was originally rated R (for intensity and a scene of drug use) but then re-rated PG on appeal. Disney's Dragonslayer (although PG without appeal, and a co-production with Paramount Pictures) alarmed many parents with scenes of explicit violence and gore. A larger percentage of films were allowed a PG rating despite limited use of strong language ("Terms of Endearment", "Sixteen Candles", "Footloose") that initially had warranted an R rating until the appeals board changed their ratings to PG (thanks in large measure to precedents set in the 1970s, with "All the President's Men" at their forefront) [1] // Events The Walt Disney Company founds Touchstone Pictures to release movies with subject matter deemed inappropriate for the Disney name. ... Steven Allan Spielberg, KBE (born December 18, 1946) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director and producer. ... Laserdisc cover of the first Poltergeist film The Poltergeist movies are a trilogy of horror films produced in the 1980s. ... Dragonslayer is a 1981 fantasy movie set in a realistically portrayed medieval Britain. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... Terms of Endearment is a 1983 American drama film and romantic comedy. ... Sixteen Candles is a popular 1984 coming-of-age film starring Molly Ringwald, Anthony Michael Hall and Michael Schoeffling. ... For the musical, see Footloose (musical) Footloose is a 1984 movie that tells the story of Ren McCormack (played by Nick Tendam), a teenager who was raised in Chicago and moves to a small town where the town government has banned dancing and rock music. ... Cover of 2005 printing All the Presidents Men is a 1974 non-fiction book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, the two journalists investigating the Watergate first break-in and ensuing Watergate scandal for the Washington Post. ...


Violent scenes in the 1984 PG-rated films Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, which Spielberg directed and Gremlins, which he produced, were the final straws. Public outcry about the violence led Spielberg to suggest a new PG-13 rating to MPAA president Jack Valenti, who conferred with theater owners and then introduced the new rating on July 1. The rating still allowed children under 13 to be admitted without a parent or guardian, but it cautions parents about potentially shocking violence or other offensive content, although not as offensive as an R rating. The first movie to gain widespread theatrical release with a PG-13 rating was 1984's Red Dawn (although the first to receive the classification was Dreamscape). It took a year for the PG-13 logo to shift into its current form. The initial rating, instead of using a line of boldface text followed by explanatory description below, bore the wording from 1984 to 1986: Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is a 1984 action/adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg. ... Gremlins is an American horror-comedy film directed by Joe Dante and released in 1984. ... Jack Valenti Jack Joseph Valenti (born September 5, 1921, in Houston) was special assistant to Lyndon Johnsons White House. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Approximate map of the events described in the movie Red Dawn is a 1984 film by John Milius about an invasion of the United States by the Soviet Union and Cuba, and the resulting guerrilla actions of a group of American high school students in the town of Calumet, Colorado. ... Dreamscape was a 1984 science fiction film directed by Joseph Ruben and written by David Lougherty. ...

Rated PG-13: Parents are strongly cautioned to give special guidance for attendance of children under 13.

Today the rating reads:

Rated PG-13 PARENTS STRONGLY CAUTIONED. Some material may be inappropriate for children under 13.

With the PG rating still being used without a change, it was unclear to some parents at first whether PG or PG-13 films were intended for older viewers. Until 1990, some of the same content that prompted the creation of the PG-13 rating was still being observed in some PG films. For example Big, Beetlejuice, and Nothing in Common were three late 1980s widespread PG releases that contained "fuck" in their dialogue. The ratings board reacted quickly to parental protests, and over the next couple of years, the number of PG-13 films finally outnumbered the number of PG releases, as standards were tightened for PG classification. Around the turn of that decade, standards were also tightened for PG-13 films, at least for violence, as the ratings board became more likely to issue an R rating for violence that involved bloodshed and/or the slaying of policemen. Except for a brief reversal in 1994, the number of PG-13 films has outnumbered the number of PG films ever since, and the proportion of R-rated films (starting with the boom of home video product in the late 80s) has generally increased at the expense of unrestricted films. Only within the last two years has there been an indication that the proportion of restricted films has started to decrease slightly, as a trend. Since these proportions tend to reflect the strictness of ratings criteria, this trend refutes false claims that so-called "ratings creep" (see below) occurred during the 1990s. (All firsthand original data contradicts that study, which used only secondary data in an invalid manner.) Big is a 1988 comedy film which tells the story of a teenaged boy who is aged to adulthood by a magical fortune telling machine. ... For the animated series based on the film, see Beetlejuice (TV series). ... Nothing in Common is a 1986 comedy-drama film, directed by Garry Marshall and starring Tom Hanks and comedian Jackie Gleason, in his last film performance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


The PG-13 rating was spoofed by id Software's game Wolfenstein 3-D, which starts with a screen saying "This game has been voluntarily rated PC-13 (Profound Carnage) by id Software". id Software (IPA: /id soft. ... Wolfenstein 3D (commonly abbreviated to Wolf 3D) is the computer game that started the first person shooter genre on the PC. It was created by id Software and published by Apogee Software on May 5, 1992. ... Carnage refers to wholesale slaughter; see massacre. ...


