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Encyclopedia > MMORPG
An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions.
An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions.[1]

MMORPG (Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game) is a genre of online computer role-playing games (RPGs) in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world. As in all RPGs, players assume the role of a fictional character (most commonly in a fantasy setting) and take control over many of that character's actions. MMORPGs are distinguished from single-player or small multi-player RPGs by the number of players, and by the game's persistent world, usually hosted by the game's publisher, which continues to exist and evolve while the player is away from the game. Image File history File links WoW_Flying_Gnomes. ... Image File history File links WoW_Flying_Gnomes. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment. ... A terrorist from the online game Counter-Strike: Source Online games refer to video games that are played over some form of computer network, most commonly the Internet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A player of a game is a participant therein. ... A virtual world is a computer-based simulated environment intended for its users to inhabit and interact via avatars. ... A role-playing game (RPG, often roleplaying game) is a type of game in which the participants assume the roles of fictional characters and collaboratively create or follow stories. ... Alice, a fictional character from the work of Lewis Carroll. ... A type of video game in which the game automatically loads adjacent rooms while you explore the one you are in. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


MMORPGs are very popular throughout the world, with combined global memberships in subscription and non-subscription games exceeding 15 million as of 2006.[2] Overall, revenues for MMORPGs exceeded half a billion dollars in 2005 and are expected to reach over a billion dollars by 2009.[3]

Contents

Common features

Though MMORPGs have evolved considerably, many of them share some basic characteristics.


A majority of MMORPGs are based off traditional Dungeons & Dragons style gameplay, including quests, monsters, and loot. Like in Dungeons & Dragons, there is usually the ability to develop your character after they have reached certain levels which occurs after gaining enough experience points to do so. Often there are Game Moderators or Game Masters (frequently abbreviated to GM), which are sometimes-compensated individuals who attempt to supervise the world. This article is about the role-playing game. ... A quest in a gaming context, especially in MMORPGs, is generally a task or series of tasks, which a player or group of players may complete in order to gain a reward. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Looting in a gaming context, specifically in MMOGs, is the process by which a player character obtains items such as in-game currency, spells, equipment or weapons from the corpse of a creature or possibly the corpse of another player in a PVP situation. ... Experience points (often abbreviated as exp or xp) are a representation of a characters advancement and improvement in skills in role-playing games. ...


MMORPGs usually involve large communities of players and social networks, some having support for the creating of Guilds or clans, which are organizations of players. The "world" that players visit tends to be persistent ones where a client-server model is employed, in which the "world" software runs continuously on a server, and players connect to it via client software. MMORPGs usually have a virtual economy, based on the trade of items such as weapons and armor, and a regular currency. A social network is a social structure made of nodes which are generally individuals or organizations. ... In computer and video gaming, a clan or guild is a group of players who regularly play together in a particular (or various different) multiplayer games. ... A virtual economy (or sometimes synthetic economy) is an emergent economy existing in a virtual persistent world, usually in the context of an Internet game. ...


The majority of popular MMORPGs require players to either purchase the client software for a one-time fee or pay a monthly subscription to play. Most major MMORPGs require players to do both. By nature, "massively multiplayer" games are always online, and require some sort of continuous revenue (such as monthly subscriptions and advertisements) for maintenance and development. Games that feature massively-multiplayer functionality, but do not include roleplaying elements, are referred to as MMOGs. A massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) is a type of computer game that enables hundreds or thousands of players to simultaneously interact in a game world they are connected to via the Internet. ...


Most MMORPGs share the common fact that a player can solo, or fight monsters alone without a group, for awhile. Eventually they must find parties or groups of other players to get experience points because the monsters are too difficult to kill alone. Some MMORPGs like World of Warcraft break this tradition and let players solo to the highest level to make the game accessible to casual players or people who do not want to play for long periods of time. World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment. ...


