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MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3
File extension: .mp3
MIME type: audio/mpeg
Type of format: Audio

MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is an audio encoding format. MP3 may refer to: MP3, a digital audio format MP3 (album), an album by Marcy Playground Metroid Prime 3: Corruption, a game by Retro Studios in development for Wii. ... A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate its type. ... For mime as an art form, see mime artist. ... MPEG-1 defines a group of Audio and Video (AV) coding and compression standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group). ... Audio can mean: Sounding that can be heard. ...


It uses a lossy compression algorithm that is designed to greatly reduce the amount of data required to represent the audio recording, yet still sound like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio to most listeners. It was invented by a team of European engineers at Philips, CCETT (Centre commun d'études de télévision et télécommunications), IRT and Fraunhofer Society, who worked in the framework of the EUREKA 147 DAB digital radio research program, and it became an ISO/IEC standard in 1991. A lossy data compression method is one where compressing data and then decompressing it retrieves data that may well be different from the original, but is close enough to be useful in some way. ... Audio compression can mean two things: Audio data compression - in which the amount of data in a recorded waveform is reduced for transmission. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... The Institut für Rundfunktechnik GmbH (IRT) is the research centre of the German broadcasters (ARD / ZDF / DLR), Austrias broadcaster (ORF) and the Swiss public broadcaster (SRG/SSR). ... The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ... Eureka 147 is a protocol for digital radio broadcasting originally developed in Europe, but now being deployed in many countries around the world. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


MP3 is an audio-specific format. The compression removes certain parts of sound that are outside the hearing range of most people. It provides a representation of pulse-code modulation — encoding audio in much less space than straightforward methods, by using psychoacoustic models to discard components less audible to human hearing, and recording the remaining information in an efficient manner. This is quite different from the principles used by, say, JPEG, an image compression format, which are purely frequency domain based. PCM redirects here. ... Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human perception of sounds. ... JPG redirects here. ... Frequency domain is a term used to describe the analysis of mathematical functions with respect to frequency. ...

Contents

History

Development

The psycho-acoustic masking codec was first proposed, apparently independently in 1979, by Manfred Schroeder, et al.[1] in Germany and M. A.Krasner[2] in the United States. Krasner was the first to publish and to produce hardware, but the publication of his results as a relatively obscure Lincoln Laboratory Technical Report did not immediately influence the mainstream of psychoacoustic codec development. Manfred Schroeder was already a well known and revered figure in the world wide community of acoustical and electrical engineers and his paper had immediate influence in European and specifically German circles of acoustic and source-coding (audio compression) research. Both Krasner and Schroeder built upon the work of E. F. Zwicker.[3] A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal. ... MIT Lincoln Laboratory, also known as Lincoln Lab, is a federally funded research and development center managed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and funded by the United States Department of Defense. ...


The immediate predecessor of MP3, and the first practical implementation in hardware (Krasner's hardware was too cumbersome and slow for practical use), was "Optimum Coding in the Frequency Domain" (OCF),[4] which was an implementation of a psychoacoustic transform coder based on Motorola 56000 DSP chips. MP3 is directly descended from OCF. MP3 represents the outcome of the collaboration of Dr. Karlheinz Brandenburg with the Fraunhofer Society for Integrated Circuits, Erlangen, with relatively minor contributions from the Musicam (MP2) branch of psychoacoustic sub-band coders. A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ...


MPEG-1 Audio Layer 2 encoding began as the Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) project managed by Egon Meier-Engelen of the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt (later on called Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, German Aerospace Center) in Germany. This project was financed by the European Union as a part of the EUREKA research program where it was commonly known as EU-147, which ran from 1987 to 1994. MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2, sometimes Musicam) is an audio codec. ... Digital Audio Broadcast or DAB is a standard for digital radio broadcast developed by EUREKA as a research project for the European Union. ... DLR Helicopter The German Aerospace Center (DLR) (German: ) is the national research center for aviation and space flight of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Space Agency. ... // Eureka (or Heureka; Greek ) is a famous exclamation attributed to Archimedes, see: Eureka (word). ...


As a doctoral student at Germany's University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Karlheinz Brandenburg began working on digital music compression in the early 1980s, focusing on how people perceive music. He completed his doctoral work in 1989 and became an assistant professor at Erlangen-Nuremberg. While there, he continued to work on music compression with scientists at the Fraunhofer Society (in 1993 he joined the staff of the Fraunhofer Institute).[5] The castle in the center of Erlangen, known to many simply as the Schloss, is home to a large part of the universitys administration The Kollegienhaus, the historical central building and lecture hall of the University at the borders of the Schlossgarten Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen Nuremberg (Friedrich... Karlheinz Brandenburg (born June 20, 1954, in Erlangen, Germany) is an audio engineer and has been a driving force behind some of today’s most innovative digital audio technology, notably the audio compression format MPEG Audio Layer 3, more commonly known as MP3. ... The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ...