X is replaced by NC-17

In the early years of the ratings system, X-rated movies such as Midnight Cowboy (1969) and A Clockwork Orange (1971) could win Oscar nominations and awards. But the rating, which was not trademarked by the MPAA (as were its other ratings), was self applied by the "adult entertainment" segment of the industry to the point where an X rating could be included in advertising gimmicks and came to be equated strictly with film pornography, which was never the intent behind the original rating. This concern led to a large number of newspapers and TV stations refusing to accept ads for X-rated movies, and some theaters' landlords forbade exhibition of X-rated movies. Such policies led to a compromise with the distributors of George Romero's 1978 horror film Dawn of the Dead: the audience restriction would be enforced by participating NATO theaters, but the letter "X" itself would not appear in the film's advertisements or displays, a message instead being substituted: "There is no explicit sex in this picture; however, there are scenes of violence, which may be considered shocking. No one 17 and under will be admitted." After all, the MPAA stresses the voluntary nature of the system and denies that the rating system should cause a film not to receive widespread release. Various horror films, such as the sequel Day of the Dead and Re-Animator were marketed in this fashion. Some, like the horror parody Evil Dead 2 had actually earned an adults only rating at some point, while others like Guardian of Hell or Zombie may have used such messages in addition to their R ratings (that were sometimes surrendered specifically for marketing purposes). X-rated, X certificate, X classification or similar terms are labels for movies implying strong adult content, typically pornography or violence. ... Midnight Cowboy is a 1969 film written by Waldo Salt based on the novel by James Leo Herlihy, and directed by John Schlesinger. ... // Events Cannes Film Festival opens, but closes in support of a French general strike without awarding any prizes. ... Clockwork Orange, see Clockwork Orange (disambiguation). ... See also: 1970 in film 1971 1972 in film 1970s in film years in film film // Events February 8 - Bob Dylans hour long documentary film, Eat the Document, premieres at New Yorks Academy of Music. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... A trademark, trade mark, ™ or ® [1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ... Pornographic movies Pornography (from Greek πόρνη (porni) prostitute and γραφή (grafi) writing), more informally referred to as porn or porno, is the representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ... George Andrew Romero (born February 4, 1940) is an American director, writer, editor and actor. ... // Events February 1 - Bob Dylans film Renaldo and Clara, a documentary of the Rolling Thunder Revue tour premieres in Los Angeles, California March 1 - Charlie Chaplins coffin is stolen from a Swiss cemetery 3 months after burial March - Leigh Brackett completes the first draft for Star Wars Episode... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Day of the Dead (1985) is a horror film by director George A. Romero, and the third of four movies beginning with Night of the Living Dead, continued in Dawn of the Dead and completed in Land of the Dead. ... Re-Animator (1985) is the first in a series of films based on the H.P. Lovecraft story Herbert West: Reanimator. ... Evil Dead II (also known as Evil Dead 2: Dead by Dawn and Evil Dead II, the Sequel to the Ultimate Experience in Grueling Terror) is a sequel to the movie The Evil Dead by Sam Raimi and starring Bruce Campbell. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of enemies in Doom. ...


The MPAA introduced the NC-17 (No Children Under 17 Admitted) rating on September 27, 1990, to finally make an official and standardized classification that could allow these films to be distributed with the MPAA seal. Part of this calculation was that the adult XXX markets tended to have no reason to pay the fee to submit their product by that point (since the films were distributed either through independent theaters or simply direct to video), and a differentiation could therefore be inferred by viewers that MPAA rated NC-17 films were legitimate motion pictures with actual stories and developed characters, as with the first such film, Universal Pictures' Henry & June (1990), rather than merely prurient/pornographic fare. September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1990. ... The current Universal Studios logo Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures), a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is one of the major American film studios that has production studios and offices located at 100 Universal City Plaza Drive in Universal City, California, an unincorporated area of Los Angeles County between Los... Henry & June is a 1990 film. ...