History

Main article: History of MMORPGs

MMORPGs as defined today have only existed since the early 1990's, when restrictions on use of the Internet were first relaxed. Still, all MMORPGs can trace a lineage back to the earliest multi-user games, which started appearing in the late 1970's. The first was MUD, a non-graphical (text-based) world, though more would soon be developed for the PLATO system. 1984 saw a Roguelike multi-user game, called Islands of Kesmai. The first truly graphical multi-user title was Neverwinter Nights, which was delivered through America Online and was personally championed by AOL President Steve Case. The first success after the opening of the Internet was Meridian 59, which also featured 3D graphics, although The Realm appeared nearly simultaneously and may be credited with bringing the genre to a wider player-base. Ultima Online, released in 1997, may be credited with first popularizing the genre, though Nexus: The Kingdom of the Winds was primarily responsible for mainstream attention throughout Asia, and it was Everquest that drove MMORPGs into the western mainstream. After this point, competition in the genre brought MMORPG titles onto consoles and into science-fiction and comic-book settings. The current market for MMORPGs has Blizzard's World of Warcraft dominating, with over 50% of overall market share, though an additional market exists for free-to-play MMORPGs, which are supported by advertising and purchases of in-game items. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with MMORPG. (Discuss) MMORPGs, as we define them today, have existed since the early 1990s. ... In computer gaming, a MUD (Multi-User Dungeon or Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of role-playing games, hack and slash style computer games and social chat rooms. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... A roguelike is a computer game that borrows some of the elements of another computer game, 1980s Rogue. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Neverwinter Nights is the first graphical Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG), which ran from 1991 to 1997 on AOL. It is the predecessor to BioWares 2002 game, Neverwinter Nights. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Steve Case (born August 21, 1958) is a businessman best known as the co-founder and former chief executive officer and chairman of America Online (AOL). ... Meridian 59 is an online computer role-playing game first published by 3DO Studios and now run by Near Death Studios. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ultima Online (UO) is a popular graphical massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), released on September 25, 1997, by Origin Systems. ... Nexus: The Kingdom of the Winds, which is also known as Nexus TK and simply Nexus, is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game which takes place in a medieval-type fantasy environment. ... EverQuest (EQ) is a 3d fantasy massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) that was released on March 16, 1999. ... Console may be: An organ term for the area of an organ including the keys, stops, and foot pedals manipulated by the organist. ... Look up Blizzard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment. ...


Economics

See also: Real-money trading

Many MMORPGs feature living economies, as virtual items and currency have to be gained through play and have definite value for players. Such a virtual economy can be analyzed (using data logged by the game) and has value in economic research; more significantly, these "virtual" economies can have an impact on the economies of the real world. Real-Money Trading (or RMT, Real Money Transaction) is a phenomenon that occurred with the birth of online-gaming, especially in the genre of MMORPGs. ... A virtual economy (or sometimes synthetic economy) is an emergent economy existing in a virtual persistent world, usually in the context of an Internet game. ...


One of the early researchers of MMORPG was Edward Castronova, who demonstrated that a supply-and-demand market exists for virtual items and that it crosses over with the real world.[4] This crossover has some requirements of the game:

  • The ability for players to sell an item to each other for in-game (virtual) currency.
  • Bartering for items between players for items of similar value.
  • The purchase of in-game items for real-world currency.
  • Exchanges of real-world currencies for virtual currencies.

The idea of attaching real-world value to "virtual" items has had a profound effect on players and the game industry, and even the courts. Castronova's first study in 2002 found that a highly liquid (if illegal) currency market existed, with the value of the in-game currency exceeding that of the Japanese yen.[5] Some people even make a living by working these virtual economies; these people are often referred to as gold farmers, and may be employed in game sweatshops. A farmer is a general term for a MMORPG player who attempts to acquire (farm) items of value within a game, usually in order to exploit repetitive elements of the games mechanics. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Game publishers usually prohibit the exchange of real-world money for virtual goods. However, a number of products actively promote the idea of linking (and directly profiting from) an exchange. Some players of Second Life have generated revenues in excess of $100,000.[6] Second Life (abbreviated to SL) is an Internet-based virtual world which came to international attention via mainstream news media in late 2006 and early 2007. ...


However, in the case of Entropia Universe, the virtual economy and the real-world economy are directly linked. This means that real money can be deposited for game money and vice versa. Real-world items has also been sold for game money in Entropia.[7] Entropia Universe is an online virtual universe designed by Swedish software company MindArk. ...


