FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > M1 Abrams
M1 Abrams

M1A1 on a live fire exercise in Iraq, 2003
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin United States
Service history
Used by United States, Australia, Egypt, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia
Wars Gulf War, Iraq War
Production history
Designer Chrysler Defense
Designed 1970s
Manufacturer General Dynamics
Unit cost US$4.35 million (M1A2)[1]
Produced 1979–present
Variants M1A1, M1A2, M1A2SEP
Specifications
Weight 67.6 short tons (61.4 tonnes)
Length Gun forward: 32.04 ft (9.77 m)
Hull length: 26.02 ft (7.93 m)
Width 12 ft (3.66 m)
Height 8 ft (2.44 m)
Crew 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)

Armor Chobham, RHA
Primary
armament
105 mm M68 rifled cannon (M1)
120 mm M256 smoothbore cannon (M1A1, M1A2, M1A2SEP)
Secondary
armament
1 x .50-caliber (12.7 mm) M2HB heavy machine gun
2 x M240 7.62 mm machine guns (1 pintle-mounted, 1 coaxial)
Engine AGT-1500C multi-fuel turbine engine
1500 hp (1119 kW)
Power/weight 24.5 hp/tonne
Transmission Allison DDA X-1100-3B
Suspension Torsion bar
Ground clearance 0.48 m (M1, M1A1)
0.43 m (M1A2)
Operational
range
465.29 km (289 mi)
With NBC system: 449.19 km (279 mi)
Speed Road: 67.72 km/h (42 mph)
Off-road: 48.3 km/h (30 mph)

The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. The M1 is named after General Creighton Abrams, former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Regiment. Download high resolution version (1600x1043, 516 KB)from http://www. ... Tanks can be classified in a variety of ways: usually either by intended role, or by weight. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... General Dynamics Corporation (NYSE: GD) is a defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2006 it is the sixth largest defense contractor in the world[2]. The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War era of defense consolidation. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... Military vehicles are commonly armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets or shells, protecting the soldiers inside from enemy fire. ... Chobham armour is a composite armour developed in the 1960s at the British tank research centre on Chobham Common. ... RHA stands for Rolled Homogeneous Armour. ... The Royal Ordnance L7 is the basic model of Britains most successful tank gun. ... An M1 Abrams tank firing the Rheinmetall L44 fitted with a hoffman device. ... Smoothbore refers to a firearm which does not have a rifled barrel. ... This article is about the . ... The M2 machine gun with a tripod weighs 58 kg (128 lb). ... M240 redirects here. ... The 7. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Torsion beam suspension, also known as a torsion bar or torsion spring suspension, is a vehicle suspension system. ... The Al-Khalid or MBT 2000 (Type 90-IIM) is a modern main battle tank developed by China and manufactured by Pakistan. ... This article is about the tank. ... Arjun is a Main Battle Tank developed by DRDO (Defence Research and Development) for the Indian Army. ... The British FV4034 Challenger 2 is an advanced new generation main battle tank (MBT) currently in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... K2 Black Panther (formerly known as KNMBT, or Korean New Main Battle Tank and XK2, or eXperimental K2) (Hangul: 차기전차 K2 흑표) is the Republic of Koreas recently revealed prototype for a next-generation main battle tank. ... The gunners position, looking down from the turret roof. ... The Leopard 2 is a German main battle tank built by the German company Krauss-Maffei-Wegmann, developed in the early 1970s and first entering service in 1979, replacing the earlier Leopard 1 as the foremost MBT in the Bundeswehr. ... The M-2001 MBT was presented by Yugoipmort SDPR for the first time in 2004 but under the designation M-84AB1, later an improved version of the tank was given to what is today the M-2001. ... The General Dynamics 120S (M60-2000) is an upgrade of the M60 Patton tank. ... M-95 Degman is a prototype Croatian main battle tank, developed in the factory Đuro Đaković specijalna vozila d. ... // The Merkava (Hebrew:  , Chariot) is the main battle tank of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The PT-91 Twardy (translated PT-91 Twardy, meaning Tough) is a Polish main battle tank. ... The M60A1 Sabra tank upgrade program is designed to upgrade 170 Turkish M60A1 (A3?) MBT. The Israeli Military Industries (IMI) is upgrading the M60A1 with a new 120-mm smoothbore gun, Elbit Systems electric gun and turret drive stabilization system with a new fire control system, and a new IMI... The T-84 Main Battle Tank is a Ukrainian development of the Soviet T-80 main battle tank, first built in 1994 and entered service in the Ukrainian Armed Forces in 1999. ... This article is about the Russian tank. ... The TR-85 is a Romanian main battle tank that is a drastically modified version of the Soviet T-55 with a new turret, a new T-block powerpack (similar to the one used in the Leopard 1) based on a license-built V8 German diesel engine, and a completely... The Type 10 50 mm grenade discharger was a Japanese smoothbore, muzzle loaded weapon used during the Second world war. ... The Type 90(Japanese: きゅうまるしき せんしゃ Kanji: 90式戦車) is the current main battle tank (MBT) of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF). ... The Type 96 is the latest variant of Chinas second-generation main battle tank (MBT). ... For other uses, see Type 99 (disambiguation). ... Born as the brainchild of brigadier general Mir-Younes Masoumzadeh, deputy ground force commander for research and self-sufficiency jihad of the armed forces, the Iranian Zulfiqar [Zolfaqar] main battle tank is believed to be pieced together or developed from major components of the Russian T-72 and American M48... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the highest ranking officer in the United States Army and is member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff [1]. Prior to 1903, the military head of the... An M1A1 Abrahms Main Battle Tank. ...