Some media outlets that refused ads for X-rated titles viewed ads for NC-17 rated films as equally unsuitable, despite studio claims, and thus simply transferred that policy to NC-17 titles, as did many theater landlords. A number of social conservative groups placed pressure on large video chains including Blockbuster Video and Hollywood Video, as a result of which these chains do not stock NC-17 titles. However, similar and even more controversial sexual and violent product is often carried by these chains so long as no such rating was officially connected with its packaging. Blockbuster video store This article is about the chain of video stores. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Later, in 1996, the age for the NC-17 category was subtly increased by one year by changing the wording from "No Children Under 17 Admitted" to "No One 17 And Under Admitted." The label NC-17 stayed even though the letters no longer stand for anything, as the word "children" was replaced by "one".


While a number of movies have been released with the NC-17 rating, none of them has been a major boxoffice hit. In a bold attempt to broaden the acceptance of NC-17 rated films towards the moviegoing public, United Artists marketed its big budget Showgirls heavily, with splashy TV and print ads. The film became the first (and, to date, only) NC-17 rated film to open in wide release, on 1,388 screens. But the critically savaged film's poor box office performance only created a larger stigma towards the rating, deeming any film rated NC-17 as being "box office poison". An acclaimed film, Requiem for a Dream in which the lead actress, Ellen Burstyn, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress in the 2000 Academy Awards, was released unrated rather than go out with the stigma of an NC-17 rating. The MPAA threatened to give the film the NC-17 rating due to a montage at the climax of the film involving a graphic orgy/party scene. Although the scene is quite explicit even by today's standards, many protested it was very necessary to the entire message of the movie, which should be seen by teenagers under the 17 age limit to give them "an educational wake-up call" on the negative effects of drugs. Even though the purpose of the film was to show the realities of drug addiction, the MPAA stood by their decision by refusing to give the film an R rating on appeal. The NC-17 rating has more recently been limited to films considered to appeal to a limited "art house" audience, where the limited distribution and advertising of such films is not considered a major obstacle. This is a list of films rated NC-17 by the Motion Picture Association of Americas Classification and Rating Administration (CARA). ... The current United Artists logo (a variant was used during the 1980s). ... Showgirls is a film directed by Paul Verhoeven and released in 1995 by United Artists. ... Wide release is a term in the American motion picture industry for a motion picture that is playing nationally (as opposed to a few theatres in cities such as New York and Los Angeles) and on thousands (rather than hundreds) of screens. ... Plan 9 from Outer Space, considered so bad its good by some, is also a contender for Worst Movie Ever Made. Although taste and judgment are subjective, the films listed here have achieved a significant level of infamy through critical and popular consensus. ... Requiem for a Dream is a 1978 novel by Hubert Selby, Jr. ... Ellen Burstyn (born December 7, 1932 as Edna Rae Gillooly in Detroit, Michigan) is an Academy Award-winning American actress. ... The Academy Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The majority of NC-17 fare is still released theatrically either in an edited R-rated version, or with its rating surrendered. Every five years or so, a mainstream release, such as The Dreamers, will be attempted by a large studio. Most commonly, however, the NC-17 version gets distributed on home video as "Not Rated", or where its rating is difficult for the average patron to notice on the packaging. The Dreamers is a 2003 English/French drama film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. ...


The rating process

While the MPAA does not publish an official list of all the exact words, actions, and exposed body parts used to determine a movie's rating, as this would be considered tantamount to self-censorship, some guidelines can be derived based on the MPAA's actual rating decisions:

  • If a film uses "one of the harsher sexually derived words" (such as fuck) 1-3 times, it is routine today for the film to receive a PG-13 rating, provided that the word is used as an expletive and not with a sexual meaning (this was mentioned in Be Cool, when Chili Palmer complains about the movie industry. "Fuck" is said only in that scene, giving the movie a PG-13). An example of a film that might suggest this criteria is Waiting for Guffman, which contains mostly PG-13 (some could even argue PG) content, yet is rated R because a man auditioning for a role uses "fuck" (the only time it is spoken in the movie), in a sexual sense. Exceptions may be allowed, "by a special vote of the ratings board" where the board feels such an exception would better reflect the sensibilities of American parents. A couple of exceptions were noted: rare films such as Guilty by Suspicion were allowed as many as 9 uses of the word; probably due to the precedent set in the 1970s by politically important films such as All the President's Men. It is a common misconception that if a movie uses "fuck", in a nonsexual context, more than once, it will automatically receive an R rating. In reality, PG-13 movies are routinely allowed two or three uses.
  • A reference to drugs, such as marijuana, usually gets a movie a PG-13 rating at a minimum. A well known example of an otherwise "PG movie" getting a PG-13 for a drug reference is Whale Rider. The film contained only mild profanity, but received a PG-13 because of a scene where drug paraphernalia was briefly visible. Critic Roger Ebert criticized the MPAA for the rating and called it "a wild overreaction." [2]
  • A "graphic" or "explicit" scene of illegal drug use will earn a film at least a PG-13 rating and, especially in the case of "hard drugs", even an R rating. In extremely rare cases, extremely graphic scenes of hard drug use will get a film an NC-17 (see Trainspotting).
  • If a film contains strong sexual content, it usually receives at least an R rating. The film Lost in Translation had a scene in a strip club that had brief topless nudity and a song in the background that repeated the phrase "sucking on my titties." The scene was brief and the rest of the film had PG-13 level content, but the film still received an R rating. In the case of I Capture the Castle, a shot of a topless woman got the film an R rating "for brief nudity." In every other country with a similar ratings system (such as the UK, Australia, and Canada), the film received an equivalent of G or PG. The comedy Blazing Saddles earned an R-rating for using sexual innuendo, crude humor (including jokes considered racist, sexist, and/or gross [i.e., the famous belching/farting campfire scene]), and offensive language, which had a PG-13 level content.
  • If a film contains male rear nudity, it is more likely to be given a lower rating than if the nudity were female. Male nudity is generally regarded as ribald (i.e. mooning) or natural, whereas female nudity is generally regarded as sexual.
  • Films that have legitimate historical or educational value are often granted leniency. Some have argued that the level of violence in Saving Private Ryan merited an NC-17, but that the film was given leniency because it was a historical war movie. This argument also came up when The Passion of the Christ was released without cuts, with an R-rating.
  • Violence which includes bloodshed will usually receive an R rating, while bloodless violence will be rated PG-13 (eg. Alien vs. Predator, the "unrated version" contains the same content as the PG-13 version in terms of violence however, every violent scene includes bloodshed; the same thing happened with Pearl Harbor in which explicit gunshot wounds and violence was added to get an R-rating on the DVD director's cut.)

Ratings criteria is intended to reflect changing norms and compromises between the diverse needs and rights of various interests in a large and complex modern society. Therefore, an evaluation of ratings criteria must specify what year or approximate period of time is being referred to, when modeling the standards relevant to each film classification. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The word expletive is currently used in three senses: syntactic expletives, expletive attributives, and bad language. The word expletive comes from the Latin verb explere, meaning to fill, via expletivus, filling out. It was introduced into English in the seventeenth century to refer to various kinds of padding -- the padding... Be Cool is a 1999 novel which was adapted into a 2005 film. ... Waiting for Guffman is a mockumentary by Christopher Guest. ... Guilty by Suspicion is a 1991 film about the Hollywood blacklist and associated activities stemming from McCarthyism and the House Un-American Activities Committee. ... This article is about the 1976 film. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... The Whale Rider is a 2003 book by New Zealand Maori author Witi Tame Ihimaera. ... Look up Paraphernalia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Roger Ebert (right) with Russ Meyer, 1970 Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is an Emmy Award-nominated American television personality, author, and film critic who began writing for the Chicago Sun-Times, every week since 1967. ... Spoiler warning: Trainspotting is a 1996 film directed by Danny Boyle based on the novel Trainspotting by Irvine Welsh about a group of heroin addicts in Edinburgh and their passage through life. ... Lost in Translation is a film released in the United States on October 3, 2003. ... I Capture the Castle was the first novel written by Dodie Smith, published in 1948. ... Blazing Saddles is a Warner Bros. ... Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 Academy Award winning film, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat, set in World War II. This film is particularly notable for the intensity of the scenes in its first 25 minutes, which depict the Omaha beachhead assault of June 6, 1944. ... The Passion of the Christ (2004) is a film about the last twelve hours of the life of Jesus Christ, known to Christians as the Passion. Directed by Mel Gibson, it was nominated for three Academy Awards: best cinematography, best makeup, and best original score. ... Alien vs. ... Pearl Harbor is a war film released in the summer of 2001 by Touchstone Pictures. ...


Members of the MPAA's Classification and Rating Administration, which the MPAA claims consists of a demographically balanced panel of parents, view the movie, discuss it, and vote on the film's rating. If the movie's producer is unhappy with this rating, he/she can reedit the film and resubmit it, or can appeal to an Appeals Board. Appeals generally involve a film which was rated R for which the producer is seeking to have the rating changed to PG-13, or a film rated NC-17 for which the producer is seeking to have the rating changed to R.