In 1991, there were two proposals available: Musicam (known as Layer 2), and ASPEC (Adaptive Spectral Perceptual Entropy Coding). The Musicam technique, as proposed by Philips (The Netherlands), CCETT (France) and Institut für Rundfunktechnik (Germany) was chosen due to its simplicity and error robustness, as well as its low computational power associated with the encoding of high quality compressed audio. The Musicam format, based on sub-band coding, was a key to settle the basis of the MPEG Audio compression format (sampling rates, structure of frames, headers, number of samples per frame). Its technology and ideas were fully incorporated into the definition of ISO MPEG Audio Layer I and Layer II and further on of the Layer III (MP3) format. Under the chairmanship of Professor Mussmann (University of Hannover) the editing of the standard was made under the responsibilities of Leon van de Kerkhof (Layer I) and Gerhard Stoll (Layer II). Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... MP2, also known as Musicam, is a short form of MPEG Audio Layer II, and it is also used as a file extension for files containing audio data of this type. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... The Institut für Rundfunktechnik GmbH (IRT) is the research centre of the German broadcasters (ARD / ZDF / DLR), Austrias broadcaster (ORF) and the Swiss public broadcaster (SRG/SSR). ... Sub-band coding is any form of transform coding that breaks a signal into a number of different frequency bands and encodes each one independently. ... The university of Hannover (Universität Hannover) has its seat in the city of Hannover, the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


A working group consisting of Leon Van de Kerkhof (The Netherlands), Gerhard Stoll (Germany), Leonardo Chiariglione (Italy), Yves-François Dehery (France), Karlheinz Brandenburg (Germany) took ideas from Musicam and ASPEC, added some of their own ideas and created MP3, which was designed to achieve the same quality at 128 kbit/s as MP2 at 192 kbit/s. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Leonardo Chiariglione is an italian engineer, born in Almese (Italy), famous in the area of telecommunications and digital media. ... Karlheinz Brandenburg (born June 20, 1954, in Erlangen, Germany) is an audio engineer and has been a driving force behind some of today’s most innovative digital audio technology, notably the audio compression format MPEG Audio Layer 3, more commonly known as MP3. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... MP2 (sometimes incorrectly named Musicam) is a short form of MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, and it is also used as a file extension for files containing audio data of this type. ...


All algorithms were approved in 1991 and finalized in 1992 as part of MPEG-1, the first standard suite by MPEG, which resulted in the international standard ISO/IEC 11172-3, published in 1993. Further work on MPEG audio was finalized in 1994 as part of the second suite of MPEG standards, MPEG-2, more formally known as international standard ISO/IEC 13818-3, originally published in 1995. MPEG-1 defines a group of Audio and Video (AV) coding and compression standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group). ... The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ...


Compression efficiency of encoders is typically defined by the bit rate, because compression rate depends on the bit depth and sampling rate of the input signal. Nevertheless, there are often published compression rates that use the CD parameters as references (44.1 kHz, 2 channels at 16 bits per channel or 2×16 bit). Sometimes the Digital Audio Tape (DAT) SP parameters are used (48 kHz, 2×16 bit). Compression ratios with this reference are higher, which demonstrates the problem of the term compression ratio for lossy encoders. The sampling frequency or sampling rate defines the number of samples per second taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete signal. ... CD redirects here. ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... Digital audio tape can also refer to a compact cassette with digital storage. ...


Karlheinz Brandenburg used a CD recording of Suzanne Vega's song "Tom's Diner" to assess the MP3 compression algorithm. This song was chosen because of its softness and simplicity, making it easier to hear imperfections in the compression format during playbacks. Some jokingly refer to Suzanne Vega as "The mother of MP3". Some more critical audio excerpts (glockenspiel, triangle, accordion, etc.) were taken from the EBU V3/SQAM reference compact disc and have been used by professional sound engineers to assess the subjective quality of the MPEG Audio formats. Suzanne Vega (born Suzanne Nadine Vega, 11 July 1959, Santa Monica, California) is an American songwriter and singer known for her highly literate lyrics and eclectic folk-inspired music. ... The real Toms Restaurant also appeared in Seinfeld. ... In computer science, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits, or information units, thanks to specific encoding schemes. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ... For other uses, see Accordion (disambiguation). ...


Going public

A reference simulation software implementation, written in the C language and known as ISO 11172-5, was developed by the members of the ISO MPEG Audio committee in order to produce bit compliant MPEG Audio files (Layer 1, Layer 2, Layer 3). Working in non-real time on a number of operating systems, it was able to demonstrate the first real time hardware decoding (DSP based) of compressed audio. Some other real time implementation of MPEG Audio encoders were available for the purpose of digital broadcasting (radio DAB, television DVB) towards consumer receivers and set top boxes.


