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Encyclopedia > MOS Technology SID
MOS Technology SIDs: The right image shows a 6581 from MOS Technology, at the time they were known as the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) and the left image shows an 8580 from MOS Technology. The numbers 0488 and 3290 are in WWYY form, i.e. the chips were produced week 4 1988 and week 32 1990. The last number is probably a batch number.
MOS Technology SIDs: The right image shows a 6581 from MOS Technology, at the time they were known as the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) and the left image shows an 8580 from MOS Technology. The numbers 0488 and 3290 are in WWYY form, i.e. the chips were produced week 4 1988 and week 32 1990. The last number is probably a batch number.

The MOS Technology 6581/8580 SID (Sound Interface Device) was the built-in sound chip of Commodore's CBM-II, Commodore 64, Commodore 128 and Commodore MAX Machine home computers. It was one of the first sound chips of its kind to be included in a home computer prior to the digital sound revolution. Image of the MOS Technology SID also known as 6581. ... Image of the MOS Technology SID also known as 6581. ... MOS Technology, Inc. ... A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... The Commodore CBM-II series was a short-lived range of 8-bit personal computers from Commodore Business Machines (CBM), intended as a follow-on to the Commodore PET series, released in 1982. ... The Commodore 64 is the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. ... The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was Commodore Business Machiness (CBM) last commercially released 8-bit machine. ... The Commodore MAX Machine, also known as Ultimax in the United States and VC-10 in Germany, was a computer designed and sold by Commodore International in Japan, beginning in early 1982, a predecessor to the popular Commodore 64. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... Digital sound revolution refers to the adoption of digital audio technology during the 1980s. ...


Together with the VIC-II graphics chip, the SID was instrumental in making the C64 the best-selling computer in history, and is partly credited for initiating the demoscene. The VIC-II (Video Interface Chip II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 (NTSC versions), 6569/8565/8566 (PAL), is the integrated circuit chip tasked with generating composite video graphics and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64 and C128 home computers. ... The demoscene is a computer art subculture that specializes itself on producing demos, non-interactive audio-visual presentations, which are run real-time on a computer. ...


The SID has U.S. Patent 4,677,890 , which was filed on February 27, 1983 and issued on July 7, 1987. The patent expired on July 7, 2004. February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Design process

The SID was devised by engineer Robert "Bob" Yannes, who later co-founded the Ensoniq digital synthesizer company. Yannes headed a team that included Yannes, two technicians and a CAD operator running Applicon (now a part of the UGS Corp.), who designed and completed the chip in five months' time in the latter half of 1981. Yannes was inspired by previous work in the synthesizer industry and was not impressed by the current state of computer sound chips. Instead, he wanted a high-quality instrument chip, which is the reason why the SID has features like the envelope generator, previously not found in home computer sound chips. Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ensoniq Corp. ... A synthesizer (or synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument designed to produce electronically generated sound, using techniques such as additive, subtractive, FM, physical modelling synthesis, phase distortion, or Scanned synthesis. ... PCB Layout Program Electronic design automation (EDA) is the category of tools for designing and producing electronic systems ranging from printed circuit boards (PCBs) to integrated circuits. ... UGS (previously known as Unigraphics Solutions Inc. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

I thought the sound chips on the market, including those in the Atari computers, were primitive and obviously had been designed by people who knew nothing about music.

Robert Yannes, On the Edge: The Spectacular Rise and Fall of Commodore

Emphasis during chip design was on high-precision frequency control, and the SID was originally designed to have 32 independent voices, sharing a common oscillator. However these features could not be finished in time, so instead the mask work for a certain working oscillator was simply replicated three times across the chip surface, creating three voices with a unique oscillator for each voice. Another feature that was not incorporated in the final design was a frequency look-up table for the most common musical notes, a feature that was dropped because of space limitations. The support for an audio input pin was a feature Yannes added without asking, even though this had no practical use in a computer, although it enabled the chip to be used as a simple effect processor. The masks were produced in 7-micrometer technology in order to gain a high yield: the current state-of-the-art at the time was 6-micrometer technologies. It has been suggested that Effects pedal be merged into this article or section. ...