Effects of ratings

Legally, the rating system is entirely voluntary. However, signatory members of the MPAA (major studios) have agreed to submit all of their theatrical releases for rating, and few mainstream producers (outside the pornography niche) are willing to bypass the rating system due to potential effects on revenues. Therefore, it can be argued that the system has a de facto compulsory status in the industry. Most films released unrated nowadays are either relatively obscure independent films, foreign films, direct-to-video films, made-for-TV films or documentaries not expected to play outside the arthouse market, or large format (IMAX) films, which typically contain minimal offensive content and generally receive a G or PG rating when they are submitted for a rating. Pornographic movies Pornography (from Greek πόρνη (porni) prostitute and γραφή (grafi) writing), more informally referred to as porn or porno, is the representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. ... A film that is released direct-to-video (also straight-to-video) is one which has been released to the public on home video formats first rather than first being released in movie theaters. ... A television movie (also TV movie, TV-movie, made-for-TV movie, etc. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia. ...


One of the unintended side effects of the rating system is that the G and (in recent years) PG ratings have been associated with children's films and are widely considered to be commercially bad for films targeted at teenagers and adults. For example, the 2004 action/adventure film Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow, which was not targeted at children, received a PG rating, which some believe caused it to underperform at the box office as preteens and teenagers may have brushed it off as a kiddie flick. [3] On the other hand, the R rating also has a negative effect on the box office performance, due to common social and cultural controversies. [4] In fact, most R rated films released in the 1990s generated a box office revenue of less than $100 million. [5] Unintended consequences can be either positive, in which case we get serendipity or windfalls source of problems, according to the Murphys law definitively negative: perverse effect, which is the opposite result to the one intended The Law of Unintended Consequences holds that almost all human actions have at least... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow is a film released on September 17, 2004 in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tween (demographics). ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ...


While some may debate the degree to which any such things are truly unintended, since the ratings now have a clearly established use as part of the marketing strategy for a film, the whole question of children tending to scorn "unchallenging" G or PG fare in favor of whatever they can get away with seeing is a legitimate criticism of an age based rating system. Some R fare is not aimed at older adults, but at a high school and college age market eager to engage in what they perceive as mature activities. Thus, the pretense that offensive content can be considered "adult" serves as a misleading marketing strategy to attract a youthful audience, often for purely sensational and provocative content for its own sake.


The minimum age for unaccompanied patrons at R films, and all patrons at X films, was originally set at 16. By 1970 it was raised to 17 (in some areas the age may be higher still—often 18—and in rare cases as high as 21). Theater owners could still allow children between 13 and 16 years of age into R-rated films without being accompanied by an adult since the rating system is technically voluntary and does not have the force of law behind it. Attendance at films with strong enough content to merit an NC-17 rating could be restricted by law due to the possibility of being considered indecent. 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...


In the 1970s the East Coast based Century theater chain used its own rating system, with only three categories instead of four: For All Ages, For Mature Audiences, and No One Under 17 Admitted, with most, but not all, R-rated films receiving the middle designation, under which no age limits were enforced. In 2000, due to issues raised by Senator Joseph Lieberman, the National Association of Theater Owners, the major trade association in the U.S., announced it would start strict enforcement of ID checks for R and NC-17 rated movies; however, only a small percentage of cinemas (as of 2005) are doing so.[citation needed] Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a Jewish-American Democratic politician and a current U.S. senator from Connecticut. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Many retailers of videos, especially Wal-Mart, tend to restrict the sale of R rated movies to minors. POS systems are set up to prevent a transaction without a sales associate checking an ID. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... POS must not be confused with EFT/POS and POS Terminal used in Electronic payment POS or PoS is an acronym for point-of-sale (or point of purchase). ...


The 2001 independent film L.I.E. challenged its NC-17 rating and waged a publicity campaign against the arbitrary nature of the ratings system. Lot 47, the film's distributor, lost its appeal, and released the film unrated. With the recent success of another NC-17 film, The Dreamers, some film producers and directors hope that the rating may begin to lose some of its stigma and more movie theaters will consider playing such films. Earlier, the NC-17 rated Kids waged a similar campaign, part of which included exhibiting the film to persons under 18 and publishing their (generally favorable) reactions to it. Another film to successfully challenge its NC-17 rating was the cult classic 1994 comedy Clerks., which eventually garnered an R rating. Director Kevin Smith geared up for another MPAA battle when the sequel, Clerks 2 was released, but was surprised and relieved when the MPAA passed it uncut with an R-rating. 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. ... L.I.E. is an independent film released in 2001 about the relationship between a teenage boy and a pederast known as Big John. It was directed by Michael Cuesta and starred Paul Dano as the boy and Brian Cox as Big John. ... The Dreamers is a 2003 English/French drama film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. ... Kids (1995) is a cult film about a day in the life of New York City teenagers and their sexual desire and sexual behavior during the emergence of HIV. It also depicts the use of marijuana, alcohol, Nitrous Oxide, tobacco, ecstasy, and Special K, a. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Clerks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Clerks II is the 2006 sequel to Kevin Smiths 1994 movie Clerks. ...