Later, on July 7, 1994 the Fraunhofer Society released the first software MP3 encoder called l3enc. The filename extension .mp3 was chosen by the Fraunhofer team on July 14, 1995 (previously, the files had been named .bit). With the first real-time software MP3 player Winplay3 (released September 9, 1995) many people were able to encode and play back MP3 files on their PCs. Because of the relatively small hard drives back in that time (~ 500 MB) the technology was essential to store non-instrument based (see tracker and MIDI) music for listening on a computer. is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ... Fraunhofer l3enc was the first public software able to encode wav files to the MP3 format. ... A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate its type. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Winplay3 was the original MP3 player (previous to this, audio compressed with MP3 had to be decompressed prior to listening). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... ModPlug Tracker in Fast Tracker 2 colors mode Tracker is the generic term for a class of software music sequencers which, in their purest form, allow the user to arrange sound samples stepwise on a timeline across several monophonic channels. ... MIDI redirects here. ...


MP2

In October 1993, MP2 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer 2) files appeared on the Internet and were often played back using the Xing MPEG Audio Player, and later in a program for Unix by Tobias Bading called MAPlay, which was initially released on February 22, 1994 (MAPlay was also ported to Microsoft Windows). MP2 (sometimes incorrectly named Musicam) is a short form of MPEG-1 Audio Layer II, and it is also used as a file extension for files containing audio data of this type. ... Xing Technology was founded in Arroyo Grande, California in 1989 by former networking executive Howard Gordon on the basis of a simple (i. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Windows redirects here. ...


Initially the only encoder available for MP2 production was the Xing Encoder, accompanied by the program cdda2wav, a CD ripper used for extracting CD audio tracks to Waveform Audio Files. cdrtools (formerly known as cdrecord) is a collection of free software/open source computer programs that was, until 2006, the standard set of CD and DVD authoring tools for most free Unix operating systems such as Linux and FreeBSD. The collection included many features, such as: support for creation of... A CD ripper, CD grabber or CD extractor is a piece of software designed to extract raw digital audio (in format commonly called CDDA) from a compact disc to a file or other output. ... WAV (or WAVE), short for Waveform audio format, is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing audio on PCs. ...


The Internet Underground Music Archive (IUMA) is generally recognized as the start of the on-line music revolution. IUMA was the Internet's first high-fidelity music web site, hosting thousands of authorized MP2 recordings before MP3 or the web was popularized.[citations needed] The Internet Underground Music Archive (IUMA) was a pioneer of on-line music. ...


Internet

In the first half of 1995 through the late 1990s, MP3 files began to spread on the Internet. MP3's popularity began to rise rapidly with the advent of Nullsoft's audio player Winamp (released in 1997), and the Unix audio player mpg123. The small size of MP3 files has enabled widespread peer-to-peer file sharing of music ripped from compact discs, which would previously have been nearly impossible. The first large peer-to-peer filesharing network, Napster, was released in 1999. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Nullsoft is a software house founded in 1997 by Justin Frankel. ... Winamp is a proprietary media player written by Nullsoft, now a subsidiary of Time Warner. ... mpg123 is a fast, free, minimalist, console MPEG audio player software program for UNIX and Linux operating systems. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ... CD redirects here. ... Napster was a file sharing service that paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Limewire, iMesh, Morpheus, and BearShare, which are now used for many of the same reasons and can download music, pictures, and other files. ...


The ease of creating and sharing MP3s resulted in widespread copyright infringment. Major record companies, who argue that such free sharing of music reduces sales, reacted to this by pursuing lawsuits against Napster, which was eventually closed down, and eventually against individual users who engaged in file sharing. Not to be confused with copywriting. ...


Despite the popularity of MP3, online music retailers often use other proprietary formats that are encrypted (known as Digital rights management) to prevent users from using purchased music in ways not specifically authorized by the record companies. The record companies argue that this is necessary to prevent the files from being made available on peer-to-peer file sharing networks. However, this has other side effects such as preventing users from playing back their purchased music on different types of devices. The audio content of these files can be converted into an unencrypted format, however, because almost all sound cards in modern computers allow the sound played through them to be recorded back. Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... A sound card (also known as an audio card) is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. ...


Unauthorized MP3 filesharing continues on next-generation peer-to-peer networks, though some authorized services, such as eMusic, Amazon.com, and Zune sell unprotected music in the MP3 format. EMusic is an online music store that operates by subscription. ... Amazon. ... This article is about the digital media brand. ...


Encoding audio

The MPEG-1 standard does not include a precise specification for an MP3 encoder. The decoding algorithm and file format, as a contrast, are well defined. Implementers of the standard were supposed to devise their own algorithms suitable for removing parts of the information in the raw audio (or rather its MDCT representation in the frequency domain). During encoding 576 time domain samples are taken and are transformed to 576 frequency domain samples. If there is a transient, 192 samples are taken instead of 576. This is done to limit the temporal spread of quantization noise accompanying the transient. (See psychoacoustics.) MPEG-1 defines a group of Audio and Video (AV) coding and compression standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group). ... modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) is a Fourier-related transform based on the type-IV discrete cosine transform (DCT-IV), with the additional property of being lapped: it is designed to be performed on consecutive blocks of a larger dataset, where subsequent blocks are overlapped so that the last half... In acoustics and audio, a transient is a short-duration signal that represents a non-harmonic attack phase of a musical sound or spoken word. ... Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human perception of sounds. ...