The chip, like the first product using it (the Commodore 64), was finished in time for the Consumer Electronics Show in the first weekend of January 1982. Even though Yannes was partly displeased with the result, his colleague Charles Winterble said: "This thing is already 10 times better than anything out there and 20 times better than it needs to be." The Commodore 64 is the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. ... The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The specifications for the chip were not used as a blueprint. Rather, they were written as the development work progressed, and not all planned features made it into the final product. Yannes claims he had a feature-list of which three fourths made it into the final design. This is the reason why some of the specifications for the first version (6581) were accidentally incorrect. The later revision (8580) was revised to match the specification. For example, the 8580 can make a logical AND between two waveforms, something that the 6581 could never handle. Another feature that differs between the two revisions is the filter: the 6581 version is far away from the specification.


Features

Cross coupled LC oscillator with output on top An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a repetitive electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave. ... In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double its frequency. ... The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI unit of frequency. ... Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A triangle wave is a waveform named for its triangular shape. ... A square wave is a kind of basic waveform. ... White noise spectrum White noise( ) is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. ... Television signal splitter consisting of a hi-pass and a low-pass filter. ... A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low frequencies but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. ... A high-pass filter is a filter that passes high frequencies well, but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency. ... The frequency axis of this symbolic diagram would be logarithmically scaled. ... The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit of measurement that expresses the magnitude of a physical quantity (usually power) relative to a specified or implied reference level. ... In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double its frequency. ... A notch filter, also called a band-stop filter, sometimes a narrow band-pass filter, or T-notch filter, is an electronic filter typically used when the high frequency and the low frequency are less than 1 to 2 decades apart (that is, the high frequency is less than 10... An ADSR envelope is a parameter used in synthesizers, including those that produce sound by subtractive synthesis, to control the sound produced. ... Ring modulation is an audio effect performed by multiplying two audio signals, where one is typically a sine-wave or another simple waveform. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... This article or section should include material from AD converters In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D, or A to D) is a device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. ... A paddle is a game controller with a round wheel and one or more fire buttons, where the wheel is typically used to control movement of the player object along one axis of the video screen. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into randomness. ...

Technical details

6581 Pin configuration
6581 Pin configuration

The SID is a mixed-mode integrated circuit, featuring both digital and analog circuitry. All control ports are digital, but the output ports are analog. The SID features three-voice synthesis, where each voice may use one of four different waveforms: square wave (with variable pulse width), triangle wave, sawtooth wave and a pseudo-random (but not white noise) wave. Each voice may be ring modulated with one of the other waves, i.e. the frequency spectrum is convoluted and output. The ring modulation, filter, and programming techniques for switching between different waveforms at high speed make up the characteristic sound of the SID. Image File history File links MOS6581. ... Image File history File links MOS6581. ... This article or section should be merged with Mixed-signal_circuit A mixed-mode integrated circuit is an integrated circuit with both digital and analog electronics integrated on the same chip (silicon die). ... A square wave is a kind of basic waveform. ... A triangle wave is a waveform named for its triangular shape. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... White noise spectrum White noise( ) is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. ... Ring modulation is an audio effect performed by multiplying two audio signals, where one is typically a sine-wave or another simple waveform. ...


Each voice may be passed through a common, digitally controlled analog filter with variable cut-off frequency and resonance, which is constructed with the aid of capacitors external to the circuit. An external audio in port enables external audio to be passed through the filter.


The 6581 had a quirk that caused changes in volume level on a channel to result in a slight "pop". Eventually this bug was found to be useful for producing a fourth voice of percussive sounds, digitized speech, and even short excerpts of digital recordings (the Commodore 64 lacked the memory capacity for full-length digital recordings of songs). Unfortunately, this "defect" was partially corrected in the 8580 used in the Commodore 64C and the Commodore 128. This made digitized sound (samples) very quiet. Fortunately, the volume level could be mostly restored with either a hardware modification, or a software trick involving the Pulse waveform. The software trick generally renders one voice temporarily unusable, although clever musical compositions can make this problem less noticeable. The Commodore 64 is the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. ... The Commodore 128 (C128, CBM 128, C=128) home/personal computer was Commodore Business Machiness (CBM) last commercially released 8-bit machine. ...