Some of the issues confronting online economies include:

  • The use of "bots" or automated programs, that assist some players in accumulating in-game wealth to the disadvantage of other players.[8]
  • The use of unsanctioned auction sites, which has led publishers to seek legal remedies to prevent their use based on intellectual-property claims.[9]
  • The emergence of virtual crime, which can take the form of both fraud against the player or publisher of an online, and even real-life acts of violence stemming from in-game transactions.[10]

Virtual crime or in-game crime refers to a virtual criminal act that takes place in a massively multiplayer online game (MMOG), usually an MMORPG. The huge time and effort invested into such games can lead online crime to spill over into real world crime, and even blur the distinctions...

Private servers

One reaction to the virtual economies has been the phenomena of "private servers," which are servers operated by individuals and groups who have reverse-engineered commercial MMORPG products. Anyone who sets up their own private server has complete control over the virtual world existing on that server. Typically, these servers operate in violation of publisher's end-user license agreements. In November 2006, NCSoft and the Federal Bureau of Investigation shutdown a prominent private Lineage II server that had claimed 50,000 active users.[11] NCsoft (KSE: 036570) is a South Korean based online computer game company. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Private servers are mostly run by volunteers, and are often free. However, some private servers may wish for people to donate money, sometimes in exchange for a bonus in the game. Private servers remain markedly less popular than the official servers, with player numbers usually in the hundreds, though popular private servers may reach up to one or two thousand online players and even up to ten thousand in terms of player registrations. EQEmu is a server emulator for EverQuest; others exist for World of Warcraft, Lineage II, Ultima Online, Ragnarok Online, and many other MMORPGs. EQEmulator (or EQEmu) is a GNU GPL open source server emulator for the MMORPG EverQuest. ... EverQuest (EQ) is a 3d fantasy massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) that was released on March 16, 1999. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment. ... Lineage II: The Chaotic Chronicle (Korean:리니지 2) is a fantasy massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), for the computer and sequel to Lineage. ... Ultima Online (UO) is a popular graphical massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), released on September 25, 1997, by Origin Systems. ... Ragnarok Online (Korean: 라그나로크 온라인), often referred to as RO, is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game created by GRAVITY Co. ...


Psychology

Since the interactions between MMORPG players are real, even if the environments are not, psychologists and sociologists are also able to use MMORPGs as tools for academic research. A psychologist is a scientist and/or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ...


Sherry Turkle, a clinical psychologist, has conducted interviews with computer users including game-players. Turkle found that many people have expanded their emotional range by exploring the many different roles (including gender identities) that MMORPGs allow a person to explore.[12] Sherry Turkle (born 1948) is a clinical psychologist and a professor of Science, Technology and Society at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ...


Nick Yee, a Ph.D student, has surveyed more than 35,000 MMORPG players over the past few years, focusing on psychological and sociological aspects of these games. His research can be found at The Daedalus Project. Recent findings included that 15% of players become a guild-leader at one time or another, but most generally find the job tough and thankless;[13] and that players spend a considerable amount of time (often a third of their total time investment) doing things that are directly-related to, but outside of the game itself.[14]


Many players report that the emotions they feel while playing an MMORPG are very strong, to the extent that 8.7% of male and 23.2% of female players in a statistical study had had an online wedding.[15] Something most often seen in massively multiplayer online role-playing games, online weddings date all the way back to the beginning of online communities and early online games such as The Shadow of Yserbius. ...


Other researchers have found that the enjoyment of a game is directly related to the social organization of a game, ranging from brief encounters between players to highly organized play in structured groups.[16]


Also, Richard Bartle has classified multiplayer RPG-players into four primary psychological groups. His classifications were then expanded upon by Erwin Andreasen, who developed the concept into the thirty-question Bartle Test that helps players determine which category they are associated with. With over 200,000 test responses as of 2006, this is perhaps the largest ongoing survey of multiplayer game players.[17] Richard Allan Bartle (born January 10, 1960, in England) is a British writer and game researcher, best known for being the co-author of MUD, the first multi-user dungeon. ... The Bartle Test is a series of questions and an accompanying scoring formula that classifies players of multiplayer online games (include MUDs and MMORPGs) into categories based on their gaming preferences. ...


Development

In general, the cost of developing a commercial MMORPG title exceeds ten million dollars.[18] These projects require multiple disciplines within software engineering, art design and network infrastructure:


The front-end (or client) component of a commercial, modern MMORPG features 3D graphics. As with other modern 3D games, the front-end requires expertise with implementing 3D engines, real-time shader techniques and physics simulation. The actual visual content (areas, creatures, characters, weapons, spaceships and so forth) is developed by artists who typically begin with two-dimensional concept art, and later convert these concepts into animated 3D scenes, models and texture maps.[19] In computing, a game engine is the core software component of a video game. ... [[Category:Cleanup from [[Category:Cleanup from {{{1}}}]]]] A shader is a computer program used in 3D computer graphics to determine the final surface properties of an object or image. ...