As a result, there are many different MP3 encoders available, each producing files of differing quality. Comparisons are widely available, so it is easy for a prospective user of an encoder to research the best choice. It must be kept in mind that an encoder that is proficient at encoding at higher bit rates (such as LAME) is not necessarily as good at other, lower bit rates. Look up lame in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Decoding audio

Decoding, on the other hand, is carefully defined in the standard. Most decoders are "bitstream compliant", meaning that the decompressed output they produce from a given MP3 file will be the same (within a specified degree of rounding tolerance) as the output specified mathematically in the ISO/IEC standard document. The MP3 file has a standard format, which is a frame consisting of 384, 576, or 1152 samples (depends on MPEG version and layer) and all the frames have associated header information (32 bits) and side information (9, 17, or 32 bytes, depending on MPEG version and stereo/mono). The header and side information help the decoder to decode the associated Huffman encoded data correctly. A Digitrax DH163AT DCC decoder in an Athearn locomotive before the shell goes on. ... Defined by MPEG communication protocol. ... Rounding is the process of reducing the number of significant digits in a number. ... In computer science and information theory, Huffman coding is an entropy encoding algorithm used for lossless data compression. ...


Therefore, comparison of decoders is usually based on how computationally efficient they are (i.e., how much memory or CPU time they use in the decoding process). The terms storage (U.K.) or memory (U.S.) refer to the parts of a digital computer that retain physical state (data) for some interval of time, possibly even after electrical power to the computer is turned off. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ...


Audio quality

When creating an MP3 file, there is a trade-off between the amount of space used and the sound quality of the result. Typically, the creator of the MP3 file is allowed to set a bit rate, which specifies how many kilobits the file may use per second of audio, for example, when ripping a compact disc to this format. The lower the bit rate used, the lower the audio quality will be, but the smaller the file size. Likewise, the higher the bit rate used, the higher quality, and therefore, larger the file size the resulting MP3 will be. In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... A kilobit is a unit of information, abbreviated kbit, sometimes also kb. ... For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ... CD redirects here. ... Look up format in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As described, MP3 files encoded with a lower bit rate will generally play back at a lower quality. With too low a bit rate, "compression artifacts" (i.e., sounds that were not present in the original recording) may be audible in the reproduction. Some audio is hard to compress because of its randomness and sharp attacks. When this type of audio is compressed, artifacts such as ringing or pre-echo are usually heard. A sample of applause compressed with a relatively low bitrate provides a good example of compression artifacts. A compression artifact (or artefact) is the result of an aggressive data compression scheme applied to an image, audio, or video that discards some data which is determined by an algorithm to be of lesser importance to the overall content but which is nonetheless discernible and objectionable to the user. ... Pre-echo is a psychoacoustic phenomenon where an unusually noticeable artifact is heard in a sound recording from the energy of time domain transients smeared backwards in time after processing in the frequency domain due to the Gibbs phenomenon. ...


Besides the bit rate of an encoded piece of audio, the quality of MP3 files also depends on the quality of the encoder itself, and the difficulty of the signal being encoded. As the MP3 standard allows quite a bit of freedom with encoding algorithms, different encoders may feature quite different quality, even when targeting similar bit rates. As an example, in a public listening test featuring two different MP3 encoders at about 128 kbit/s,[6] one scored 3.66 on a 1–5 scale, while the other scored only 2.22.


Quality is heavily dependent on the choice of encoder and encoding parameters. While quality around 128 kbit/s was somewhere between annoying and acceptable with older encoders, modern MP3 encoders can provide very good quality at those bit rates[7] (January 2006). However, in 1998, MP3 at 128 kbit/s was only providing quality equivalent to AAC-LC at 96 kbit/s and MP2 at 192 kbit/s.[8]


The transparency threshold of MP3 can be estimated to be at about 128 kbit/s with good encoders on typical music as evidenced by its strong performance in the above test, however some particularly difficult material can require 192 kbit/s or higher. As with all lossy formats, some samples cannot be encoded to be transparent for all users. In data compression or psychoacoustics, transparency is the ideal result of lossy data compression. ...


The simplest type of MP3 file uses one bit rate for the entire file — this is known as Constant Bit Rate (CBR) encoding. Using a constant bit rate makes encoding simpler and faster. However, it is also possible to create files where the bit rate changes throughout the file. These are known as Variable Bit Rate (VBR) files. The idea behind this is that, in any piece of audio, some parts will be much easier to compress, such as silence or music containing only a few instruments, while others will be more difficult to compress. So, the overall quality of the file may be increased by using a lower bit rate for the less complex passages and a higher one for the more complex parts. With some encoders, it is possible to specify a given quality, and the encoder will vary the bit rate accordingly. Users who know a particular "quality setting" that is transparent to their ears can use this value when encoding all of their music, and not need to worry about performing personal listening tests on each piece of music to determine the correct settings. Constant bit rate (CBR) is a term used in telecommunications, relating to the quality of service. ... Variable bitrate (VBR), or less commonly variable bit rate, is a term used in telecommunications and computing that relates to the bitrate used in sound or video encoding. ...


