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Encyclopedia > MIDI file

Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is an industry-standard electronic communication protocol that defines each musical note in an electronic musical instrument such as a synthesizer, precisely and concisely, allowing electronic musical instruments and computers to exchange data, or "talk", with each other. MIDI does not transmit audio - it simply transmits digital information about a music performance. The word protocol derives from a Greek phrase meaning first leaf, referring to the first draft of a treaty. ... An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. ... A classic FM synthesizer, the Yamaha DX7. ... An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. ... The tower of a personal computer. ...


Almost all music recordings today utilize MIDI as a key enabling technology for recording music. In addition, MIDI is also used to control hardware including recording devices as well as live performance equipment such as stage lights and effects pedals. Lately, MIDI has exploded onto the scene with its adoption into mobile phones. MIDI is used to play back the ringtones of MIDI capable phones. MIDI is also used to provide game music in some video games. A ring tone is the sound made by a telephone when ringing. ... Computer and video games A screenshot of Tetris for the Nintendo Game Boy A console game (better known as a video game) is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment, which consists of a moveable image displayed on a screen that is usually controlled and manipulated using a handheld...


The MIDI standard was first proposed by Dave Smith in 1981 in a paper to the Audio Engineering Society and the MIDI Specification 1.0 was published in August 1983. Dave Smith is an audio engineer who first proposed the MIDI standard in 1981 in a paper to the Audio Engineering Society. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from amongst engineers, scientists, manufacturers and other organisations and individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry. ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


MIDI allows computers, synthesizers, sound cards and drum machines to control one another, and to exchange system information. Though modern computer sound cards are MIDI-compatible and capable of creating realistic instrument sounds, the fact that sound cards' MIDI synthesizers have historically produced sounds of dubious quality has tarnished the image of a general purpose computer as a MIDI instrument. This despite the fact that the MIDI specification itself has nothing to do with the quality of the sound produced which varies depending on the sound card used. A computer is a device or machine for processing information from data according to a program — a compiled list of instructions. ... A classic FM synthesizer, the Yamaha DX7. ... A sound card based on VIA Envy chip A sound card is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under program control. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is a device designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ...


MIDI is almost directly responsible for bringing an end to the "wall of synthesizers" phenomenon in 1970s-80s rock music concerts, when musical keyboard performers were sometimes hidden behind banks of various instruments. Following the advent of MIDI, many synthesizers were released in rack-mount versions, enabling performers to control multiple instruments from a single keyboard. Another important effect of MIDI has been the development of hardware and computer-based sequencers, which can be used to record, edit and play back performances. This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Roland EXR-3 Keyboard The musical keyboard, also known as the piano keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which produce notes. ... Equipment mounted in several 19-inch racks A row of 19-inch racks in a modern server farm A 19-inch rack is a standardized (EIA 310-D, IEC 60297 and DIN 41494 SC48D) system for mounting various electronic modules in a stack, or rack, 19 inches (482. ... Roland EXR-3 Keyboard The musical keyboard, also known as the piano keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which produce notes. ... In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was originally any device that recorded and played back a sequence of control information for an electronic musical instrument. ...


Synchronization of MIDI sequences is made possible by the use of MIDI timecode, an implementation of the SMPTE time code standard using MIDI messages, and MIDI timecode has become the standard for digital music synchronization. MIDI time code embeds the same timing information as standard SMPTE time code as a series of small quarter-frame MIDI messages. ... SMPTE timecode is a set of cooperating standards to label individual frames of video or film with a timecode defined by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. ... A digital system is one that uses binary numbers (a system of numeric 0s and 1s) for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (an analog system) or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons. ...


A number of music file formats have been based on the MIDI bytestream. These formats are very compact; often a file of only 10 kilobytes can produce a full minute of music. A file format is a particular way to encode information for storage in a computer file. ...

Contents


How MIDI works in a nutshell

When any note is played by a musician, the musical instrument serially transmits one or more single byte binary numbers from its 'MIDI Out' port. These numbers depict MIDI messages. A typical MIDI message sequence is: A byte is commonly used as a unit of storage measurement in computers, regardless of the type of data being stored. ...

