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EncyclopediaMAME > arcade
MAME
Developer: Nicola Salmoria and others
Latest release: 0.121 / November 19, 2007
Preview release: 0.120u4 / November 15, 2007
OS: cross-platform
Genre: Emulator
License: MAME License
Website: http://www.mamedev.org/

MAME is an emulator application designed to recreate the hardware of arcade game systems in software, with the intent of preserving gaming history and preventing vintage games from being lost or forgotten. The name is an acronym for Multiple Arcade Machine Emulator. “Software development” redirects here. ... Code complete redirects here. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Code complete redirects here. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... Computer software can be organized into categories based on common function, type, or field of use. ... This article is about emulators in computer science. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... This article is about emulators in computer science. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...


The first public MAME release (0.1) was on February 5, 1997, by Nicola Salmoria. As of version 0.120 (actually the 164th proper release), released October 15, 2007, the emulator now supports 3648 unique games and 6858 actual ROM image sets and is growing all the time. However, not all of the games in MAME are currently playable; 851 ROM sets are marked as not working in the current version, and 35 are not actual games but BIOS ROM sets. The project is currently coordinated by Aaron Giles. is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Nicola Salmoria is the original developer of MAME (Multiple Arcade Machine Emulator), an emulator application designed to recreate the hardware of arcade game systems in software. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A ROM image, or simply ROM, is a computer file which contains a copy of the data from a read-only memory chip, often from a video game cartridge, a computers firmware, or from an arcade games main board. ... For other uses, see Bios. ... Aaron Giles is an American software engineer and Macintosh software emulation pioneer. ...

Contents

Design

The MAME core coordinates the emulation of several elements at the same time. These elements replicate the behaviour of the hardware present in the original arcade machines. MAME can emulate many different central processing units (CPUs), both in number or types, including processors, audio and video specific chips, integrated circuits, microcontrollers, etc., including the needed elements for them to communicate together such as memory regions, RAM, data buses, peripherals, storage devices, etc. These elements are virtualized so MAME acts as a software layer between the original program of the game, and the platform MAME runs on. This arcade cabinet, containing Centipede, is an upright. ... CPU redirects here. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...


Individual arcade systems are specified by drivers which take the form of C macros. These drivers specify the individual components to be emulated and how they communicate with each other.


Emulation philosophy

The stated aim of the project is to document hardware, and so MAME takes a somewhat purist view of emulation, prohibiting programming hacks that might make a game run improperly or run faster at the expense of emulation accuracy (see UltraHLE, a project aimed to run games at a playable speed). In MAME every emulated component is replicated down to the smallest level of individual registers and instructions. Consequently, MAME emulation is very accurate (in many cases pixel- and sample-accurate), but system requirements can be high. Since MAME runs mostly older games, a large majority of the games run well on a 2 GHz PC. More modern arcade machines are based on fast pipelined RISC processors, math DSPs, and other devices which are difficult to emulate efficiently. These systems may not run quickly even on the most modern systems available. A hack in progress in Lobby 7 at MIT. Hack is a term in the slang of the technology culture which has come into existence over the past few decades. ... UltraHLE is an emulator allowing games for the Nintendo 64 game console to be run on a computer. ... In computing, a hardware register is a storage area for Digital electronics and particularly Computer hardware including the Central processing unit (CPU) and input/output (I/O) of different kinds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The MAME team has not diverged from this purist philosophy to take advantage of 3D hardware available on PCs today. It is a common but incorrect assumption that performance problems are due to some games' use of 3D graphics. However, even with graphics disabled, games using RISC processors and other modern hardware are not emulated any faster. Thus taking advantage of 3D hardware would not speed these games up significantly. In addition, using 3D hardware would make it difficult to guarantee identical output between different brands of cards, or even revisions of drivers on the same card, which goes against the MAME philosophy. Consistency of output across platforms is very important to the MAME team.