In a listening test, MP3 encoders at low bit rates performed significantly worse than those using more modern compression methods (such as AAC). In a 2004 public listening test at 32 kbit/s,[9] the LAME MP3 encoder scored only 1.79/5 — behind all modern encoders — with Nero Digital HE AAC scoring 3.30/5. Nero Digital is a suite of MPEG-4-compatible video and audio compression codecs integrated into a DVD ripping tool, Recode 2. ...


It is also important to note that perceived quality can be influenced by listening environment (ambient noise), listener attention, and listener training and in most cases by listener audio equipment (such as sound cards, speakers/headphones)


Bit rate

Several bit rates are specified in the MPEG-1 Layer 3 standard: 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 192, 224, 256 and 320 kbit/s, and the available sampling frequencies are 32, 44.1 and 48 kHz. A sample rate of 44.1 kHz is almost always used since this is also used for CD audio, the main source used for creating MP3 files. A greater variety of bit rates are used on the Internet. 128 kbit/s is the most common since it typically offers very good audio quality in a relatively small space. 192 kbit/s is often used by those who notice artifacts at lower bit rates. Although, as the Internet availability increased, and hard drive sizes have increased as well, 128kbit/s bitrate is slowly being replaced with higher bitrates like 192kbit/s, and more and more with top quality files encoded at 320kbit/s. ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ...


By contrast, uncompressed audio as stored on a compact disc has a bit rate of 1,411.2 kbit/s (16 bits/sample × 44100 samples/second × 2 channels / 1000 bits/kilobit). CD redirects here. ...


Some additional bit rates and sample rates were made available in the MPEG-2 and the (unofficial) MPEG-2.5 standards: bit rates of 8, 16, 24, and 144 kbit/s and sample rates of 8, 11.025, 12, 16, 22.05 and 24 kHz.


Non-standard bit rates up to 640 kbit/s can be achieved with the LAME encoder and the freeformat option, but few MP3 players can play those files. Gabriel Bouvigne, a principal developer of the LAME project, says that the freeformat option is compliant with the standard but, according to the standard, decoders are only required to be able to decode streams up to 320 kbit/s.[10] Look up lame in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


File structure

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


An MP3 file is made up of multiple MP3 frames, which consist of the MP3 header and the MP3 data. This sequence of frames is called an Elementary stream. Frames are independent items: one can cut the frames from a file and an MP3 player would be able to play it. The MP3 data is the actual audio payload. The diagram shows that the MP3 header consists of a sync word, which is used to identify the beginning of a valid frame. This is followed by a bit indicating that this is the MPEG standard and two bits that indicate that layer 3 is being used, hence MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 or MP3. After this, the values will differ depending on the MP3 file. ISO/IEC 11172-3 defines the range of values for each section of the header along with the specification of the header. Most MP3 files today contain ID3 metadata, which precedes or follows the MP3 frames; this is also shown in the diagram. Defined by MPEG communication protocol. ... In computing a syncword is used to synchronize data. ... The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Metadata is data about data. ...


Design limitations

There are several limitations inherent to the MP3 format that cannot be overcome by any MP3 encoder.


Newer audio compression formats such as Vorbis and AAC no longer have these limitations. Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ...


In technical terms, MP3 is limited in the following ways:

  • Bit rate is limited to a maximum of 320 kbit/s (while some encoders can create higher bit rates, there is little-to-no support for these higher bit rate mp3s)
  • Time resolution can be too low for highly transient signals, may cause some smearing of percussive sounds although this effect is to a great extent limited by the psychoacoustical properties of the Musicam polyphase filterbank (Layer II). Pre-echo is concealed due to the specific time-domain characteristics of the filter.
  • Frequency resolution is limited by the small long block window size, decreasing coding efficiency
  • No scale factor band for frequencies above 15.5/15.8 kHz
  • Joint stereo is done on a frame-to-frame basis
  • Encoder/decoder overall delay is not defined, which means lack of official provision for gapless playback. However, some encoders such as LAME can attach additional metadata that will allow players that are aware of it to deliver seamless playback.

A filter bank is an array of band-pass filters that separates the input signal into several components, each one carrying a single frequency subband of the original signal. ... A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... In audio engineering, joint refers to a joining of several channels of similar information in some way, in order to obtain, for example, higher quality or smaller file size. ... An encoder is a device used to encode a signal (such as a bitstream) or data into a form that is acceptable for transmission or storage. ... A Digitrax DH163AT DCC decoder in an Athearn locomotive before the shell goes on. ... Gapless playback is the seamless playback of digital audio formats. ... Look up lame in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

ID3 and other tags

Main articles: ID3 and APEv2 tag

A "tag" in a compressed audio file is a section of the file that contains metadata such as the title, artist, album, track number or other information about the file's contents. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... APEv2 tags are used to add metadata, such as the title, artist, or track number, to digital audio files. ... Metadata is data about data. ...