  1. the user just played a note
  2. the note just played was the middle C note
  3. the user just stopped playing a note
  4. the note that was just turned off was the middle C note

MIDI messages are transmitted at the rate of 31250 bits per second, where each bit would be translated into turning the current on if the bit is 0 or turning it off, if the bit is 1. Other performance parameters would also be transmitted, such as for example, if the pitch wheel was being turned, that information would also be transmitted uisng different MIDI messages. The musical instrument does this completely autonomously requiring only that the musician play a note (or do something else that generates MIDI messages).


All notes that a musical instrument is capable of playing are assigned specific MIDI messages according to what the note and octave are. For example, the Middle C note played on any MIDI compatible musical instrument will always transmit the same MIDI message from its 'MIDI Out' port. Which MIDI message and thus which binary digits will be transmitted upon playing of a certain note are defined in the MIDI specification and this comprises the core of the MIDI standard. In music, the term middle C refers to the note C located between the staves of the grand staff, quoted as C4 in note-octave form. ...


All MIDI compatible instruments follow the MIDI specification and thus transmit identical MIDI messages for identical MIDI events such as the playing of a certain note on the musical instrument. Since they follow a published standard, all MIDI instruments can communicate with and understand each other, as well as with computers which have been programmed to understand MIDI messages using MIDI-aware software. The MIDI interface, converts the current fluctuations transmitted by a MIDI musical instrument, into binary numbers that the receiving musical instrument or computer can process. All MIDI compatible instruments have a built-in MIDI interface. In addition, computer sound cards usually have a built-in MIDI interface - if not, it can be separately purchased as a card and easily installed. In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was originally any device that recorded and played back a sequence of control information for an electronic musical instrument. ...


The MIDI specification

Electrical connections

MIDI ports and cable.
MIDI ports and cable.

The MIDI standard consists of a messaging protocol designed for use with musical instruments, as well as a physical interface standard. A physical MIDI connection consists of a one-way (simplex) serial current-loop connection running at 31,250 bits per second. MIDI ports and cable. ... MIDI ports and cable. ... In computing, a protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between two computing endpoints. ... Duplex, meaning double or twofold, may refer to: Duplex, a telecommunications term referring to two-way simultaneous transmission and reception A duplex is the U.S. name for a particular type of housing. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ...


Only one end of the loop is referenced to ground, with the other end 'floating', to prevent ground loops from producing analog audio interference and hum. The current loop on the transmitter side drives the LED of an opto-coupler on the receiver side. This means the devices are in fact opto-isolated. The opto-coupler must be a high-speed type (the Sharp PC900 is very common). As most opto-couplers have asymmetrical switching times (delays for switching on are different from the delays when switching off), they distort the signal (the zero to one relations). If several MIDI devices are connected in series by daisy-chaining the MIDI-THRU to the next devices MIDI-IN, the signal gets more and more distorted (until receive errors happen because the pulses get too narrow). An opto-isolator is a device that uses optical techniques to electrically isolate two related circuits, typically a transmitter and a receiver. ... A procession of girls carrying a daisy chain. ... A MIDI-THRU (output) is an auxiliary output for MIDI signals, mostly found on musical instruments like synthesizers. ... A distortion is the (usually) undesirable alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of an object, image, sound, waveform or other form of information or representation. ...


MIDI connectors use standard 5-pin DIN connectors which at one time were a de facto European standard for consumer audio interconnection. Over time the simpler American RCA phono jack has replaced DIN in this application, leaving MIDI as the only place they are commonly encountered in modern equipment. Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN, the German Institute for Standardization) is a German national organization for standardization. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A panel of four RCA jacks, and three RCA (cinch; phono) plugs of various quality RCA jack in PlayStation 2 An RCA jack, also referred to as a phono connector or CINCH/AV connector, is a type of electrical connector which is commonly used in the audio/video market. ...