It is a main battle tank, one well armed, heavily armored, and highly mobile offensive mainstay of modern armored ground warfare.[citation needed] Notable features of the M1 Abrams include the use of a powerful gas turbine engine, the adoption of sophisticated composite armor, and separate ammunition storage in a blow-out compartment for crew safety. It is one of the heaviest tanks in service, weighing in at close to 70 tons. Tanks can be classified in a variety of ways: usually either by intended role, or by weight. ... Armoured warfare in modern warfare is understood to be the use of armoured fighting vehicles as a central component of the methods of war. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Composite armour is a type of armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air. ...


The M1 Abrams entered U.S. service in 1980, replacing the M60 Patton and M48A5. It did, however, serve for over a decade alongside the improved M60A3, which had entered service in 1978. Three main versions of the M1 Abrams have been deployed, the M1, M1A1, and M1A2, incorporating improved armament, protection and electronics. These improvements, as well as periodic upgrades to older tanks have allowed this long-serving vehicle to remain in front-line service. It is the principal combat tank of the United States Army and the Marine Corps, and the armies of Egypt, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and as of 2007, Australia. For other uses, see M60. ... The M48 Patton was one of the U.S armys principal main battle tanks of the Cold War, with models in service from the early 1950s to the 1990s. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ...

Contents

Background

The first attempt to replace the aging M60 series of tanks was the abortive MBT-70, developed in partnership with West Germany. The M60 Patton was itself a gradual evolution of a design starting with the World War II era M26 Pershing, with a very tall profile, and average armor and weaponry compared to the contemporary Soviet designs. The MBT-70 was very ambitious, like many American weapons programs of the 1960s. It had a gun launched missile system, kneeling suspension, a driver housed in the turret, and various other ideas that ultimately proved unsuccessful. Cancellation of this project paved the way for the much more successful M1 Abrams tank, which did not incorporate most of the troublesome innovations tried by the MBT-70. MBT-70: Prototype of the German 120 mm-armed version, identifiable due to the fume extractor. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Heavy Tank M26 Pershing was an American tank used during World War II and the Korean War. ...


Development

The M1 Abrams was designed by Chrysler Defense (in 1979, General Dynamics Land Systems Division purchased Chrysler Defense Division) and is currently produced by General Dynamics Corporation in Lima, Ohio, and first entered US Army service in 1980. An improved version of the M1, the M1A1, was introduced in 1985. The M1A1 has the M256 120 mm smoothbore cannon developed by Rheinmetall AG of Germany for the Leopard 2, improved armor, and a CBRN protection system. The M1A2 is a further improvement of the M1A1 with a commander's independent thermal viewer and weapon station, position navigation equipment, digital data bus and a radio interface unit. The M1A2 SEP-(System Enhancement Package) added digital maps, FBCB2-(Force XXI Battlefield Command Brigade and Below) capabilities, and an improved cooling system to maintain crew compartment temperature with the addition of multiple computer systems to the M1A2 tank. General Dynamics Corporation (NYSE: GD) is a defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2006 it is the sixth largest defense contractor in the world[2]. The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War era of defense consolidation. ... Location in the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Allen Government  - Mayor David Berger (D) Area  - City 12. ... An M1 Abrams tank firing the Rheinmetall L44 fitted with a hoffman device. ... Smoothbore refers to a firearm which does not have a rifled barrel. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Rheinmetall AG is a German automotive and defense company with factories in Düsseldorf, Kassel and Unterlüß. It has a long tradition of making guns and artillery pieces. ... The Leopard 2 is a German main battle tank built by the German company Krauss-Maffei-Wegmann, developed in the early 1970s and first entering service in 1979, replacing the earlier Leopard 1 as the foremost MBT in the Bundeswehr. ... CBRN is an acronym used extensively by the UK security services and the UK emergency services. ...