As of 2006, the most widespread standard tag formats are ID3v1 and ID3v2, and the more recently introduced APEv2. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... APEv2 tags are used to add metadata, such as the title, artist, or track number, to digital audio files. ...


APEv2 was originally developed for the MPC file format (see the APEv2 specification). APEv2 can coexist with ID3 tags in the same file or it can also be used by itself. MPC, or Musepack, is an open source optimized version of the MPEG-1 Audio Layer 2 / MP2 lossy audio compression format. ...


Tag editing functionality is often built-in to MP3 players and editors, but there also exist tag editors dedicated to the purpose. A tag editor (or tagger) is a piece of software that supports editing metadata of multimedia file formats, rather than the actual file content. ...


Volume normalization

As compact discs and other various sources are recorded and mastered at different volumes, it may be useful to store volume information about a file in the tag so that at playback time, the volume can be dynamically adjusted. CD redirects here. ...


A few standards for encoding the gain of an MP3 file have been proposed. The idea is to normalize the average volume (not the volume peaks) of audio files, so that the volume does not change between consecutive tracks. This should not be confused with dynamic range compression (DRC), which is a form of normalization used in audio mastering. Dynamic range compression also called DRC (often seen in DVD player settings), audio level compression, volume compression, compression, or limiting, is a process that manipulates the dynamic range of an audio signal. ...


Listeners who prefer to experience music as it was intended to be heard on the original compact disc may prefer to not use volume normalization, because the average volume of each track was set intentionally by a professional mastering engineer.


The most popular and widely used solution for storing replay gain is known simply as "Replay Gain". Typically, the average volume and clipping information about audio track is stored in the metadata tag. Replay Gain is a proposed standard published in 2001 to normalize the perceived loudness of computer audio formats such as MP3 and Ogg Vorbis. ...


Licensing and patent issues

A large number of different organizations have claimed ownership of patents necessary to implement MP3 (decoding and/or encoding). These different claims have led to a number of legal actions, and legal threats, from a variety of sources, resulting in uncertainty about what is necessary to legally create MP3-supporting products with MP3 support in countries that permit software patents.


The various patents claimed to cover MP3 by different patent-holders have many different expiration dates, ranging from 2007 to 2017 in the U.S.[11]


Thomson Consumer Electronics claims to control MP3 licensing of the MPEG-1/2 Layer 3 patents in many countries, including the United States, Japan, Canada and EU countries.[12] Thomson has been actively enforcing these patents. This article is about the media and entertainment company. ...


For current information about Fraunhofer IIS and Thomson's patent portfolio and licensing terms and fees see their website mp3licensing.com. MP3 license revenues generated ca. 100 million Euro revenue to the Fraunhofer Society in 2005.[13] The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ... A patent portfolio is a collection of patents filed and owned by a single inventor or corporation that may be related or unrelated. ...


In September 1998, the Fraunhofer Institute sent a letter to several developers of MP3 software stating that a license was required to "distribute and/or sell decoders and/or encoders". The letter claimed that unlicensed products "infringe the patent rights of Fraunhofer and THOMSON. To make, sell and/or distribute products using the [MPEG Layer-3] standard and thus our patents, you need to obtain a license under these patents from us."[14]


These patent issues significantly slowed the development of unlicensed MP3 software[citation needed] and led to increased focus on creating and popularizing alternatives such as Vorbis, AAC, and WMA. Microsoft, the makers of the Windows operating system, chose to move away from MP3 to their own proprietary Windows Media formats to avoid the licensing issues associated with the patents.[citation needed] Until the key patents expire, unlicensed encoders and players could be infringing in countries where the patents are valid. Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows Media is a multimedia framework for media creation and distribution for Microsoft Windows. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


In spite of the patent restrictions, the perpetuation of the MP3 format continues; the reasons for this appear to be the network effects caused by: A network effect is a characteristic that causes a good or service to have a value to a potential customer which depends on the number of other customers who own the good or are users of the service. ...

  • familiarity with the format,
  • the large quantity of music now available in the MP3 format,
  • the wide variety of existing software and hardware that takes advantage of the file format,
  • the lack of DRM restrictions, which makes MP3 files easy to edit, copy and play in different portable digital players (Samsung, Apple, Creative, etc.),
  • the majority of home users not knowing or not caring about the patents controversy, who often do not consider such legal issues in choosing their music format for personal use.

Additionally, patent holders declined to enforce license fees on free and open source decoders, allowing many free MP3 decoders to develop.[15] Furthermore, while attempts have been made to discourage distribution of encoder binaries, Thomson has stated that individuals using free MP3 encoders are not required to pay fees. Thus while patent fees have been an issue for companies attempting to use MP3, they have not meaningfully impacted users, allowing the format to grow in popularity. Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... ...