The 6581 and 8580 differ from each other in several ways. The original 6581 was manufactured using the older NMOS process, which used 12V DC to operate. The 8580 was made using the HMOS-II process, which required less power (9V DC), and therefore made the IC run cooler. The 8580 was thus far more durable than the 6581. Additionally, a better separation between the analog and the digital circuits made the 8580 chip's output less noisy and distorted. A simple hardware modification can be added to 6581-based computers to remove most of the noise, but this involves disabling the Audio-In function. NMOS logic uses n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... Integrated circuit showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...


A HMOS-II version of the 6581 was produced, the 6582. Like the 8580, this chip used 5 volts and 9 volts for its power supplies. It was never shipped in new Commodore 64s, however due to its lower voltage requirement, Creative Micro Designs later used it in their SID Symphony expansion cartridge. Creative Micro Designs (CMD) is a computer technologies company which today sells PCs and equipment, but which started out in 1987 selling self-designed hardware for the Commodore 64 and C128 8-bit computers. ...


The original manual for the SID mentions that if several waveforms are enabled at the same time, the result will be a logical AND between them, but only the 8580 actually has this functionality: on the 6581 some waveform combinations will only yield silence or be close to inaudible, depending on the chip revision. One notable exception is that all 6581 revisions appear to be capable of using the Sawtooth + Pulse waveform combination, the output from which is actually a logical AND of the Sawtooth and Triangle waveform oscillator values, resulting in a very complex final waveform, even though the Triangle waveform was not explicitly requested. The filter is also different between the two models, with the 8580 being closer to the actual specification.


Despite its documented shortcomings, many SID musicians prefer the flawed 6581 chip over the corrected 8580 chip. The main reason for this is that the filter produces strong distortion that is sometimes used to produce simulation of instruments such as a distorted electric guitar. Also, the highpass component of the filter was mixed in 3 dB attenuated compared to the other outputs, making the sound more bassy. In addition to nonlinearities in filter, the D/A circuitry used in the waveform generators produced yet more additional distortion that made its sound softer and smoother.


Revisions

As far as anyone knows, the 6581 R1 never reached the market. Yannes has stated: "The SID chip came out pretty well the first time, it made sound. Everything we needed for the show was working after the second pass." This probably means that the R1 was the first round of chips and R2 actually the second mask produced. High-resolution photos of Charles Winterble's prototype C64 show the markings "MOS 6581 2082" (no R2 thus presumably an R1) which probably means that the first round of prototype SID chips were produced week 20, 1982. 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


These are the known revisions of the various SID chips:

  • 6581 R2 - this only has "MOS" "6581" markings on the package
  • 6581 R3 - will say "6581 R3" or "6581 CBM" on the package
  • 6581 R4 - Produced by MOS in 1987. Will say "6581R4" on the package.
  • 6581 R4 AR - will say "6581 R4 AR" on the package
  • 6582 A - typically produced around 1992
  • 8580 R5 - produced from 1987 to 1992

Some of these chips will be marked "CSG" as in Commodore Semiconductor Group (and Commodore logo) rather than "MOS". This even goes for chips produced at the same week, indicating that the printers painting figures on top of the chip packages must have been from different factory lines.


Game audio

The Commodore 64 had slow tape and disk drive protocols (both serial), taking minutes to completely fill its 64K RAM. As a result, while the cassette tape or disk loaded it was common for game companies to either use a loader that used faster protocols, or put up a graphics display and play music and multitask (or even offer rudimentary interaction with a simple game, or a way to manipulate the tune playing), in what was sometimes called a "loader". The combination of slow loading and an excellent sound chip may be why composers for Commodore game music have received somewhat more attention compared to composers for other game platforms.