Earlier in the rating system, African-Americans complained that rating criteria was too heavily biased against inner city conditions and dialects. For his 1971 film Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song, director Melvin Van Peebles came up with a winning ad slogan ("Rated X by an All-White Jury") that proved successful with the urban market. The revision of the ages upward corresponded with a slackening of standards that generally allowed most such product to receive an R rating thereafter. 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... Sweet Sweetbacks Baadasssss Song was a 1971 blaxploitation film. ... Melvin Van Peebles, as pictured on the movie poster for Melvin Van Peebles (born August 21, 1932 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American actor, director, screenwriter and composer, and the father of actor and director Mario Van Peebles. ...


Since the rapid expansion of the home video market in the late 1990s, studios have been known to skirt the rating system and release unrated versions of films on videocassette and DVD. Sometimes these versions would have earned an NC-17 if submitted for rating, but often their unrated status is merely for marketing purposes. Films that have been rated PG-13 in their theatrical run are sometimes extended with footage equivalent to an R (but not NC-17) rating and marketed as "unrated" with the implication that the added unrated material is racier than an R rating would permit. For example, one DVD release of American Pie, rated R in its theatrical release, exclaims on the box, "UNRATED! The Version You Couldn't See In Theaters". Sometimes the difference between an R-rated feature and its unrated home video counterpart is as little as a few seconds, while other unrated video editions add scenes that have no sexual or violent content whatsoever, making them "unrated" in the technical sense even though they don't contain more provocative material than the theatrical version (examples of this would be Unleashed). A number of filmmakers have also taken to filming additional footage specifically for video or DVD release, with no intention of submitting this material to the MPAA. The home video business rents and sells videocassettes and DVDs to the public. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... This article is becoming very long. ... American Pie is a 1999 film, the first by director Paul Weitz, written by Adam Herz. ... Lol ...


Some foreign and independent films do not bother to submit to the rating system, reasoning that they will not be distributed widely beyond their arthouse audience, so the expense is unnecessary. Canadian films use the American system to an extent as well. The commercials for the movie often use the same ratings that the American ones do, and when the movie is released on video the packaging will often feature the American rating as well its Canadian equivalent. Many U.S. packages display Canadian ratings as well.


Critics of the system

The movie rating system has had a number of high profile critics. Film critic Roger Ebert argues that the system places too much emphasis on not showing sex while allowing the portrayal of massive amounts of gruesome violence. Moreover, he argues that the rating system is geared toward looking at trivial aspects of the movie (such as the number of times a profane word is used) rather than at the general theme of the movie (for example, if the movie realistically depicts the consequences of sex and violence). He has called for an A (adults only) rating, to indicate films high in violence or mature content that should not be marketed to teenagers, but do not have NC-17 levels of sex. Roger Ebert (right) with Russ Meyer, 1970 Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is an Emmy Award-nominated American television personality, author, and film critic who began writing for the Chicago Sun-Times, every week since 1967. ...


Perhaps with these objections in mind, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Office for Film and Broadcasting (a descendent of the formerly influential National Legion of Decency) maintains its own film classification system, which takes the overall "moral tone" of a film into account, rather than focusing on content alone. The Office for Film and Broadcasting of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops maintains a motion picture rating system . ... The National Legion of Decency was an organization dedicated to identifying, and combatting, objectionable content in American motion pictures. ...


Many critics of the MPAA system, especially independent distributors, have charged that major studios' releases often receive more lenient treatment than independent films. It is widely assumed that Saving Private Ryan, with its intense depiction of the D-Day invasion of Normandy, would have earned an NC-17 if it were not a Steven Spielberg film. The comedy Scary Movie, released by a division of The Walt Disney Company's Miramax Films, contained "strong crude sexual humor, language, drug use and violence" but was rated R, to the surprise of many reviewers and audiences; by comparison, the comparatively tamer porn spoof Orgazmo, an independent release, contained "explicit sexual content and dialogue" and received an NC-17. On the other hand, the independently distributed film The Passion of the Christ received an R rating despite graphic depictions of violence. Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 Academy Award winning film, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat, set in World War II. This film is particularly notable for the intensity of the scenes in its first 25 minutes, which depict the Omaha beachhead assault of June 6, 1944. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Mont Saint Michel, one of the famous symbols of Normandy. ... Steven Allan Spielberg, KBE (born December 18, 1946) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director and producer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Walt Disney Company (most commonly known as Disney) (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... Miramax Films was a Big Ten film motion picture distribution and production company headquartered in New York City before being bought out by The Walt Disney Company. ... Orgazmo DVD cover Orgazmo is a 1997 movie by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, the creators of the animated series South Park. ... The Passion of the Christ (2004) is a film about the last twelve hours of the life of Jesus Christ, known to Christians as the Passion. Directed by Mel Gibson, it was nominated for three Academy Awards: best cinematography, best makeup, and best original score. ...