A left front view of the XM1 Abrams tank, which replaced the M60 series, during a demonstration on the test range in 1979.


Further upgrades include depleted uranium armor for all variants, a system overhaul that returns all A1s to like-new condition (M1A1 AIM), a digital enhancement package for the A1 (M1A1D), a commonality program to standardize parts between the U.S. Army and the Marine Corps (M1A1HC) and an electronic upgrade for the A2 (M1A2 SEP). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2810x1870, 1589 KB) A left front view of the XM-1 Abrams tank, which will replace the M-60 series, during a demonstration on the test range. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2810x1870, 1589 KB) A left front view of the XM-1 Abrams tank, which will replace the M-60 series, during a demonstration on the test range. ... For other uses, see M60. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ...


During Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm and for Bosnia, some M1A1s were modified with armor upgrades. The M1 can be equipped with mine plow and mine roller attachments if needed. The M1 chassis also serves as a basis for the Grizzly combat engineering vehicle and the M104 Wolverine heavy assault bridge. See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... U.S. Army M-1A1 Abrams tank with mine plow from 1995 or earlier A mine plow (plough in British English) is a tank-mounted device designed to clear a lane through a minefield, allowing other vehicles to follow. ... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ... The M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge is an armored combat engineering vehicle designed to provide deployable bridge capability for units engaged in military operations. ...


Over 8,800 M1 and M1A1 tanks have been produced at a cost of $2,350,000–$4,300,000 per unit, depending on the variant.


Design features

Armor

Tankers of the 1st Armored Division drive an M1 Abrams tank through the Taunus Mountains north of Frankfurt during Exercise Ready Crucible on February 14, 2005.
Tankers of the 1st Armored Division drive an M1 Abrams tank through the Taunus Mountains north of Frankfurt during Exercise Ready Crucible on February 14, 2005.

The Abrams is protected by Chobham armor, a further development of British "Burlington" armor. Chobham is a composite armor formed by spacing multiple layers of various alloys of steel, ceramics, plastic composites, and kevlar, giving an estimated maximum (frontal turret) 1320-1620 millimeters of RHAe versus HEAT (and other chemical energy rounds) and 940-960 mm versus kinetic energy penetrators.[2] It may also be fitted with reactive armor over the track skirts if needed (as in the Urban Survival Kit) and Slat armor over the rear of the tank and rear fuel cells to protect against ATGMs. Fuel and ammunition are in armored compartments with blowout panels to protect the crew from the risk of the tank's own ammunition cooking off if the tank is damaged. Protection against spalling is provided by a Kevlar liner. Beginning in 1987, M1A1 tanks received improved armor packages that incorporated depleted uranium (DU) mesh in their armor at the front of the turret and the front of the hull. Armor reinforced in this manner offers significantly increased resistance towards all types of anti-tank weaponry, but at the expense of adding considerable weight to the tank. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1945x1602, 1267 KB) by Richard Bumgardner May 1, 2005 Members of the 1st Armored Division drive an M1 Abrams tank through the Tanus Mountains north of Frankfurt during Exercise Ready Crucible. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1945x1602, 1267 KB) by Richard Bumgardner May 1, 2005 Members of the 1st Armored Division drive an M1 Abrams tank through the Tanus Mountains north of Frankfurt during Exercise Ready Crucible. ... The 1st Armored Division —nicknamed the Old Ironsides— is an armored division of the United States Army with base of operations in Wiesbaden, Germany. ... View (from top of Frankfurt) of Altkoenig and Grosser Feldberg For the automobile, see Ford Taunus. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chobham armour is a composite armour developed in the sixties at the British tank research centre on Chobham Common. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Rolled homogeneous armour, or RHA, is a theoretical basic type of steel plate, used as a baseline to compare the effectiveness of military vehicle armour. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... This article or section should include material from Explosive reactive armour Reactive armor or explosive reactive armour (ERA), is a type of armour used primarily on tanks to lessen the damage from explosions caused from missile warheads, exploding shells, grenades, or dropped bombs. ... Cooking off is when ammunition is set off prematurely due to heat in the surrounding environment. ... Very high speed photography of a small projectile impacting a thin aluminium plate at 7000 m/s. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ...