Developing an MMOG server requires expertise with client/server architecture, network protocols, security and relational database design. MMORPGs include reliable systems for a number of vital tasks. The server must be able to handle and verify a large number of connections; prevent cheating; and apply changes (bug fixes or added content) to the game. A system for recording the game's data at regular intervals, without stopping the game, is also important.[20] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Maintenance requires sufficient servers and bandwidth, and a dedicated support staff. Insufficient resources for maintenance lead to lag and frustration for the players, and can severely damage the reputation of a game, especially at launch. Care must also be taken to ensure that player population remains at an acceptable level by adding or removing servers ("shards"). Peer-to-peer MMORPGs could theoretically work cheaply and efficiently in regulating server load, but practical issues such as asymmetrical network bandwidth and CPU-hungry rendering engines make them a difficult proposition. Additionally, they would probably become vulnerable to other problems including new possibilities for cheating. The hosted infrastructure for a commercial-grade MMORPG requires the deployment of hundreds (or even thousands) of servers. Developing an affordable infrastructure for an online game requires developers to scale to large numbers of players with less hardware and network investment.[21] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lag is a common term used to describe a symptom often encountered in computing and especially networked systems, where results of actions appear much later than expected. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In addition, the team will need to have expertise with the fundamentals of game design: world-building, lore and game mechanics,[22] as well as what makes games fun.[23]


Current trends

As there are a number of wildly different titles within the genre, and since the genre develops so rapidly, it is difficult to definitively state that the genre is heading in one direction or another. Still, there are a few obvious developments.


One of these developments is the raid group quest, or "raid",[24] which is an adventure designed for large groups of players (often twenty or more).


Another is the use of instance dungeons.[25] These are game areas that are "copied" for individual groups, which keeps that group separated from the rest of the game world. This reduces competition, and also has the effect of reducing the amount of data that needs to be sent to and from the server, which reduces lag. World of Warcraft's "raids", mentioned above, are often instance dungeons, as are all of the combat areas in Guild Wars. In MMORPGs, an instance dungeon is a special area, typically a dungeon, that generates a new copy, or instance, of the dungeon map for each group that enters the area. ...


Increased amounts of "Player-created content" may be another trend. Some non-combat-based MMORPGs do already rely heavily on player-created content, including everything from simple animations to complete buildings using player-created textures and architecture. Examples of these games include Second Life and A Tale in the Desert. However, these games are very different from the far more popular "standard" MMORPGs revolving around combat and limited character tradeskills. Player-created content in these games would be in the form of areas to explore, monsters to kill, quests to carry out and specific in-game items to obtain. The Saga of Ryzom was the first of these "standard" MMORPGs to offer players the ability to create this type of content. Again, whether or not this becomes mainstream is anyone's guess. Second Life (abbreviated to SL) is an Internet-based virtual world which came to international attention via mainstream news media in late 2006 and early 2007. ... A Tale in the Desert (ATITD) is a controversial massively multiplayer online roleplaying game (MMORPG) set in Ancient Egypt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The production of movie "tie-in" games, common in other video game genres, may also begin to appear more frequently in MMORPGs. The most recent example of this is The Matrix Online, based on the Matrix trilogy of films; the earliest possibly was Star Wars Galaxies. Neither of these titles was a great financial success, probably due to their divergence from the original property. In addition to movie-license MMORPGs, there may be games produced on licenses from television; for example, Stargate Worlds, based on the popular Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis television series, is currently under development. The process is also apparently being applied in reverse, with James Cameron designing a MMORPG that will precede a film (Project 880) it is tied to.[26] The Matrix Online (MxO) is a MMORPG developed by Monolith Productions. ... Star Wars Galaxies (often abbreviated SWG) is a Star Wars themed MMORPG for Microsoft Windows PCs developed by Sony Online Entertainment and published by LucasArts. ... Stargate Worlds is a new MMORPG being developed by industry new-comer Cheyenne Mountain Entertainment in association with the film and television media company MGM. The game will allow thousands of players to interact in an online universe based around Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis. ... Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television program part of the Stargate franchise. ... Stargate Atlantis is an American science fiction television program part of the Stargate franchise. ... For other persons named James Cameron, see James Cameron (disambiguation). ... Avatar or Project 880, as it was first known, is one of four films James Cameron is attached to direct. ...