Ironically, before its purchase by Disney, Miramax heads Bob and Harvey Weinstein often clashed with the MPAA, proclaimed the rating system unfair to independents, and released some films unrated to avoid an X or NC-17. Orgazmo director Trey Parker's ratings battles later inspired the (R-rated) film South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut, which directly criticized the MPAA and holds the Guinness world record for most profanity and violence in an animated feature (399 profane words, 128 offensive gestures and 221 acts of violence). The Walt Disney Company (most commonly known as Disney) (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... Miramax is a Big Ten film distribution and production company. ... Bob Weinstein, along with brother Harvey Weinstein, was head of Miramax Studios. ... Harvey Weinstein at Cannes, 2002 Harvey Weinstein CBE (Hon) (born March 19, 1952) is an American film producer. ... Trey Parker Randolph Severn Trey Parker III (born October 19, 1969 in Conifer, Colorado) is an Academy Award-nominated and Emmy-winning American animator, screenwriter, film director, voice actor, actor and musician. ... South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut is a 1999 motion picture based on the cartoon television series of South Park. ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ...


Another criticism of the ratings system involves the vagary concerned with film content relating to the difference between the PG-13 and R ratings. Many critics (professional, the general public and religious and moral groups) believe that the content of recent PG-13 films equals that of R-rated films from the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s. For example, depictions of sexual content, violence, profanity and other objectionable content in a PG-13 film from the late 1990s on may have been considered "R level" in the 1970s and 1980s. Critics of film content seem to want that standard to continue despite shifting cultural norms about what is socially acceptable. These critics make the case that instead of the film industry simply reflecting societal values, the movie industry is in fact instrumental in desensitizing society to previously offensive content.


Some other problems include odd ratings for movies. For example, most horror films that do not contain extreme graphic violence can get a PG-13 rating, whereas Kung Fu Hustle, an action-comedy movie with unrealistic, "animated" violence and minimal coarse language in the Cantonese version with English subtitles, gained an R rating, although the PG-13 rated movies are generally more realistically graphic. Kung Fu Hustle (Chinese: ; pinyin: Gōngfu) is a martial arts film first released in Hong Kong in December 2004. ...


Other critics have argued that the sexual (and to a lesser extent, drug and profanity) standards for movie ratings are ideologically biased in favor of socially conservative values. They generally advocate allowing more slack in such categories as nudity and four-letter words, while maintaining the current rules for violence ratings.


Many critics of the system, both conservative and liberal, would like to see the MPAA ratings unveiled and the standards made public. The MPAA has consistently hearkened to Nationwide scientific polls, conducted each year by the Opinion Research Corporation of Princeton, New Jersey, which shown that parents find the ratings useful. All the while, the MPAA has conveniently overlooked the fact that this is the only source of information available.


Stephen Farber's internal critique

One internal critic of the early workings of the system was film critic and author Stephen Farber, who interned with the CARA for six months in its early years (1969–1970). His experiences with the board prompted him to write a book, The Movie Ratings Game (Public Affairs Press), which documented how, even in its earliest days, the board used many of the same tactics that persist to this day: the wielding of the X rating as a way to remove material from films that board members took personal affront to, the lopsided way sexual material was handled relative to violence, and later on the use of psychological jargon to justify placing certain films, even unexplicit ones, in restricted categories on the basis of theme alone. For example, an antiwar themed movie such as The Revolutionary were given a GP rating by the board, but later board members wanted an R simply because it was antiwar.


Farber contended that the ratings board used its power to "punish" the most challenging, creative, and interesting movies being made—A Clockwork Orange, Midnight Cowboy—while "rewarding" more conservative, uncontroversial films with more open ended ratings. Farber also contended that the ratings board's stance about the ratings being used as guidelines to protect children was hypocritical in light of the fact that most of the severities imposed on certain films seemed less borne of their potential impact on children than on reactions to them by parents. He registered great annoyance with the board when they rated the film Woodstock R, pointing out that the original festival had no age restrictions and that it seemed hypocritical to age-restrict the film, which was arguably a far less traumatic experience than the festival itself. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Midnight Cowboy is a 1969 film written by Waldo Salt based on the novel by James Leo Herlihy, and directed by John Schlesinger. ... Woodstock is the name of the 1970 documentary film about the Woodstock rock festival, directed by Michael Wadleigh and edited by Martin Scorsese. ...