The first M1A1 tanks to receive this upgrade were tanks stationed in Germany, since they were the first line of defense against the Soviet Union. US-based tank battalions participating in Operation Desert Storm received an emergency program to upgrade their tanks with depleted uranium armor immediately before the onset of the campaign. M1A2 tanks uniformly incorporate depleted uranium armor, and all M1A1 tanks in active service have been upgraded to this standard as well, the armor thickness believed to be equivalent to 24 inches (610 mm) of RHA. The strength of the armor is estimated to be about the same as similar western, contemporary main battle tanks such as the Leopard 2. The M1A1/M1A2 can survive multiple hits from the most powerful tank munitions (including 120 mm depleted uranium APFSDS) and anti-tank missiles.[citation needed] In the Persian Gulf War, Abrams tanks survived multiple hits at relatively close ranges from Iraqi T-72s and ATGMs. M829A1 "Silver Bullet" APFSDS rounds from other M1A1 Abrams were unable to penetrate the front and side armor (even at close ranges) in friendly fire incidents as well as an incident in which another Abrams tried to destroy an Abrams that got stuck in mud and had to be abandoned.[3] RHA stands for Rolled Homogeneous Armour. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... An Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) is a missile the primary purpose of which is to hit and destroy tanks. ... M829A1 The M829A1 (nicknamed the Silver Bullet by Operation Desert Storm tank crews) is widely regarded as one of the most effective tank-fired anti-armor weapon in the world, and overwhelmed Iraqi armor during Operation Desert Storm. ... A kinetic energy penetrator, long-rod penetrator, or APFSDS (Armour Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot) is a type of ammunition which, like a bullet, does not contain explosives, but uses kinetic energy to penetrate the target. ...


In addition to the advanced armor, some Abrams, are equipped with a Missile Countermeasure Device that can impede the function of guidance systems of semiactive control line-of-sight (SACLOS) wire and radio guided anti-tank guided missiles (Russian AT-3, AT-4, AT-5, AT-6 and the like) and thermally and infrared guided missiles. (ATGM)[2]. This device is mounted on the turret roof in front of the Loader's hatch, and can lead some people to mistake Abrams fitted with these devices for the M1A2 version, since the Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer on the latter is mounted in the same place, though the MCD is box-shaped and fixed in place as opposed to cylindrical and rotating like the CITV.


Armament

U.S. Marine M1A1 firing in Najaf Province, Iraq during a training exercise.
U.S. Marine M1A1 firing in Najaf Province, Iraq during a training exercise.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x1960, 2893 KB) http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x1960, 2893 KB) http://www. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ...

Main armament

M68A1 rifled gun

The main armament of the original model M1 was the M68A1 105 mm rifled tank gun firing a variety of high explostive anti-tank (HEAT), high explosive, white phosphorus, and a highly efficient and lethal anti-personnel (multiple flechette) round. This gun is a license-built version of the British Royal Ordnance L7 gun. While being a reliable weapon and widely used by both NATO and former Warsaw Pact nations alike, a cannon with lethality beyond the 3 kilometer range was needed to combat newer armor technologies. To attain that lethality, projectile diameter needed to be increased. The M68A1's performance in terms of accuracy and armor-piercing penetration is on par with the M256A1 up to 3000 meters out, but beyond that range the 105mm projectile lacks the kinetic energy to defeat modern armor packages. Rifling of a Canon de 75 modèle 1897 A 35 caliber Remington, with a microgroove rifled barrel with a right hand twist. ... A M1 Abrams firing. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... An anti-personnel weapon is one primarily used to injure or kill people. ... The word flechette is French and means dart (literally, little arrow). It is a projectile having the form of a small metal dart, usually steel, with a sharp-pointed tip and a tail with several vanes to stabilize it during flight. ... The Royal Ordnance L7 is the basic model of Britains most successful tank gun. ...