Free content is also a popular trend in MMORPGs. World of Warcraft and EVE Online both incorporated a free trial to the game, while others, like Anarchy Online and Shadowbane, became completely free and available to download. World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment. ... EVE Online is a persistent world multiplayer online game set in space. ... Anarchy Online (AO) is a science fiction MMORPG released in June 2001 by Funcom. ... Shadowbane is a fantasy computer role-playing game (MMORPG) created by Wolfpack Studios and published on March 25, 2003 by Ubisoft for Windows and Mac platforms. ...


Another popular trend that has shown great presence in MMORPGs is "player-driven" gameplay. Player-driven gameplay relies on the players themselves for events and wars. In this kind of setting, the NPCs or game world is affected by the players instead of the game company. A great example of a player-driven MMORPG is Shadowbane, where quests, and dungeons are non-existent. Shadowbane allow players to own land, properties, provences and even nations. Therefore the players are given the freedom to rage war on a foreign nation. Shadowbane is a fantasy computer role-playing game (MMORPG) created by Wolfpack Studios and published on March 25, 2003 by Ubisoft for Windows and Mac platforms. ... Shadowbane is a fantasy computer role-playing game (MMORPG) created by Wolfpack Studios and published on March 25, 2003 by Ubisoft for Windows and Mac platforms. ...


Independent development

Daimonin is one of the independent efforts to create a free MMORPG.
Daimonin is one of the independent efforts to create a free MMORPG.

Many small teams of programmers and artists have tried to create their own MMORPGs. As shown above, the average MMORPG development project requires enormous investments of time and money, and running the game can be a long-term commitment. Independent development, or game development not run by any company, is therefore less common than corporate development. Still, many independent MMORPGs do exist, representing a wide spectrum of genres, gameplay types, and revenue systems. Screenshot of the village of Stoneglow, from the free MMORPG Daimonin. ... Screenshot of the village of Stoneglow, from the free MMORPG Daimonin. ... The village of Stoneglow at night (Linux) Daimonin is a free software multiplayer online computer role-playing game that is based on the open source Crossfire. ...


Some of the best-established independent projects are RuneScape, AWplanet, Crossfire, Daimonin, Endless Online, Star Wars Combine, Eternal Lands, Dream Blue Online and Planeshift. Some independent MMORPG projects are completely open source, such as Daimonin, while others like Planeshift feature proprietary content made with an open-source game engine. The developers of Endless Online have also released development information with details about their coding.[27] RuneScape is a Java-based MMORPG operated by Jagex Ltd. ... AWplanet logo AWplanet is a 3D Online Multiplayer Science Fiction game. ... Crossfire Client 1. ... The village of Stoneglow at night (Linux) Daimonin is a free software multiplayer online computer role-playing game that is based on the open source Crossfire. ... Endless Online is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG). ... The Star Wars Combine is a free online player-based simulation revolving around the Star Wars universe. ... The startup screen of the 1. ... Dream Blue Online is a free 2D mmorpg in spanish. ... PlaneShift is a cross-platform fantasy MMORPG in development. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... The village of Stoneglow at night (Linux) Daimonin is a free software multiplayer online computer role-playing game that is based on the open source Crossfire. ...


The WorldForge project has been active since 1998 and formed a community of independent developers who are working on creating framework for a number of open-source MMORPGs.[28] The Multiverse Network is also creating a network and platform specifically for independent MMOG developers.[29] WorldForges Logo The WorldForge project is producing an open source framework for massively multiplayer online role-playing games. ... The Multiverse Network, Inc. ...


Browser-based MMORPGs

See also: List of text-based MMORPGs
Legend of the Green Dragon is an example of a text-based MMORPG accessible with a web browser.
Legend of the Green Dragon is an example of a text-based MMORPG accessible with a web browser.