Another still-current problem Farber cited was how the threat of a restrictive rating was wielded freely by the board as a way to force studios to tone down submitted films; he cited a number of movies that were re-cut to not only be removed from the X category (sometimes going as far as two rating brackets to GP), but to be moved from R to GP, or even GP to G. This extended to screenplays submitted to the board as well, which were analyzed and given a projected rating; he used as an example the film The Panic in Needle Park, the script for which was given an X based on its vulgar dialogue and many references to shooting heroin. (The released film was rated R.) The Panic in Needle Park is a 1971 American film starring Al Pacino and directed by Jerry Schatzberg. ...


Farber recommended that the X rating either be abolished or relabeled to "A" or "AO", but leaned towards abolition on the grounds that the R rating really ought to be the most restrictive rating for a film in an enlightened society. He concluded by endorsing public pressure and activism as being the best way to proceed: "The rating system is certainly not going to be reformed from within ... In the era of the silent majority, a great deal can be accomplished by a little noise."


Rating creep

The notion of "ratings creep" was legitimized by a recent study that was widely publicized, but disputed by the MPAA. On June 13, 2004, the Harvard School of Public Health released a study demonstrating well-documented "rating creep" with an extensive movie content over time. June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health is Harvard Universitys school of public health. ...


See also

British Board of Film Classification logo The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), originally British Board of Film Censors, is the organisation responsible for film and some video game classification and censorship within the United Kingdom. ... Censorship is basically the editing, removing, or otherwise changing speech and other forms of human expression. ... An edited movie or edited film is a film that has been edited from the original theatrical release. ... The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, advertising guidelines, and online privacy principles for computer and video games and other entertainment software in the United States and Canada (officially adopted by individual provinces 2004-2005). ... This is a list of films rated NC-17 by the Motion Picture Association of Americas Classification and Rating Administration (CARA). ... A motion picture rating system categorizes films with regard to suitability for children and/or adults in terms of issues such as sex, violence and profanity. ... The Marvel Rating System is a system for rating the content of comic books, with regard to appropriateness for different age groups. ... The Office of Film and Literature Classification is a statutory classification body which provides day to day administrative support for the Classification Board which classified films, computer games and publications in Australia, and the Classification Review Board which reviews films, computer games and publications when a valid application has been... Parental guidance is an established rating system for movies, computer games and music recordings. ... Jack Valenti Jack Joseph Valenti (born September 5, 1921, in Houston) was special assistant to Lyndon Johnsons White House. ... Richard Heffner, formerly a University professor of Communication and Public Policy at Rutgers University, has been the host for the past half century of The Open Mind (television show), now a half hour interview show. ... The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. ... Strong language is a rating to indicate that movies, video/computer games and other media should be limited to a certain age. ... // United States Ratings The TV Parental Guidelines system was introduced on January 1, 1996 in the United States in response to public complaints of increasingly explicit sexual and violent content, and use of scatology, in television programs. ... The Office for Film and Broadcasting of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops maintains a motion picture rating system . ... This Film Is Not Yet Rated is an independent documentary film about the Motion Picture Association of Americas rating system and its effect on American culture, directed by Kirby Dick and produced by Eddie Schmidt. ... X-rated, X certificate, X classification or similar terms are labels for movies implying strong adult content, typically pornography or violence. ...

References

  • Farber, Stephen (1972). The Movie Ratings Game. Public Affairs Press. ISBN 0-8183-0181-3.
  • MPAA: Ratings History

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
MPAA film rating system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5855 words)
The MPAA film rating system is a system used in the United States and territories and instituted by the Motion Picture Association of America to rate a movie based on its content.
Film production companies that were not members of the MPAA were unaffected, and the ratings system had no official governmental enforceability due to the First Amendment of the United States Constitution as interpreted in regards to matters of sexuality, violence, and profanity in the media dating back to 1952's Joseph Burstyn, Inc v.
One of the unintended side effects of the rating system is that the G and (in recent years) PG ratings have been associated with children's films and are widely considered to be commercially bad for films targeted at teenagers and adults.
This Film Is Not Yet Rated - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (896 words)
The MPAA gave the original cut of the film an NC-17 rating for 'some graphic sexual content,' during scenes that illustrated the content a film could include to garner an NC-17 rating although currently, the film is not rated.
Much of the film's press coverage was devoted to Dick and his crew's use of a female private investigator to unmask the identities of the ratings and appeals-board members, a feat that had never been accomplished before, although 60 Minutes and other news organizations have tried.
The film went on to draw crowds at many other festivals, including South by Southwest and the Seattle International Film Festival, and was slated for theatrical release in the Fall of 2006.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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