M256 smoothbore gun
Washington Army National Guard soldier from 81st Armor Brigade, sets the sights on the main gun of an M1A1 Abrams in Mosul, Iraq on January 8, 2005.

The main armament of the M1A1 and M1A2 is the M256A1 120 mm smoothbore gun, designed by Rheinmetall AG of Germany. The M256A1 is a variant of the Rheinmetall 120 mm L/44 gun carried on the German Leopard 2 on all variants up to the Leopard 2A5. Leopard 2A6 replaced the L/44 barrel with a longer L/55. The newer M256A1 is manufactured under license in the United States by Watervliet Arsenal, New York. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2507x1633, 579 KB) US Army (USA) Staff Sergeant (SSG) Adam Gorey from Bravo Company, 1st Battalion, 81st Armor Brigade, 85th Armor Division, sets the sights on the main gun of an M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBT) in Mosul, Iraq (IRQ). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2507x1633, 579 KB) US Army (USA) Staff Sergeant (SSG) Adam Gorey from Bravo Company, 1st Battalion, 81st Armor Brigade, 85th Armor Division, sets the sights on the main gun of an M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBT) in Mosul, Iraq (IRQ). ... The Washington Army National Guard is composed of both Army National Guard and Air National Guard units. ... The U.S. 81st Brigade Combat Team (Heavy) is primarily composed of units from the Washington National Guard. ... MosÅ«l (36°22′ N 43°07′ E Arabic: al-Mawsil), Kurdish: Mûsil, or Nineveh (Syriac: ܢܝܢܘܐ) is a city in northern Iraq/Central Assyria. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rheinmetall is a German defense company. ... An M1 Abrams tank firing the Rheinmetall L44 fitted with a hoffman device. ... The Watervliet Arsenal is an arsenal of the United States Army located in Watervliet, New York, along the Hudson River. ...


Rounds like the M829A2 were developed specifically to address the threats posed by a T-90 or T-80U tank, given their high level of protection provided the tanks by kontakt-5 Explosive Reactive Armor, and HEAT shaped charge rounds such as the M830, the latest version of which (M830A1) incorporates a sophisticated multi-mode electronic sensing fuse and more fragmentation which allows it to be used effectively against armored vehicles, personnel, and low-flying aircraft. Unlike the Soviet-built tanks it was designed to go up against, the Abrams uses a manual loader rather than an automatic device, due to the belief that having a person reload the gun is faster and more reliable. This decision was proven out as the Soviet-era automatic loading system proved troublesome.[citation needed] Also important in the decision to use a crewmember instead of an automatic loader during the XM-1 development was the fact that autoloaders of the day did not allow for separate ammunition storage in the turret like the M1 was developed with.  electric primer  propellant  sabot  DU penetrator The M-829 is an American first-generation Armor-Piercing, Fin-Stabilized, Discarding Sabot (APFSDS) tank round designed specifically for the 120mm M-256 main gun on the M-1A1 Abrams main battle tank. ... This article is about the Russian tank. ... The T-80 is a Soviet/Russian/Ukrainian main battle tank. ... Kontakt-5 is a Russian type of third-generation explosive reactive armour. ... Sectioned HEAT round with the inner shaped charge visible 1:Aerodynamic cover 2: Empty room 3: Conical liner 4: Detonator 5: Explosive 6: Piezo-electric sensor A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosives energy. ... The M830 is an American High Explosive Anti-tank (HEAT) round meant primarily for the 120 mm M256 main gun of the M1A1 and M1A2. ... In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function. ...

A Marine M1A1 Abrams, 2nd Tank Battalion, fires it main gun into a building to provide suppressive counter fire against insurgents in Fallujah, Al Anbar Province, Iraq during Operation Al Fajr, 2004.

The new M1028 120 mm anti-personnel canister cartridge was brought into service early for use in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It contains 1,098 3/8 inch steel ball projectiles which spread from the muzzle to produce a shotgun effect lethal out to 600 m. The steel balls can be used to clear enemy dismounts, break up hasty ambush sites in urban areas, clear defiles, stop infantry attacks and counter-attacks and support friendly infantry assaults by providing cover-by-fire. The Canister round is also a highly effective breeching round and can level cinder block walls and knock man-sized holes in reinforced concrete walls for infantry raids at distances up to 75 meters. Fallujah skyline before November 2004 battle Fallujah (Arabic: ; sometimes transliterated as Falluja or Fallouja) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69 km (43 miles) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. ... Al Anbar (Arabic: ‎ ) is an overwhelmingly Sunni Arab province of Iraq. ... Canister shot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ... This article deals with the post-invasion period in Iraq and its occupation. ... For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ...