With the success of the MMORPG genre in recent years, several multiplayer games played in web browsers have also begun using the MMORPG moniker. This browser game sub-genre developed from old BBS games and pre-dates the modern idea of an MMORPG. Browser-based MMORPGs are usually simpler games than their stand-alone counterparts, typically involving turn-based play and simple strategies (e.g. "build a large army, then attack other players for gold"), though there are many interesting variations on the popular themes to be found. Many browser-based MMORPGs are more like turn-based strategy games or wargames than role-playing games. This is a list of Text-Based Massive Multiplayer Online Role-playing Games (MMORPGs). ... Download high resolution version (1265x990, 197 KB)Screenshot of Legend of the Green Dragon, from the Central Server (lotgd. ... Download high resolution version (1265x990, 197 KB)Screenshot of Legend of the Green Dragon, from the Central Server (lotgd. ... Legend of the Green Dragon (abbreviated LoGD or LotGD) is a humorous text-based multi-player browser based game. ... An example of a web browser (Mozilla Firefox), displaying the English Wikipedia main page. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ward Christensen and the computer that ran the first public Bulletin Board System, CBBS A Bulletin Board System or BBS is a computer system running software that allows users to dial into the system over a phone line and, using a terminal program, perform functions such as downloading software and... Overview A turn-based MMORPG is a type of MMORPG that runs by giving the users turns or ticks to do things. ... Chess, one of the most well-known and played strategy games ever. ... Wargaming is the play of simulated military operations in the form of games known as wargames. ... A role-playing game (RPG, often roleplaying game) is a type of game in which the participants assume the roles of fictional characters and collaboratively create or follow stories. ...


One of the earliest examples of a browser-based MMORPG is Archmage, which dates back to early 1999. More recently, faster computers and the Java programming language have allowed the introduction of graphical browser-based MMORPGs such as RuneScape, which are more similar to standalone MMORPGs. Adobe's Flash Player 8 also provides functionality for a full function MMORPG such as Horse Isle and Dofus. Macromedia's introduction of Shockwave 3D and the MUS Multiuser Server in 2001 makes it possible to create 3D browser-based MMORPGs based on the Shockwave plug-in. Archmage was a successful browser-based multiplayer turn-based strategy game, where the player plays a mage resurrected from the depths of Hell and commands vast armies with magical and mundane elements. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Java platform is the name for a computing environment, or platform, from Sun Microsystems which can run applications developed using the Java programming language and set of development tools. ... RuneScape is a Java-based MMORPG operated by Jagex Ltd. ... Horse Isle is a vast multiplayer horse based world. ... Dofus is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed and published by Ankama Studio, a French computer game manufacturer. ...


See also

It has been suggested that List of free MMORPGs be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of MMORPGs. ... This is a list of Text-Based Massive Multiplayer Online Role-playing Games (MMORPGs). ... This article contains an almost full table comparison of current MMORPGs. ... This is an alphabetical list of terms and abbreviations used in the context of massively multiplayer online role-playing games or MMORPGs. ... Massively multiplayer online first-person shooter (MMOFPS) is a category of computer games that combines first-person shooter gameplay with a large number of simultaneous players over the Internet. ... Shattered Galaxy Massively multiplayer online real-time strategy (MMORTS) is a category for computer games that combines real-time strategy (RTS) with a large number of simultaneous players over the Internet. ... Youth spending seemingly endless hours leveling up lumber skills in RuneScape Computer addiction is an obsessive addiction to computer use. ... Shawn Woolley (1980 - 22 November 2001) was an avid player of the computer game EverQuest, an MMORPG, who committed suicide at the age of 21 years old. ...