Well known composers of game music for this chip are Martin Galway, known for many titles, including Wizball, and Rob Hubbard, known for titles such as ACE 2, Delta, International Karate, IK+, and Monty on the Run. Other noteworthies include Jeroen Tel (Cybernoid and Myth) and Chris Hülsbeck, whose composition career started with the SID but has spanned nearly every kind of computer music and other synthesizers since. Martin Galway (born January 3, 1966, Belfast, Northern Ireland) is one of the best known composers of music for the Commodore 64 sound chip, the SID soundchip. ... Wizball on the C64 Wizball on the Atari ST Wizball is a computer game written by Jon Hare and Chris Yates (who together formed the company Sensible Software) and released in 1987 for the Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum and Amstrad CPC. Versions for the Amiga, Atari ST and PC were... Rob Hubbard (born 1956?, Kingston upon Hull, England) is a music composer best known for his composition of computer game theme music, especially for microcomputers of the 1980s such as the Commodore 64. ... Delta is a horizontally-scrolling shooter computer game origianlly released for the Commodore 64 by Thalamus Ltd in 1987. ... International Karate is a 1986 karate computer game for the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, Amstrad CPC and Atari 8-bit family of computers. ... A screenshot of the Commodore 64 version of International Karate + International Karate + is a karate computer game published in 1987 by System 3 for the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64 and Amstrad CPC. Conversions of this game were later released for the Atari ST, Amiga and AmigaCD32. ... Monty on the Run is a computer game created by the software house Gremlin Graphics for the C64, Spectrum and Amstrad CPC with music written by Rob Hubbard. ... Jeroen Godfried Tel (aka Wave) is a Dutchman known for numerous computer game tunes he wrote in the 1980s and early 1990s for the Commodore 64. ... Chris Hülsbeck (born 1968) is a game music composer from Germany. ...


Conventional Music

SID sounds and snippets of SID music has been introduced into mainstream music at several occasions:

1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Zombie Nation is a German techno and electro project of the Munich based DJ and producer Florian Senfter (aka Splank!). Until 1999 Emanuel Guenther (aka Mooner) was also involved in the project. ... David Whittaker is known for numerous computer game tunes he wrote in 1980s and early 1990s for many different formats. ... Lazy Jones is a computer game for the Commodore 64. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rollergirl (born 1977), real name Nicole Saft which translates in English as Nicci Juice is a German artist. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Elektron SidStation is a musical synthesizer sound module, built around the MOS Technology SID mixed-mode synthesizer chip originally used in the Commodore 64 home computer. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bas Bron is a musical artist and a producer of mostly electronic music from Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ... Jeroen Godfried Tel (aka Wave) is a Dutchman known for numerous computer game tunes he wrote in the 1980s and early 1990s for the Commodore 64. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the British international monthly publication see Diplo magazine. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... Timothy Z. Mosley (born March 10, 1971), better known as Timbaland, is an American musical composer and R&B record producer and rapper whose style influenced both genres even helping to blur the distinction between the two, as well as Pop and Dance music. ... The SidStation is a musical synthesizer, based on the MOS Technology SID mixed-mode synthesizer chip. ... In January 2007, the Finnish Broadcasting Company reported that Timbaland was alleged to have plagiarized several elements (both motifs and samples) in the song Do It on the 2006 album Loose by Nelly Furtado without giving credit or compensation. ... Do It is a song on Canadian singer Nelly Furtados third album, Loose (2006). ... Nelly Kim Furtado (born December 2, 1978) is a Canadian singer, songwriter, record producer, and instrumentalist of Portuguese descent. ...