Sisvel S.p.A. and its U.S. subsidiary Audio MPEG, Inc. previously sued Thomson for patent infringement on MP3 technology,[16] but those disputes were resolved in November 2005 with Sisvel granting Thomson a license to their patents. Motorola also recently signed with Audio MPEG to license MP3-related patents.


In September 2006 German officials seized MP3 players from SanDisk's booth at the IFA show in Berlin after an Italian patents firm won an injunction on behalf of Sisvel against SanDisk in a dispute over licencing rights. The injunction was later reversed by a Berlin judge;[17] but that reversal was in turn blocked the same day by another judge from the same court, "bringing the Patent Wild West to Germany" in the words of one commentator.[18] SanDisk Corporation (NASDAQ: SNDK), formerly SunDisk, is an American multinational corporation which designs and markets flash memory card products. ... The IFA or Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin (International radio exhibition Berlin) is one of the oldest industrial exhibitions of Germany. ...


On February 16, 2007, Texas MP3 Technologies sued Apple, Samsung Electronics and Sandisk with a patent-infringement lawsuit regarding portable MP3 players. The suit was filed in Marshall, Texas; this is a common location for patent infringement suits due to speedy trials. Texas MP3 Technologies claimed infringement with U.S. patent 7,065,417, awarded in June 2006 to multimedia chip-maker SigmaTel, covering "an MPEG portable sound reproducing system and a method for reproducing sound data compressed using the MPEG method."[19] is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas is the Federal district court with jurisdiction over the eastern part of Texas and is a part of the Fifth Circuit. ...


Alcatel-Lucent also claims ownership of several patents relating to MP3 encoding and compression. In November 2006, (prior to the companies' merger) Alcatel filed a lawsuit against Microsoft (see Alcatel-Lucent v. Microsoft), alleging infringement of seven of its patents. On February 23, 2007 a San Diego court upheld the suit, and awarded Alcatel-Lucent a record-breaking US$1.52 billion in damages.[20] Microsoft has said it will appeal the verdict, maintaining that the federal jury's decision is "unsupported by the law or facts", since Microsoft had already paid US$16 million to license the technology from Fraunhofer IIS, which, it claims, is "the industry-recognized rightful licensor".[21] A week later on March 2, U.S. District Judge Rudi Brewster ruled from the bench in a related suit and dismissed all of Alcatel-Lucent's patents claims relating to speech recognition. Alcatel-Lucent plans to appeal the ruling.[22] Alcatel Lucent (or Alcatel-Lucent according to some sources) is the name of the new company formed after the merge agreement signed by Alcatel and Lucent Technologies. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Alcatel-Lucent claims ownership of several patents relating to MP3 encoding and compression technologies. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Alcatel Lucent (or Alcatel-Lucent according to some sources) is the name of the new company formed after the merge agreement signed by Alcatel and Lucent Technologies. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In short, with Thomson, Fraunhofer IIS, Sisvel (and its U.S. subsidiary Audio MPEG), Texas MP3 Technologies, and Alcatel-Lucent all claiming legal control of relevant MP3 patents related to decoders, the legal status of MP3 remains unclear in countries where those patents are valid.


Alternative technologies

Main article: List of codecs

Many other lossy and lossless audio codecs exist. Among these, mp3PRO, AAC, and MP2 are all members of the same technological family as MP3 and depend on roughly similar psychoacoustic models. The Fraunhofer Gesellschaft owns many of the basic patents underlying these codecs as well, with others held by Dolby Labs, Sony, Thomson Consumer Electronics, and AT&T. The following is a list of codecs. ... A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal. ... mp3PRO was an audio compression algorithm (or codec) that combines the MP3 audio format with spectral band replication compression methods. ... Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... MP2 can refer to: MP2 (format) audio files This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human perception of sounds. ... The Fraunhofer Society (German Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization named after the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer, with 58 institutes spread over Germany each focusing on different fields of applied science, as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works mostly on basic science. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Dolby Laboratories, Incorporated (Dolby Labs) is a company specializing in audio compression and reproduction. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Thomson SA (NYSE: TMS)(Euronext: TMM) , formerly known as Thomson Multimedia is a multinational electronics manufacturer and media services provider headquartered in Boulogne, France. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ...


In a 2005 listening test[7] that compared the performance of the LAME MP3 encoder against more modernized compression formats at 128 kbit/s, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the results for LAME, Vorbis, several AAC encoders, and WMA. However, a test at a very low bit rate of 32 kbit/s[9] showed that MP3 was significantly worse than the more modern codecs at that lower bit rate. Look up lame in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ...


See also

The following tables compare general and technical information for a variety of audio codecs. ... The Cathach of St. ... Apple iPod, the best-selling hard drive-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player or DAP is a portable, handheld digital music player that stores, organizes and... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In audio engineering, joint refers to a joining of several channels of similar information in some way, in order to obtain, for example, higher quality or smaller file size. ... LRC is a computer file format that synchronizes song lyrics with an audio file, such as MP3, Vorbis or MIDI. When an audio file is played with certain music players on a computer or on modern digital audio players, the song lyrics are displayed. ... This article is about media players in general. ... An MP3 blog is a type of weblog in which the creator makes music files, normally in the MP3 format, available for download. ... MP3 Surround is a type of MP3 that supports 5. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... DJ digital controllers are MIDI controllers for playing computer based music tracks, normally at clubs or events. ... Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ...