In addition to this, the new MRM-KE (Mid-Range-Munition Kinetic Energy) is also in development. Essentially a cannon-fired guided round, it has a range of roughly 12 km and uses a KE warhead which is rocket assisted in its final phase of flight. This is intended to be the best penetrator yet, an improvement over the US 3rd generation DU penetrator (estimated penetration 790 mm). The MRM-KE, also known as X-Rod, is a 120mm precision guided munition for use by the M256 tank gun found on the M1 Abrams. ...


Secondary armament

U.S. Army M1A2 Abrams tanks maneuver in the streets as they conduct a combat patrol in the city of Tall Afar, Iraq, on February 3, 2005. Note the TAGS shield installed on the loader's M240 machine gun.
U.S. Army M1A2 Abrams tanks maneuver in the streets as they conduct a combat patrol in the city of Tall Afar, Iraq, on February 3, 2005. Note the TAGS shield installed on the loader's M240 machine gun.

The Abrams tank has three machine guns: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4288x2848, 6099 KB) U.S. Army M1 Abrams tanks maneuver in the streets as they conduct a combat patrol in the city of Tall Afar, Iraq, on Feb. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4288x2848, 6099 KB) U.S. Army M1 Abrams tanks maneuver in the streets as they conduct a combat patrol in the city of Tall Afar, Iraq, on Feb. ... Tal Afar (also Talafar) in Arabic تل عفر (also تلعفر) is a city in northern Iraq, about 30 miles west of Mosul. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Transparent Armor Gun shield, otherwise known as TAGS, is a new type of protective shield that is visibly transparent. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ...

  1. A .50 cal. (12.7 mm) M2 machine gun in front of the commander's hatch. On the M1, M1IP and M1A1, this gun is on a powered mount and can be fired using a 3× magnification sight, known as the Commander's Weapon Station (CWS for short), while the vehicle is buttoned up. On the M1A2 & M1A2SEP, this gun is on a flex mount (seen at right), the Commander having to expose himself to fire the weapon manually. With the forthcoming TUSK addon kit, an M2 or an Mk 19 grenade launcher can be mounted on the CROWS remote weapons platform (similar to the Protector M151 remote weapon station used on the Stryker family of vehicles).
  2. A 7.62 mm M240 machine gun in front of the loader's hatch on a skate mount. Some of these have been fitted with gun shields during the ongoing conflict in Iraq as seen in the image at right, as well as night-vision scopes for low-visibility engagements.
  3. A second 7.62 mm M240 machine gun in a coaxial mount. The coaxial MG is aimed and fired with the same computer fire control system used for the main gun.

The turret is fitted with two six-barreled smoke grenade launchers (USMC M1A1's use an eight-barreled version). These can create a thick smoke that blocks both vision and thermal imaging, and can also be armed with chaff. The engine is also equipped with a smoke generator that is triggered by the driver. The Abrams also has provisions for storing an M16 rifle or M4 carbine inside the turret in case the crew is required to leave the tank under potentially hostile conditions; while the crewmen are supplied with the M9 Beretta pistol as a personal sidearm. Calibre redirects here. ... A . ... This article is about the . ... Mk19 40mm grenade launcher MK-19 40mm grenade launcher during MIL-EX 2003 Mk19 40mm grenade launcher with cover open and training ammunition loaded The Mk 19 Grenade Launcher is a belt-fed automatic 40mm grenade launcher or grenade machine gun entered U.S. military service during the Cold War... For other uses of the word Crow, please see Crow (disambiguation). ... The PROTECTOR M151 Remote Weapon Station, (RWS), is a remotely controlled weapon system that can be mounted to a number of vehicles and stationary platforms. ... NATO 7. ... M240 redirects here. ... A US Marine manning an M240 machine gun equipped with a gun shield A gun shield is a device designed to be mounted on a crew-served weapon such as a machine gun or artillery piece, sometimes improvised in the field in an add-hoc manner using salvaged materials, to... coaxial cable In geometry, coaxial means that two or more forms share a common axis; it is the three-dimensional analog of concentric. Coaxial cable, for example, has a conducting wire in the center and a second conducting layer running all the way around the exterior circumference, under the insulation. ... Smoke grenade A purple smoke grenade being used during a military training exercise Main article: Hand grenade Smoke grenades are canister-type grenades used as ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling devices, target or landing zone marking devices, or a screening devices for unit movements. ... This article is about the infrared imaging technique. ... Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre... M16 (more formally United States Rifle, Caliber 5. ... M4A1 redirects here. ... The M9 handgun, formally Pistol, Semiautomatic, 9mm, M9, is a 9mm pistol of the U.S. military adopted in the 1980s. ...