Modern developments

  • In 1989 on the Amiga computer, the demo "The 100 Most Remembered C64 Tunes" and later the PlaySID application was released, developed by Per Håkan Sundell and Ron Birk. This was one of the first attempts to emulate the SID in software only, and also introduced a fileformat for representing songs made on the C64 using the SID chip. This later spawned the creation of similar applications for other platforms as well as the creation of a community of people fascinated in SID music.
  • In 1997, an electronic musical instrument utilizing the SID chip as its synthesis engine was released. It is called the SidStation, and it's produced by Swedish company Elektron. As the SID chip had been discontinued for years, Elektron allegedly bought up almost all of the remaining stock. In 2004, Elektron released the Monomachine pattern-based sequencer with optional keyboard. The Monomachine contains several synthesis engines, including a single 6581 oscillator with ring modulation. Unlike the Sidstation, the Monomachine simulates a 6581 oscillator using a DSP.
  • In June 1998, a cycle-based SID emulator engine called reSID became available. The all-software emulator, available with C++ source code, is licensed under the GPL by the author, Dag Lem.
  • In 1999, a sound card for IBM PC compatibles called HardSID was released. The card uses from one to four SID chips and allows a PC to utilize the sound capabilities of the chip directly, instead of by emulation via generic sound cards (e.g. SoundBlaster).
  • The MIDIbox SID is a MIDI-controlled synthesizer which can contain up to four SID chips. It is a free open source project using a PIC microcontroller. Control of the synthesizer is managed either via software or via a control panel with knobs, LEDs etc., which may be mounted on a keyboardless Commodore 64 body.
  • The Prophet64 is a newly developed cartridge containing four different music applications mimicing everything from modern sequencers to the Roland 303/909 series. Through the user port, the Prophet64 is synchronized to MIDI-instruments via DIN Sync standard (SYNC 24).
  • Artist/Hacker Paul Slocum developed the Cynthcart cartridge that enables you to turn your C64 into an analogue synthesizer. The Cynthcart is available through atariage.com.
  • The Parallel Port SID Interface allows those with very slim budgets to connect the SID chip to a PC.
  • The SwinSID emulation of SID on the Atmel AVR processor and real SID player using Atmel AVR processor.
  • The V-SID 1.0 project (code name SID 6581D, 'D' for digital) from David Amoros was borned in 2005. This project is a hardware emulation of the SID chip from the Bob Yannes's interview, datasheets. The V-SID 1.0 engine had been implemented in a FPGA EP1C12 Cyclone from ALTERA, on an ALTIUM development board, and emulates all the characteristics of the original SID, except the filter which is a digital version (IIR filter controlled by a CPU).
  • The PhoenixSID 65X81 project (2006) aims to faithfully create the SID sound using modern hardware. The workings of a SID chip are recreated on an FPGA, based on interviews with the SID's creator, original datasheets, and comparisons with real SID chips. It is distinguished from similar attempts by its use of real analog circuitry instead of emulation for the legendary SID filter.

1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Per HÃ¥kan Sundell (born 1968, Sweden) is a programmer and computer scientist with roots in the scene and early computer entusiasts of the eighties. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. ... The SidStation is a musical synthesizer, based on the MOS Technology SID mixed-mode synthesizer chip. ... Elektron is an electronic musical instrument company, based in Gothenburg, Sweden. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Monomachine is a synthesizer by Elektron. ... In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was originally any device that recorded and played back a sequence of control information for an electronic musical instrument. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean by UNESCO. [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... reSID is a reverse engineered software emulation of the MOS6581 SID (Sound Interface Device). ... C++ (pronounced see plus plus, IPA: ) is a general-purpose, high-level programming language with low-level facilities. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... GPL redirects here. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... A sound card is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The HardSID is a family of sound cards, produced by a Hungarian company Hard Software and originally conceived by Teli Sándor. ... The Sound Blaster family of sound cards was for many years the de facto standard for audio on the IBM PC compatible system platform, before audio has been commoditized. ... For the childrens television show, see Catweazle. ... Individual Computers is a German computer hardware company specializing in retrocomputing accessories for the Commodore 64, Amiga, and PC platforms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... The original Amiga 1000 (1985) with various peripherals The Amiga is a family of personal computers originally developed by Amiga Corporation. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... PIC microcontrollers in DIP and QFN packages PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instruments Microelectronics Division. ... Led is also the past tense of the verb to lead Blue, green and red LEDs. ... The SYNC standard, often called DIN sync, defines an interface for electronic music instruments. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A field-programmable gate array or FPGA is a gate array that can be reprogrammed after it is manufactured, rather than having its programming fixed during the manufacturing — a programmable logic device. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... A field-programmable gate array or FPGA is a gate array that can be reprogrammed after it is manufactured, rather than having its programming fixed during the manufacturing — a programmable logic device. ...

SID file format

A .SID file, colloquially known as "a SID" and also referred to as a PSID file, is a sound data file not only containing the note patterns, but also the 6502 program code - often called a "player" - needed to replay the music on the SID. All actual sound is produced by the SID chip, or a software emulator that emulates the SID chip. The High Voltage SID Collection contains over 30,000 SID tunes. The SID files have the MIME media type audio/prs.sid The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ... An emulator reproducing a console games playable atmosphere on a Windows computer. ... The High Voltage SID Collection is both the name of a project to build a collection of music created on the MOS Technology 6581/8580 SID sound chip in Commodore CBM-II, Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 home computers and the collection itself. ... Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ...