References

  1. ^ "Optimizing Digital Speech Coding by Exploiting Masking Properties of the Human Ear"; M. R. Schroeder, B. S. Atal and J. L. Hall; J. Acoust. Soc. Am.; received 8 June 1979; accepted for publication 13 August 1979; Dec. 1979
  2. ^ "Digital Encoding of Speech and Audio Signals Based on the Perceptual Requirements of the Auditory System"; M. A. Krasner; Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory Technical Report 535; 18 June 1979
  3. ^ "On the Psychoacoustical Equivalent of Tuning Curves"; E. F. Zwicker; Proceedings of the Symposium on Psychophysical Models and Physiological Facts in Hearing; held at Tuzing, Oberbayern, April 22 -26, 1974
  4. ^ "OCF: Coding High Quality Audio with Data Rates of 64 KBit/sec; K. Brandenburg, D. Seitzer; Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen; Presented at the 85th Convention of the Audio Engineering Society; Los Angeles; November 3-6 1988
  5. ^ Jack Ewing (March 5, 2007). How MP3 Was Born. BusinessWeek.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  6. ^ [|Amorim, Roberto] (2003-08-03), Results of 128kbps Extension Public Listening Test, <http://www.rjamorim.com/test/128extension/results.html>. Retrieved on 2007-03-17
  7. ^ a b [|Mares, Sebastian] (2006–01), Results of Public, Multiformat Listening Test @ 128 kbps, <http://www.listening-tests.info/mf-128-1/results.htm>. Retrieved on 2007-03-17
  8. ^ David Meares, Kaoru Watanabe & Eric Scheirer (1998–02). "Report on the MPEG-2 AAC Stereo Verification Tests" (PDF). International Organisation for Standardisation. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  9. ^ a b [|Amorim, Roberto] (2004-07-11), Results of Dial-up bit rate public Listening Test, <http://www.rjamorim.com/test/32kbps/results.html>. Retrieved on 2007-03-17
  10. ^ [|Bouvigne, Gabriel] (2006-11-28), freeformat at 640 kbps and foobar2000, possibilities?, <http://www.hydrogenaudio.org/forums/index.php?s=&showtopic=38808&view=findpost&p=452751>. Retrieved on 2007-03-17
  11. ^ tunequest (2007-02-26). Big List of MP3 Patents (and supposed expiration dates).
  12. ^ Acoustic Data Compression -- MP3 Base Patent. Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure (January 15, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  13. ^ Muzinée Kistenfeger (May, 2006). The Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, FhG). British Consulate-General Munich. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  14. ^ Early MP3 Patent Enforcement. Chilling Effects Clearinghouse (September 1, 1998). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  15. ^ Glyn Moody (June 15, 2007). Should We Fight for Ogg Vorbis?. Linux Journal. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  16. ^ Audio MPEG and Sisvel: Thomson sued for patent infringement in Europe and the United States - MP3 players stopped by customs. ZDNet India (October 6, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  17. ^ Erica Ogg (September 7, 2006). SanDisk MP3 seizure order overturned. CNET News.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  18. ^ Sisvel brings Patent Wild West into Germany. IPEG blog (September 7, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  19. ^ Martyn Williams (2007-02-26). Texas MP3 Technologies claims the companies infringed its patent covering 'an MPEG portable sound reproducing system'. IDG News Service.
  20. ^ BBC report of the Alcatel-Lucent lawsuit verdict: Microsoft faces $1.5bn MP3 payout (February 22, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  21. ^ Joe Wilcox (2007-02-23). Microsoft's Patent Disputes with Alcatel-Lucent, AT&T Make Waves.
  22. ^ Anne Broache (2007-03-02). Microsoft wins in second Alcatel-Lucent patent suit. CNET News.com, published on ZDNet news.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Fraunhofer IIS
  • The Story of MP3 — How MP3 was invented, by Fraunhofer IIS
  • List of relevant patents
  • Thomson Licensing FAQ

  Results from FactBites:
 
MP3 blog - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (558 words)
The publicity generated by MP3 blogs crossed the line from the internet to TV in early 2005, when Music (For Robots) was featured during MTV's TRL program for bringing the Hysterics, a Brooklyn rock band comprised of four 14 and 15 year-old high school students, to the network's attention.
Many MP3 blogs post copyright infringing material, though a fair number also post tracks with the granted permission of the artist and/or label that holds the copyright.
Generally, MP3 blogs avoid prosecution by the copyright holders because even the most popular MP3 blogs have only thousands of regular visitors and post songs from independent labels, making them a much smaller concern than file sharing programs used to spread more popular music.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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