MAME releases

There are several types of MAME release depending on how frequently users wish to update and the level of code maturity each user feels comfortable running:

  • The major releases of MAME occur approximately once a month. These releases are given a version number, e.g. 0.99. The Unix numbering scheme is used, i.e. the version after 0.99 is 0.100, which differs from standard decimal numbering. These major releases are the most mature and least frequent ones so are aimed at the average computer user who wants to try MAME. An executable version for the current main development platform (Windows right now) is released from the MAME Home Page.
  • Smaller, incremental releases are released between major releases. These releases are denoted by a "u" number after the version number of the previous major release, e.g. 0.99u1 is the first development release after major version 0.99. There are usually about 5 new "u" releases in between major releases. These minor releases are not intended for average MAME users. Instead, they are aimed at people who take a close interest in MAME development and have access to compiler tools. The main purpose of the u releases is keeping development code in synchronization among developers. As such, these minor releases are not made officially available as executables. They are available only as source diffs against the MAME source code.
  • For those users who wish to keep up with day-to-day MAME development, the MAME source code is kept on the public Mess.org CVS server for those who wish to access it. This is intended only for those who have access to compiler tools and feel comfortable building software from source code.

MAME has been ported to many different platforms. The X11 port for Unix-like systems, named XMAME, is currently undergoing a major rewrite and will not have any public releases in the near future. The SDL port is named SDLMAME. The discontinued Mac OS X port is named MAME OS X. In addition, different versions of MAME have been ported to lots of other computers, PDAs, digital cameras and game consoles. Most of these ports, however, are based on very old versions of MAME, and many of them are not under active development anymore. A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... In computing, diff is a file comparison utility that outputs the differences between two files. ... The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is an open-source version control system invented and developed by Dick Grune in the 1980s. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ... In computing, the X Window System (commonly X11 or X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Simple DirectMedia Layer (SDL) is a cross-platform multimedia free software library written in C that creates an abstraction over various platforms graphics, sound, and input APIs, allowing a developer to write a computer game or other multimedia application once and run it on many operating systems including GNU/Linux... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ...


Game data

MacMAME under Mac OS X running Progear.
MacMAME under Mac OS X running Progear.
Main article: ROM image

In most arcade machines, the data (consisting of the game program, graphics, sounds, etc.) is stored in read-only memory chips (hence the name "ROM"), although other devices such as cassettes, floppy disks, hard disks, laserdiscs, and compact discs are also used. Most of these devices can be copied to computer files, in a process called "dumping". The resulting files are often generically called ROM images or ROMs regardless of the kind of storage they came from. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 1390 KB) Summary A screenshot of MacMAME v. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 1390 KB) Summary A screenshot of MacMAME v. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Progear ) is an arcade video game developed by Cave and published by Capcom on the CPS-2 arcade system board in 2001. ... A ROM image, or simply ROM, is a computer file which contains a copy of the data from a read-only memory chip, often from a video game cartridge, a computers firmware, or from an arcade games main board. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... CD redirects here. ...


To play a particular game, MAME requires a set of files called a ROM set. They contain all the data from the original machine; however, MAME itself does not include any of these files. For analog media, such as laserdiscs and magnetic tapes with audio/video data, it is impossible to make a 100% accurate digital copy. The process necessarily involves an analogue-digital conversion and the resultant reduction in quality.


MAME uses two different file types for storing ROMs depending on the original medium:

  • The majority of ROM dumps are stored in raw format and contained in ZIP archives, one for each game.
  • For arcade machines which use hard disks or CDs, MAME uses CHD (Compressed Hunks of Data) files which contain the entire contents of the original hard disk, CD or Laserdisc. Due to the large size of these media, the CHD files derived from them also tend to be large.

The ZIP file format is a popular data compression and archival format. ...

Parents and clones

  • Original ROM sets ("parent"): the games which the MAME development team has decided are the "original" versions of each game. Except for the files contained in BIOS ROMs (if needed; see below), the ROM files for these games contain everything those games need to run. The "original" set is generally defined as the most recent revision of the game, and if multiple regional versions are available, the "World" or US revision.
  • Clone ROM sets: different versions or variants of the originals. For example, Street Fighter II Turbo is considered a variant of Street Fighter II Champion Edition.
  • BIOS ROM sets: the ROMs in common between all games on various standardized arcade systems (e.g. Neo-Geo). They basically boot the hardware and then allow the regular game software to take over.

For other uses, see Bios. ... Street Fighter II ) is a 1991 competitive fighting game by Capcom. ... Neo-Geo is the name of a cartridge-based arcade and home video game system released in 1990 by Japanese game company SNK. The system offered comparatively colorful 2D graphics and high-quality sound. ... In computing, booting (booting up) is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ...