The SID file format is not a native format used on the Commodore 64 or 128, but a format specifically created for emulator-assisted music players such as PlaySID and Sidplay. However, there are loaders like RealSIDPlay and converters such as PSID64 that make it possible to play a substantial portion of SID files on original Commodore computers.


References

  • Appendix O, "6581 Sound Interface Device (SID) Chip Specifications", of the Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference Guide (see the C64 article).
  • Bagnall, Brian. On The Edge: The Spectacular Rise and Fall of Commodore, pp.231–238,370–371. ISBN 0-9738649-0-7.

See also

The VIC (Video Interface Chip), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6560 (NTSC version) / 6561 (PAL version), is the integrated circuit chip responsible for generating video graphics and sound in the Commodore VIC-20 home computer. ... VIC-20 with accessories. ... Atari POKEY (C012294) pin-out The Atari POKEY is a digital I/O chip found in the Atari 8-bit family of home computers and many arcade games in the 1980s. ... The Original Chip Set (OCS) was a chipset used in the earliest Commodore Amiga computers. ... MOS 6581 and 8580 Commodore 64 SID chips Chiptune, or chip music, or micromusic is music written in sound formats where all the sounds are synthesized in realtime by a computer or video game console sound chip, instead of using sample-based synthesis. ... A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i. ... The High Voltage SID Collection is both the name of a project to build a collection of music created on the MOS Technology 6581/8580 SID sound chip in Commodore CBM-II, Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 home computers and the collection itself. ... Machinae Supremacy (pronounced muh-sheen suh-prem-uh-see[1], IPA: ) is a band from Luleå, Sweden that combines modern heavy metal and alternative rock with bitpop. ... PRESS PLAY ON TAPE is a revival and tribute rock band to the music used in games on the 1980s Commodore 64 home computer. ...

External links

SID information

Hardware The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

Software / emulators

  • PlaySID - SID emulator for Amiga
  • PSID64 — Converts SID files to executables for playing SID music on a real C64
  • SIDplay2 - SID emulator for Windows and Linux
  • SIDPLAY - SID emulator for Mac OS X
  • JSIDplay Java based SID player (with HVSC on-line)
  • ACID64 Player [1]
  • unknown64 - a VSTi Commodore64/SID Chip emulator
  • QuadraSID - a commercial VST Commodore64/SID Chip emulator
  • Chipamp - Winamp plug-in bundle compiled by OverClocked ReMix allowing playback of over 40 chiptune and tracker formats
  • foo_sid - SID file plugin for foobar2000
  • Rockbox plays SID files

Music ACID64 Player is a music player application by the High Voltage SID Collection team-member Wilfred Bos, that plays Commodore 64 music files through an MOS Technology SID sound interface device chip, using an instruction cycle-based emulation of the C64s core processors to achieve true fidelity. ... OverClocked ReMix, also known as OC ReMix or OCR, is a website dedicated to reviving computer and video game music from the past and re-interpreting it with new technology and software, as well as various traditional means. ... foobar2000 is a freeware audio player for Windows developed by Peter Pawlowski, a former freelance contractor for Nullsoft. ... Rockbox is a free software replacement firmware for digital audio players (DAPs). ...

  • The High Voltage SID Collection – The SID music preservation project
  • 6581-8580 Project (SOASC) - The entire HVSC#46 recorded on both types of SID chips with real Commodore 64 computers.
  • Paulie's Ocean SID Page - Site discussing Ocean's SID player, the Ocean Loading Music and source code for Ocean's SID player.
  • Compute's Gazette SID Collection
  • remix.kwed.org – a collection of over 1800 C64 SID remixes
  • Remix64.com – Community for C64 SID and Amiga music remixes
  • C64 Music – Commodore 64 music in the real world and other SID related stories blog
  • SLAY Radio – Radio station that features remixed Commodore 64 music and live shows
  • 8Bit Mayhem C64 Scene Music Podcast, Obvious, not so obvious, forgotten and classic Commodore 64 scene music.
  • Machinae Supremacy The Origin Of SID Metal
  • Mini Melodies SID meets female


The High Voltage SID Collection is both the name of a project to build a collection of music created on the MOS Technology 6581/8580 SID sound chip in Commodore CBM-II, Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 home computers and the collection itself. ... The Commodore 64 is the best-selling single personal computer model of all time. ...