Message format

Each one-way connection (called a port) can transmit or receive standard musical messages, such as note-on, note-off, controllers (which include volume, pedal, modulation signals, etc.), pitch-bend, program change, aftertouch, channel pressure, and system-related messages. These signals are sent along with one of 16 channel identifiers. The channels are used to separate "voices" or "instruments", somewhat like tracks in a multi-track mixer. This article is about the modern musical instrument. ...


The ability to multiplex 16 "channels" onto a single wire makes it possible to control several instruments at once using a single MIDI connection. When a MIDI instrument is capable of producing several independent sounds simultaneously (a multitimbral instrument), MIDI channels are used to address these sections independently. (This should not be confused with "polyphonic"; the ability to play several notes simultaneously in the same "voice".) Often used in the realm of digital keyboard synthesisers, an instrument that is multitimbral is one which allows you to combine several voices or timbres at the same time. ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ...


The MIDI protocol supports no more than 128 different instruments. To overcome the limitation, the concept of a "bank" was introduced - a collection of 128 instruments. The bank can usually be changed using a controller message, enabling access to many more instruments than normally possible.


Note messages can represent any note from C,,,, (i.e. five octaves below middle C or 8.175 Hz in common Western musical tuning; designated as MIDI note 0) to g''''' (i.e. five octaves above the G above middle C or 12,557 Hz; designated as MIDI note 127) with precision down to the semitone. In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve or 8va) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double the frequency. ... The hertz (symbol Hz) is the SI unit of frequency. ... This page is about musical systems of tuning, for the musical process of tuning see tuning. ... The musical interval of a half step, semitone, or minor second is the relationship between the leading tone and the first note (the root or tonic) in a major scale. ...


Pitch-bend messages range in ±2 semitones (sometimes adjustable with Registered Parameter Numbers), with precision of 1/8192 semitone. (The human hearing system can not hear the difference between adjacent pure tones that differ by less than 1/20 semitone.)


Controllers are quite versatile; they can usually be controlled by a musician using knobs, sliders, and footswitches on the instrument. They can be used to change the tone, timbre, and volume of the sound, as well as many others. In music, timbre (French, IPA /tæmbər/ as in the first two syllables of tambourine) is the quality of a musical note or sound which distinguishes different types of sound production or musical instruments. ...


Program change messages are used to change the instrument of a particular channel to another instrument. These messages are necessary because as there are only 16 channels, only 16 instruments can be selected at one time, and so instruments can be changed in the middle of a song.


Aftertouch messages (also known as poly pressure messages) are sent in some instruments to indicate pressure changes on the note while it is being played. Similarly, channel pressure changes the pressure for the entire instrument, not just one note. The channel pressure messages are more commonly implemented in most synthesizers, while the individual pressure sensors that aftertouch messages require are reserved mainly for expensive, high-end synthesizers.


System exclusive messages (also known as SysEx, Sysx, etc.) are defined by the manufacturer of the sequencer/synthesizer and can be any length. These messages are commonly used to send non-MIDI data over a MIDI connection, such as a synthesizer instrument sample or settings and a sequencer's memory dump. Because they are defined by the device's manufacturer, they are mainly used for backup purposes and rarely (if ever) useful in another MIDI device.


System messages contain meta-information about other MIDI messages. A sequencer, for example, often sends MIDI clock messages during playback that correspond to the MIDI timecode, so the device receiving the messages (usually a synthesizer) will be able to keep time. Also, some devices will send Active Sense messages, used only to keep the connection between the sender and the receiver alive after all MIDI communication has ceased.


It should be noted that MIDI can be used to provide facilities for playing in nonstandard musical tunings. However, these features are not standardized across all instruments. This page is about musical systems of tuning, for the musical process of tuning see tuning. ...