Naming convention

A single supported game is usually referred to as a ROM set. Usually each game will consist of multiple ROM files, each of which represents a single device (usually ROM, but sometimes other devices such as PALs). The MAME developers assign each ROM set an 8-letter name for identification as well as a description associated with that 8-letter name. Examples:

  • Original ROM: hyperpac "Hyper Pacman" - MAME expects all required ROM images in a folder (or ZIP file) called hyperpac.
  • Clone ROM: hyperpcb "Hyper Pacman (bootleg)" - MAME will look in both the parent folder (hyperpac) and the clone folder (hyperpcb) for the files.

Individual ROM files are often named after labels found on the ROM chips and the position they are located on the board in the format "label.position". Sega for example use a standard labeling scheme for all the ROMs found on their arcade boards giving each unique ROM chip a unique label. "mpr12380.b2" is a ROM from the Golden Axe romset. This implies that the rom was labeled "mpr12380" and located in position "b2" on the PCB. By using such a naming scheme it makes it easy to use MAME to identify, and often help repair, non-working PCBs. This article is about the video game company. ...


The 8-letter identification tags are less standardized and usually left to the discretion of individual developers. Although some standards do exist, the descriptive long names often follow naming conventions set by the original game manufacturers. For example, Sunset Riders by Konami: Sunset Riders ) is a run and gun arcade game created by Konami in 1991. ... Konami Corporation ) (TYO: 9766 NYSE: KNM SGX: K20) is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and video games. ...

  • ssriders "Sunset Riders (4 Players ver EAC)" (This is the parent set, with clones following)
  • ssrdrebd "Sunset Riders (2 Players ver EBD)"
  • ssrdrebc "Sunset Riders (2 Players ver EBC)"
  • ssrdruda "Sunset Riders (4 Players ver UDA)"
  • ssrdreaa "Sunset Riders (4 Players ver EAA)"
  • ssrdruac "Sunset Riders (4 Players ver UAC)"
  • ssrdrubc "Sunset Riders (2 Players ver UBC)"
  • ssrdrabd "Sunset Riders (2 Players ver ABD)"
  • ssrdradd "Sunset Riders (4 Players ver ADD)"
  • ssrdrjbd "Sunset Riders (2 Players ver JBD)"

Konami gave each revision of their later games a very specific and clearly visible version number, from the mid 90s onwards. As these represent an easy way to identify each version of the game, including the region in which it was available and the revision of the code, MAME uses this information to identify each set. UAA is American revision A, while ABD is Asian revision D. For companies where it is less clear sets are often simply labeled as "(set 1)" and "(set 2)". Unreleased games are labeled as "(Prototype)" and non-original versions of games are labeled as "(Bootleg)" Konami Corporation ) (TYO: 9766 NYSE: KNM SGX: K20) is a leading developer and publisher of numerous popular and strong-selling toys, trading cards, anime, tokusatsu, slot machines and video games. ...


User interface

Emuloader being used with MAME
Emuloader being used with MAME

Although the main MAME program was once only made available as a command-line application for Microsoft Windows and DOS, there has been a minimalist GUI added to version .118 of the Windows distribution. In addition to the standard GUI there are several popular frontends which allow MAME to be launched from a more familiar graphical environment as well as providing facilities such as auditing ROMs. Additionally, the front ends make available more information about the games themselves, contributing significantly to the experience, such as history information and images of the arcade cabinets. Image File history File links Mame_with_emuloader. ... Image File history File links Mame_with_emuloader. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “Windows” redirects here. ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... GUI redirects here. ... In their most general meanings, the terms front end and back end refer to the initial and the end stages of a process flow. ... GUI redirects here. ...


Some frontends have the sole purpose to launch games and hide the operating system. These frontends are generally used in MAME arcade cabinets, to enhance the illusion that the cabinet is a real arcade machine. MAME Arcade Cabinets are meant to provide the experience of an entire video arcade in one unit. ...


Legal status of MAME

Owning and distributing MAME itself is legal in the US, as it is merely an emulator. Some companies (notably Sony) have attempted in court to prevent emulators from being sold, but they have been ultimately unsuccessful.[1] As yet, no legal action has been brought against the MAME team. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ...


The situation regarding ROM images of games is less clear-cut. Most arcade games are still covered by copyright.


Some copyright holders have been indecisive regarding making licensed MAME ROMs available to the public. For example, in 2003 Atari made MAME-compatible ROMs for 27 of its arcade games available through the internet site Star ROMs. However, a status check in March 2006 revealed a reversal of that decision, and the ROMs are no longer being sold there.