References

  1. ^ Chart from MMOGchart.com
  2. ^ Chart of Subscriber Growth, http://www.mmogchart.com
  3. ^ Parks Associates (2005), Online Gaming Revenues to Triple by 2009 http://www.parksassociates.com/press/press_releases/2005/gaming-1.html
  4. ^ Castronova, Edward. Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games. ISBN 0-226-09626-2, University Of Chicago Press
  5. ^ Online Game Economies Get Real (2002), http://www.wired.com/news/games/0,2101,55982,00.html
  6. ^ My Virtual Life, Business Week (May 1, 2006) http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_18/b3982001.htm
  7. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropia_universe#Partnerships
  8. ^ Robert Shapiro (2003), How online games teach us about economics, http://www.slate.com/id/2078053/
  9. ^ Blizzard Goes to War, http://terranova.blogs.com/terra_nova/2004/12/blizzard_goes_t.html
  10. ^ BBC News (2005), Game Theft led to Fatal Attack, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4397159.stm
  11. ^ FBI, NCSoft drop hammer on MMORPG pirates, http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20061120-8258.html
  12. ^ Sherry Turkle (1997), Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet, ISBN 0-684-83348-4
  13. ^ Nick Yee (2006), Life as a Guild Leader, http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001516.php
  14. ^ Nick Yee (2006) Time Spent in the Meta Game, http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001535.php
  15. ^ Yee (2003), An Ethnography of MMORPG Weddings, http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/000467.php
  16. ^ Nardi, Harris (2006), Strangers and Friends: Collaborative Play in World of Warcraft, Proceedings of the 2006 20th anniversary conference on Computer supported cooperative work
  17. ^ Bartle Test of Gamer Psychology, http://www.guildcafe.com/bartle.php
  18. ^ Adam Carpenter (2003), Applying Risk-Based Analysis to Play Balance RPGs, Gamasutra, http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20030611/carpenter_01.shtml
  19. ^ Frank Luna (2006), "3D Game Programming with DirectX 9.0c, a Shader Approach," Worldware Publishing, ISBN 1-59822-016-0
  20. ^ Jay Lee (2003), Gamasutra, Relational Database Guidelines for MMOGs, http://www.gamasutra.com/resource_guide/20030916/lee_01.shtml
  21. ^ GDC Proceedings 2005, Online Game Architecture: Back-End Strategies, http://www.gamasutra.com/gdc2005/features/20050310/esbensen_01.shtml
  22. ^ Chris Crawford (2003), Chris Crawford on Game Design, New Riders Games, ISBN 0-13-146099-4
  23. ^ Koster and Wright (2004), "A Theory of Fun for Game Design," Paraglyph Press, ISBN 1-932111-97-2
  24. ^ http://www.mmorpg.com/showFeature.cfm/loadFeature/1028
  25. ^ http://www.blogtimesherald.com/entertainment/index.php?ArticleID=40&ShowMore=NO
  26. ^ James Cameron's Game Theory, Business Week (Feb. 13, 2006) http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_07/b3971073.htm
  27. ^ Endless Online Technical Information (English). Retrieved on 11, 2007. Retrieved on March 2007.
  28. ^ WorldForge History (English). Retrieved on 11, 2007. Retrieved on March 2007.
  29. ^ About Multiverse (English). Multiverse. Retrieved on 11, 2007. Retrieved on March 2007.

A multiverse is a set of many universes. ...

External links

  • MMOGCHART.COM - Bruce Sterling Woodcock's tracking of MMOG subscription data.
  • The Daedalus Project - Nick Yee's ongoing survey study of MMORPG players. Demographics, narratives and essays.
  • Massively Multiplayer Online Games - A set of articles posted at Gamespy.com, concerning the past, present, and future of the genre.
  • Evolution of MMORPGs - An article from Jiyan Wei on the role of the ordinary user in shaping MMORPGs.
  • MassiveMultiplayer.com - Directory with many international links and resources of the most popular MMORPGs.
  • MMORPG News - All the latest news from the world of online gaming
  • A Beginner's Guide to Creating a MMORPG

  Results from FactBites:
 
MMORPG Online Games Earning $300,000 Per Month or Greater is not Uncommon With CPALead.com's New Proprietary Tools (850 words)
The tools CPALead.com offer allow players in MMORPG online games to be automatically rewarded points, gems, coins, or credits as an incentive every time they complete an offer, which usually consists of them providing their E-mail address or Zip code to win a free iPod or merchandise of the sort.
MMORPG owners struggle to make passive income within their games without negatively affecting the gaming experience for their players.
Both are MMORPG owners who dreamed of a better way to make money with affiliate CPA campaign programs within their games, while minimizing the time consuming overhead.
MMORPG - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4667 words)
MMORPGs are distinguished from single-player or small multi-player RPGs by the game's persistent world, usually hosted by the game's publisher, which continues to exist and evolve while the player is away from the game.
The most recent generation of MMORPGs, based on standards of graphics, gameplay, and popularity, is said to have launched in April 2004 with NCSoft's City of Heroes, which was based on a comic-book superhero theme instead of the usual fantasy or science-fiction.
MMORPGs have begun to attract significant academic attention, notably in the fields of economics and psychology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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