IN, OUT, THRU

Most MIDI-capable instruments feature a MIDI-IN, MIDI-OUT, and occasionally a MIDI-THRU connection in the form of five-pin DIN plugs. In order to build a two-way physical connection between two devices, a pair of cables must be used. The MIDI-THRU jack simply echoes the signal entering the device at MIDI-IN. This makes it possible to control several devices from a single source. A MIDI-THRU (output) is an auxiliary output for MIDI signals, mostly found on musical instruments like synthesizers. ... 5 pin 180° DIN connector 4 pin Mini-DIN S-Video connector Speaker DIN line socket (left) and plug DIN connectors are multi-pin electrical connectors based on a DIN standard. ... A MIDI-THRU (output) is an auxiliary output for MIDI signals, mostly found on musical instruments like synthesizers. ...


Daisy chaining of multiple devices on a single port can be accomplished using the MIDI-THRU port. This technique is generally limited to three devices in a row due to latency. The latency is caused by the fact that MIDI-IN ports are optically isolated. Instead of making a physical connection to pass electrical signals, the electrical signals arriving at the MIDI-IN port turn an LED on and off, which is read by a photo sensor. This physical break in the flow of electricity prevents the forming of ground loops. It also introduces a small amount of latency. Generally after travelling through 3 devices in a daisy chain, this latency becomes noticeable.


The 1985 Atari ST was the first home computer to sport the original five-pin format — which made the ST a very popular platform for running MIDI sequencer software. Most PC soundcards from the late 1990's had the ability to terminate a MIDI connection (usually through a MIDI-IN/MIDI-OUT converter on the game port). The game port has been supplanted in the modern PC by USB devices, and so typically a PC owner will need to purchase a MIDI interface that attaches to the USB or FireWire port of their machine to use MIDI. The Atari 520 ST The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... The home computer is a consumer-friendly word for the second generation of microcomputers (the technical term that was previously used), entering the market in 1977 and becoming common during the 1980s. ... In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was originally any device that recorded and played back a sequence of control information for an electronic musical instrument. ... A sound card is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under program control. ... The game port is the traditional connection for video game input devices on an x86-based PCs. ... The game port is the traditional connection for video game input devices on an x86-based PCs. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... A 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ...


General MIDI

In MIDI, instruments (one per channel) are selected by number (0-127), using the Program Change message. However, the basic MIDI 1.0 specification did not specify what instrument sound (piano, tuba, etc.) corresponds to each number. This was intentional, as MIDI originated as a professional music protocol, and in that context it is typical for a performer to assemble a custom palette of instruments appropriate for their particular repertoire, rather than taking a least-common-denominator approach.


Eventually interest developed in adapting MIDI as a consumer format, and for computer multimedia applications. In this context, in order for MIDI file content to be portable, the instrument program numbers used must call up the same instrument sound on every player. General MIDI (GM) was an attempt by the MIDI Manufacturer's Association (MMA) to resolve this problem by standardizing an instrument program number map, so that for example Program Change 1 always results in a piano sound on all GM-compliant players. GM also specified the response to certain other MIDI messages in a more controlled manner than the MIDI 1.0 specification. The GM spec is maintained and published by the MIDI Manufacturer's Association (MMA). General MIDI is a specification for synthesizers which imposes several requirements beyond the more abstract MIDI standard. ...


From a musical perspective, GM has a mixed reputation, mainly because of small or large audible differences in corresponding instrument sounds across player implementations, the limited size of the instrument palette (128 instruments), its least-common denominator character, and the inability to add customized instruments to suit the needs of the particular piece. Yet the GM instrument set is still included in most MIDI instruments, and from a standardization perspective GM has proven durable.


Later, companies in Japan's Association for Musical Electronic Industry (sic) (AMEI) developed General MIDI Level 2 (GM2), incorporating aspects of the Yamaha XG and Roland GS formats, extending the instrument palette, specifying more message responses in detail, and defining new messages for custom tuning scales and more. The GM2 specs are maintained and published by the MMA and AMEI. Created by Yamaha as an extension to the General MIDI, XG increased the number of available instruments from 128 to over 600, and introduced a set of parameters/controls that composers could employ to achieve greater subtlety and realism in their compositions than had ever been possible before with the...


Later still, GM2 became the basis of Scalable Polyphony MIDI (SP-MIDI), a MIDI variant for mobile applications where different players may have different numbers of musical voices. SP-MIDI is a component of the 3GPP mobile phone terminal multimedia architecture, starting from release 5.