Other copyright holders have released games which are no longer commercially viable free of charge to the public. Games including Alien Arena, Gridlee, Robby Roto and Teeter Torture have been released by their copyright holders under non-commercial licenses. These games may be downloaded legally from the official MAME web site. Gridlee is a 1983 arcade game produced by Videa. ... Robby Roto is a 1981 arcade game produced by Bally Midway. ...


However, the majority of games emulated in MAME at this time are copyrighted but no longer commercially available in any form. The legality of distributing or downloading such games depends greatly upon the laws in each country. Many national copyright laws include language which limits offenses to those which cause material harm to copyright holders. An argument could be made that where a game is no longer being manufactured or sold, this could not be the case.


A peculiar legal situation exists with regard to games which are covered by copyright but whose copyright owner is not aware that he owns the copyright. Such games are termed orphan works. They are covered by copyright but do not make money for anybody. Copyright reformers such as Lawrence Lessig believe that such works no longer have a reason to be copyrighted and should be in the public domain. On January 31, 2006, the United States Copyright Office released the results of its study of this issue.[2] Orphaned works are, broadly speaking, any copyrighted works where the rights holder is hard to find. ... Not to be confused with Lawrence Lessing. ... The United States Copyright Office, a part of the Library of Congress, is the official U.S. government body that maintains records of copyright registration in the United States. ...


MAME license

While MAME is available at no cost, including its source code, it is not open-source software or free software because commercial use and redistribution are prohibited. That is, its license does not meet the conditions of the Open Source Definition, nor is it "free software" as defined by the Free Software Foundation. Open source software is computer software which source code is available under a license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that meets the Open_source_definition. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... The Open Source Definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether or not a software license can be considered open source. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ...


In particular, MAME may be redistributed in source or binary form, either modified or unmodified, but: "Redistributions may not be sold, nor may they be used in a commercial product or activity." The main goal of this is to prevent arcade operators from installing MAME cabinets and profiteering from the works of the original manufacturers of the game.


Also, redistributions of modified versions (derivative works) must include the complete corresponding source code (similar to a copyleft). The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ...


There exist, however, a number of derivative versions that violate the license by not releasing the full and complete source code, including multiplayer builds that support the Kaillera server protocol, or others that add newer games. Online gaming redirects here. ... Kaillera is a middleware designed to aid networked multiplayer implementation for emulators. ...


MAME arcade cabinets

MAME arcade cabinets are meant to provide the experience of an entire video arcade in one unit. The name MAME cabinet refers to the emulation software MAME, the software used in such a cabinet. They come in many different flavors, such as upright cabinets which are the full-size cabinets many people are used to, cocktail cabinets which are similar to tables with a glass top that players look down on to play on, and bar-top machines which are miniature versions of the uprights. These can be bought fully built at numerous companies on the internet. arcade, see Arcade. ... This article is about emulation in computer science. ...


References

  1. ^ Glasner, Joanna (2000-02-10). Court Upholds PlayStation Rival. Wired magazine. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  2. ^ Orphan Works. United States Copyright Office (17 August 2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-24.

Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • MESS, a sister project which applies the MAME philosophy to emulating home computers and consoles.
  • Raine, another multi-arcade machine emulator

For other uses, see Mess (disambiguation). ... What is Raine Raine is an emulator for arcade games. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
MAME arcade cabinet
  • Official website
  • MAWS, searchable database about MAME romset information, with information on the games and their history.

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Musicals.Net - Mame - Synopsis (1367 words)
Mame's authority over Patrick is shared with the Knickerbocker Bank, appointed trustee in her late brother's will to exert a conservative influence on the boy.
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MAME - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2254 words)
MAME, which is an acronym for Multiple Arcade Machine Emulator, is a computer software program for personal computers designed to faithfully and precisely emulate as many arcade games as possible, with the intent of preserving gaming history and preventing vintage games from being lost or forgotten.
MAME contains several components: a CPU emulator which duplicates the behavior of the CPUs of many original arcade machines; an input emulator which maps arcade buttons, joysticks, and other controls to PC keyboards, joysticks and other devices; and an emulator for the arcade game display and sound equipment.
MAME handles these data files in two ways: CHD (Compressed Hunks of Data) files hold the contents of hard disks or compact discs, and all the other types of game data are stored in ZIP archives, one for each game.
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