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Encyclopedia > M2 protein

The M2 protein is a proton-selective ion channel protein, integral in the cell membrane of the influenza A virus. The channel itself is a homotetramer (consists of four identical M2 units), where the units are helixes stabilized by two disulfide bonds. It is activated by low pH. Properties In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... Another, unrelated ion channeling process is part of ion implantation. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the selectively permeable cell membrane (or plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... Influenza, commonly known as the flu or the grippe, is a contagious disease of the upper airways and the lungs, caused by an RNA virus of the orthomyxoviridae family. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) A bacteriophage virus A virus is a submicroscopic parasitic particle that infects cells in biological organisms. ... A disulfide bond (SS-bond), also called a disulfide bridge, is a strong covalent bond between two sulfhydryl (-SH) groups. ... PH or ph or pH or Ph may be: pH, a measure of acidity (chemistry) Ph, a phenyl ring (organic chemistry) PH, the ISO country code of the Philippines (see . ...


Structure

The M2 protein unit consists of three protein domains: the 24 aminoacids on the N-terminal end, exposed to the outside environment, the 19 hydrophobic aminoacids on the transmembrane region, and the 54 aminoacids on the C-terminal end, oriented towards the inside of the viral particle. Within a protein, a structural domain (domain) is an element of overall structure that is self-stabilizing and often folds independently of the rest of the protein chain. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... The N-terminal end refers to the extremity of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free amine group (NH2). ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... The C-terminal end refers to the extremity of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free carboxyl group (COOH). ...


Function

The M2 protein has an important role in the life cycle of the influenza A virus. It is located in the viral envelope. Its role lies in letting the protons enter the viral particle, thus lowering pH of the inside of the virus, which causes dissociation of the viral matrix protein M1 from the ribonucleoprotein RNP. This is a crucial step in uncoating of the virus and exposing its content to the cytoplasm of the host cell. Ribonucleoprotein(RNP) is a compound that combined ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein together. ... Cytoplasm is a homogeneous, generally clear jelly-like material that fills cells. ...


Inhibition and resistance

The function of the M2 channel can be inhibited by antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine, which then blocks the virus from taking over the host cell. The molecule of the drug binds to the transmembrane region, sterically blocking the channel. This stops the protons from entering the virion, which then does not disintegrate. Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Amantadine, 1-aminoadamantane, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. ... Rimantadine (systematic name 1-(1-aminoethyl)adamantane) is an orally administered medicine used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, Influenzavirus A infection. ...


However, the M2 gene is susceptible to mutations. When one of five aminoacids in the transmembrane region gets suitably subtituted, the virus gains resistance to the existing M2 inhibitors. As the mutations are relatively frequent, presence of the selection factors (eg. using amantadine for treatment of sick poultry) can lead to emergence of a resistent strain. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... In biology, mutations are changes to the genetic material (usually DNA or RNA). ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
M2 protein - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (301 words)
The M2 protein is a proton-selective ion channel protein, integral in the cell membrane of the influenza A virus.
The M2 protein unit consists of three protein domains: the 24 aminoacids on the N-terminal end, exposed to the outside environment, the 19 hydrophobic aminoacids on the transmembrane region, and the 54 aminoacids on the C-terminal end, oriented towards the inside of the viral particle.
However, the M2 gene is susceptible to mutations.
M2 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (260 words)
M2 protein, an ion channel of the influenza A virus
Globular Cluster M2, a globular cluster in the constellation Aquarius
Socket M2, renamed to Socket AM2, an AMD CPU socket due to be released in 2006
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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