GM, GM2, and SP-MIDI are also the basis for selecting player-provided instruments in several of the MMA/AMEI XMF file formats (XMF Type 0, Type 1, and Mobile XMF), which allow extending the instrument palette with custom instruments in the Downloadable Sound (DLS) formats, addressing another major GM shortcoming.


Low bandwidth

MIDI messages are extremely compact, due to the low bandwidth of the connection, and the need for near real-time accuracy. Most messages consist of a status byte (channel number in the low 4 bits, and an opcode in the high 4 bits), followed by one or two data bytes. However, the serial nature of MIDI messages means that long strings of MIDI messages take an appreciable time to send, and many people can hear those delays, especially when dealing with dense musical information or when many channels are particularly active. "Running status" is a convention that allows the status byte to be omitted if it would be the same as that of the previous message, helping to mitigate bandwidth issues somewhat. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A byte is commonly used as a unit of storage measurement in computers, regardless of the type of data being stored. ... Microprocessors perform operations using binary bits (on/off/1or0). ... Serial is a term, originating in literature, for a format by which a story is told in contiguous installments in sequential issues of a single periodical publication. ...


MIDI file formats

MIDI messages (along with timing information) can be collected and stored in a computer file system, in what is commonly called a MIDI file, or more formally, a Standard MIDI File (SMF). The SMF specification was developed by, and is maintained by, the MIDI Manufacturers Association (MMA). MIDI files are typically created using desktop/laptop computer-based sequencing software (or sometimes a hardware-based MIDI instrument or workstation) that organizes MIDI messages into one or more parallel "tracks" for independent recording and editing. In most but not all sequencers, each track is assigned to a specific MIDI channel and/or a specific General MIDI instrument patch. Although most current MIDI sequencer software uses proprietary "session file" formats rather than SMF, almost all sequencers provide export or "Save As..." support for the SMF format. A standard MIDI File or SMF consists of MIDI (often General MIDI) event sequences as defined by MIDI Manufacturers Association in the MIDI specification. ... General MIDI is a specification for synthesizers which imposes several requirements beyond the more abstract MIDI standard. ...


An SMF consists of one header chunk and one or more track chunks. There are three SMF formats; the format is encoded in the file header. Format 0 contains a single track and represents a single song performance. Format 1 may contain any number of tracks, enabling preservation of the sequencer track structure, and also represents a single song performance. Format 2 may have any number of tracks, each representing a separate song performance. Format 2 is not commonly supported by sequencers nor commonly found in the wild.


Large collections of SMFs can be found on the web, most commonly with the extension .mid. These files are most frequently authored with the assumption that they will be played on General MIDI players, but not always. Occasional unintended bad-sounding playback is the result. General MIDI is a specification for synthesizers which imposes several requirements beyond the more abstract MIDI standard. ...


MIDI-Karaoke (which uses the ".kar" file extension) files are an "unofficial" extension of MIDI files, used to add synchronized lyrics to standard MIDI files. Most SMF players do not display these lyrics, however numerous .kar-specific players are available. These often display the lyrics synchronized with the music in "follow-the-bouncing-ball" fashion, essentially turning any PC into a Karaoke machine.


Note: ".kar" files can often be played by SMF players if the filename extension is changed to ".mid".


The MIDI Manufacturer's Association has now defined a new family of file formats, XMF (eXtensible Music File), some of which package SMF chunks with instrument data in DLS format (Downloadable Sounds, also an MMA specification), to much the same effect as MOD files. The XMF container is a binary format (not XML-based). The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a W3C-recommended general-purpose markup language for creating special-purpose markup languages. ...


MIDI usage and applications

Extensions of the MIDI standard

Although traditional MIDI connections work well for most purposes, in 1994 a new high-bandwidth standard, named ZIPI, was proposed to replace MIDI for professional purposes. ZIPI failed due primarily to lack of demand. Introduced in 1994, ZIPI was hailed as the replacement for MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). ...