Video/sound chips from MOS Technology and second source/clone vendors

6545 CRTC6560 VIC6567 VIC-II6581 SID ● 7360 TED ● 8563 VDC8568 VDC Image File history File links MOS_Technology. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... A sound chip is an integrated circuit (i. ... Integrated circuit showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... MOS Technology, Inc. ... The Motorola 6845 (commonly MC6845) is a video address generator first introduced by Motorola and used in the CGA and EGA video adapters, Amstrad CPC and BBC Micro. ... The VIC (Video Interface Chip), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6560 (NTSC version) / 6561 (PAL version), is the integrated circuit chip responsible for generating video graphics and sound in the Commodore VIC-20 home computer. ... The VIC-II (Video Interface Chip II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 (NTSC versions), 6569/8565/8566 (PAL), is the integrated circuit chip tasked with generating composite video graphics and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64 and C128 home computers. ... The 7360 Text Editing Device (TED) was an integrated circuit made by MOS Technology. ... It has been suggested that MOS Technology 8568 be merged into this article or section. ... The MOS Tech 8568 VDU was the Visual (or Video) Display Unit controller chip responsible for the secondary (80-column or RGBI) display on the Commodore 128 personal computer. ...

Video game music | Video game musicians
edit
DSF | GBS | GSF | GSR | GYM | HES | MOD | NSF and NSFe

PSF and PSF2 | QSF | SAP | SID | SPC | SSF | USF | VGM | XA Audio This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The following is a list of computer and video game musicians, those who have worked in the video game industry to produce video game soundtracks or otherwise contribute musically. ... Dreamcast Sound Format is the proposed title of a digital music format for encoding Dreamcast music, similar to PlayStation Sound Format. ... The Game Boy Sound System (or GBS) for the Game Boy is akin to the sound system of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), the difference being that GBS has a higher pitch than NES sound format. ... GSF is an emulated Game Boy Advance audio format based on Neill Corletts PSF (Portable Sound Format), developed by Caitsith2 and Zoopd. ... Gens Sound Record (GSR) is a new file format for the storage of Sega GenesisMega Drive music. ... Modern indoor gymnasium with pull-down basketball hoops. ... HES files are music rips of Turbografx-16 / PC Engine games. ... For other uses, see Mod. ... An . ... A PlayStation Sound Format (PSF) file is a sound data file (akin to SPC from the Super NES) ripped directly from a Sony PlayStation video game. ... Makes use of the PSF file format although inside the game they are uncompressed (PSF uses the zlib compression) ... This article needs to be wikified. ... MOS Technology SIDs: The right image shows a 6581 from MOS Technology, at the time they were known as the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) and the left image shows an 8580 from MOS Technology. ... An SPC700 sound file (or SPC) is a type of video game music file consisting of a copy of a program and music data from RAM used by the SPC700 sound chip on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super Famicom (though such data are usually obtained from a console... Saturn Sound Format is the proposed title of a digital music format for encoding Sega Sature music, similar to PlayStation Sound Format. ... The Nintendo Ultra64 Sound Format (USF) is a file format developed by Adam Gashlin to store sound data (akin to PSF for the Sony PlayStation) ripped directly from a Nintendo 64 video game. ... This article is about the sound format. ... Categories: Rainbow Books | Computer storage | Stub ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
MOS Technology SID - Biocrawler (1200 words)
MOS Technology SIDs: The right image shows a 6581 from MOS Technology, at the time they were known as the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) and the left image shows an 8580 from MOS Technology.
The SID features three-voice synthesis, where each voice may use one of four different waveforms: square wave (with variable pulse width), triangle wave, sawtooth wave and a random (white noise) wave.
The original manual for the SID mentions that if several waveforms are enabled at the same time, the result will be a logical AND between them, but only the 8580 actually has this functionality: on the 6581 some waveform combinations will only yield silence or be close to inaudible depending on the chip revision.
MOS Technology (379 words)
MOS Technology was an existing privately owned company that made calculator chips when Chuck Peddle and Bill Mensch, and the other six Motorola employees joined them in 1974.
MOS Technology's chip manufacturing facility, was located in Norristown, Pennsylvania, bucking the Silicon Valley trend.
The 6502 became the basis for all of MOS Technologies microprocessors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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