USB and Firewire embeddings of MIDI are now entering the market, and in the long run USB MIDI is likely to replace the old current loop implementation of MIDI, as well as providing the high-bandwidth channel that ZIPI was intended to provide. Type A USB connector Dual images of the two Type B USB connectors, mini and full size, side and front view, compared with a U.S. 5¢ piece (nickel) in both images for scale. ... A 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ...


In 1992 the MIDI Tuning Standard, or MTS, was ratified by the MIDI Manufacturers' Association. While support for this standard is not great, it is supported by some instruments and software; in particular the freeware program Timidity supports it. MTS uses three bytes, which can be thought of as a three-digit number base 128, to specify a pitch in logarithmic form. Use of MTS allows any midi file to be tuned in any way desired, something which can be accomplished using the freeware program Scala. Timidity is a freesource MIDI and KAR to WAVE converter and player that uses SoundFonts and Gravis Ultrasound compatible patch files to generate digital audio data from general MIDI files. ... Scala is a multi-paradigm programming language designed to express common programming patterns in a concise, elegant, and type-safe way. ...


Beyond MIDI

The Open Sound Control or OSC protocol, devised by CNMAT, transcends some of MIDI's musical coding limitations, and is considered by some to be technically superior. OSC has been implemented in software like SuperCollider, Max/MSP, Csound, and ChucK, however at present few mainstream musical applications and no standalone instruments support OSC, making whole-studio interoperability problematic. It can run over ethernet connections. OSC is not owned by any private company, however it is also not maintained by any standards organization. Open Sound Control Open Sound Control (OSC) is a protocol for communication among computers, sound synthesizers, and other multimedia devices that is optimized for modern networking technology. ... SuperCollider is a real time audio synthesis programming language. ... Alternate meanings: MAX Max is a graphical development environment for music and multimedia developed and maintained by San Francisco-based software company Cycling74. ... Csound is a computer programming language for dealing with sound. ... Chuck may mean: A familiar form of the personal name Charles: Chuck Barris Chuck Behler Chuck Berry Chuck Grassley Chuck Hagel Chuck Mangione Chuck Mosley Chuck Moore Chuck Norris Chuck Palahniuk Chuck Schuldiner Chuck Schumer Chuck Taylor Chuck Woolery Chuck Yeager LeChuck ChucK, a programming language Chuck, an album by... Ethernet is a frame-based computer networking technology for local area networks (LANs). ...


Yamaha has its mLAN standard, which is a variation on FireWire [1] that carries multiple MIDI message channels and multiple audio channels. mLAN is a proprietary protocol. The Yamaha Corporation (ヤマハ株式会社) (TYO: 7951) is a Japanese company with a large number of product areas. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... A 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ...


See also: New interfaces for musical expression Musician with a multimodal instrument based on electromyography, position sensing, and acoustically resonant bowls. ...


Other applications of MIDI

MIDI can also be used for applications other than music:

Any device built with a standard MIDI-OUT port should (in theory) be able to control any other device with a MIDI-IN port, providing that developers of both devices have the same understanding about the semantic meaning of all the transmitted MIDI messages. This agreement can come either because both follow the published MIDI specifications, or else because for non-standard functionality the message meanings are agreed upon by both manufacturers. Modern stage lighting is a flexible tool in the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... Doom, one of the games that defined the first-person shooter genre. ... Screenshot MIDI Maze (Atari ST) MIDI Maze was an early first person shooter video game for the Atari ST developed by Xanth Software F/X, published by Hybrid Arts, and released around 1987. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also: Mobile phone ringtone, Sound font, Pulse-code modulation (PCM) A mobile phone ringtone is a MIDI file that is played by a mobile phone. ... A Sound font refers to the use of pre-recorded sounds for particular instruments when using MIDI. Exernal links Building a sound font overview Categories: Music stubs | Music production ... Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a digital representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, then quantized to a series of symbols in a digital (usually binary) code. ...


MIDI editors/sequencers

The Rosegarden icon Rosegarden is an open source digital audio workstation program developed for Linux with ALSA and KDE. It acts as an audio and MIDI sequencer, scorewriter and musical composition and editing tool. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... The GNU logo For other uses of GPL, see GPL (disambiguation). ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... For other uses see Muse (disambiguation). ... Cakewalk is a company based in Boston, Massachusetts that develops music software. ... Cakewalk is a company based in Boston, Massachusetts that develops music software. ... Microsoft Windows is a range of operating environments for personal computers and servers. ... Steinberg is a German musical equipment and software company. ... Cubase is a MIDI, music sequencer and digital audio editing computer application (commonly known as a DAW - Digital Audio Workstation) created by the German firm Steinberg in 1989. ... Original 1984 Mac OS desktop Current 2005 Mac OS X desktop Mac OS, which stands for Macintosh Operating System, is Apple Computer’s name for the first operating systems for Macintosh computers. ... The Atari 520 ST The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... MidiNotate Player, MidiNotate Musician, and MidiNotate Composer are all members of the product family developed by Notation Software, Inc. ... Anvil Studio is a free MIDI music composition program by Willow Software. ... Click MusicalKEYS is a free MIDI musical keyboard software for Windows by Bapuli Online. ... Digidesign is a digital audio company. ... Pro Tools 6. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Digital Performer is a full-featured Digital Audio Workstation/Sequencer software package published by Mark of the Unicorn (MOTU) of Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... Emagic is a computer software company based in Germany. ... Emagic Logic is a music sequencing application produced by the German Hamburg-based firm Emagic since 1992. ... Ableton Live is a loop-based software music sequencer for Macintosh and Windows. ... Ableton Live is a loop-based software music sequencer for Macintosh and Windows. ... // Headline text A screenshot of FL Studio 5 FL Studio (formerly Fruityloops) is a music production software package created by Image-Line Software. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... Free software, as defined by Richard Stallman and his Free Software Foundation, can be used, copied, studied, modified and redistributed. ... Timidity is a freesource MIDI and KAR to WAVE converter and player that uses SoundFonts and Gravis Ultrasound compatible patch files to generate digital audio data from general MIDI files. ...

Also see

Multitrack recording is a method of sound recording that allows for the recording of multiple sound sources, whether simultaneously or at different times. ... In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was originally any device that recorded and played back a sequence of control information for an electronic musical instrument. ... // Modules Computer-generated music files. ... Tracker is the generic term for a class of software music sequencers which, in their purest form, allow the user to arrange sound samples stepwise on a timeline across several monophonic channels. ...

External links

This article is part of the Pipe Organ Refactor Project. ...

Magazines

Multimedia

  • HamieNET - library of over 23,000 MIDI/free online-based MIDI to MP3 converter
  • VGMusic - library of over 20,000 MIDI of sequenced music from game consoles
  • Laura's MIDI Heaven! - library of over 14,000 MIDI sequenced music in many categories

  Results from FactBites:
 
MIDI File Format - The Sonic Spot (3153 words)
Standard MIDI files provide a common file format used by most musical software and hardware devices to store song information including the title, track names, and most importantly what instruments to use and the sequence of musical events, such as notes and instrument control information needed to play back the song.
Each MIDI Channel Event consists of a variable-length delta time (like all track events) and a two or three byte description which determines the MIDI channel it corresponds to, the type of event it is and one or two event type specific values.
The pitch value is defined by both parameters of the MIDI Channel Event by joining them in the format of yyyyyyyxxxxxxx where the y characters represent the last 7 bits of the second parameter and the x characters represent the last 7 bits of the first parameter.
The MIDI File Format Spec (4006 words)
On the Macintosh, data is passed either in the data fork of a file, or on the Clipboard.
In a format 2 MIDI file, it is used to identify each "pattern" so that a "song" sequence using the Cue message to refer to the patterns.
It should not be impossible to convert a MIDI File to or from an arbitrary internal representation on the fly as it is transmitted, but, as long as it is not too difficult, it is very desirable to use a generic method so that any file type could be accommodated.
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