Aiming

Soldiers from the 3rd Infantry Division conduct a counter improvised explosive device mission in Baghdad, Dec. 22, 2007.

The Abrams is equipped with a ballistic fire-control computer that uses data from a variety of sources, including the thermal or daylight Gunner's Primary Sight (GPS), all computing and displaying one of three components of the ballistic solution - lead angle, ammunition type, and range to the target. These three components are determined using a laser rangefinder, crosswind sensor, a pendulum static cant sensor, data on the ammunition type, tank-specific boresight alignment data, ammunition temperature, air temperature, barometric pressure, a muzzle reference sensor (MRS) that determines and compensates for barrel droop at the muzzle due to gravitational pull and barrel heating due to firing or sunlight, and target speed determined by tracking rate tachometers in the Gunner's or Commander's Controls Handles allowing for target speed input into the ballistic solution. The 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) —nicknamed the Rock of the Marne— is a United States Army infantry division based at Fort Stewart, Georgia. ... A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ... Soon after the invention of the laser in 1960, it was described as a solution in search of a problem. However, since that time, the laser has found a place as a useful tool in many scientific, military, medical and industrial applications. ... For other uses, see Pendulum (disambiguation). ...


The fire-control system uses this data to compute a firing solution for the gunner. The ballistic solution generated ensures a hit percentage greater than 95 percent at nominal ranges. Either the commander or gunner can fire the main gun. Additionally, the Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer (CITV) on the M1A2 can be used to locate targets and pass them on for the gunner to engage while the commander scans for new targets. In the event of a malfunction or damage to the primary sight system, the main and coaxial weapons can be manually aimed using a telescopic scope boresighted to the main gun known as the Gunner's Auxiliary Sight (GAS). The GAS has two interchangeable reticles; one for HEAT and MPAT (MultiPurpose AntiTank) rounds and one for APFSDS and STAFF (Smart Target-Activated Fire and Forget) ammunition. Turret traverse and main gun elevation can be accomplished with manual handles and cranks in the event of a Fire Control System or Hydraulic System failure. The commander's M2 .50 caliber machine gun on the M1 and M1A1 is aimed by a 3x magnification sight incorporated into the Commander's Weapon Station (CWS), while the M1A2 uses either the machine gun's own iron sights, or a remote aiming system such as the CROWS system when used as part of the TUSK kit. The loader's M240 machine gun is aimed either with the built-in iron sights or with a thermal scope mounted on the machine gun. A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ... Imagine you are standing upright on the ground. ... A drawing of different reticles used in telescopic sights. ... Looking down the iron sight of an ArmaLite M15A4 Carbine (a civilian copy of the M4 Carbine) Rear diopter-type iron sight of an Rk 62 assault rifle. ...


Mobility

A U.S. Army M1A1 Abrams is marshaled away from a US Air Force C-17, after being offloaded at Balad Air Base, Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
A U.S. Army M1A1 Abrams is marshaled away from a US Air Force C-17, after being offloaded at Balad Air Base, Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Driving controls
Driving controls

The M1 Abrams is powered by a 1500 hp (1119 kW) Honeywell AGT1500 (originally made by Lycoming) gas turbine, and a six speed (four forward, two reverse) Allison X-1100-3B Hydro-Kinetic Automatic transmission, giving it a governed top speed of 45 mph (72 km/h) on paved roads, and 30 mph (48 km/h) cross-country. With the engine governor removed, speeds of around 60 mph (100 km/h) are possible on an improved surface; however, damage to the drive train (especially to the tracks) and an increased risk of injuries to the crew can occur at speeds above 45 mph (72 km/h). The tank can be fueled with diesel fuel, kerosene, any grade of motor gasoline, JP-4 jet fuel, or JP-8 jet fuel; the US Army uses JP-8 jet fuel in order to simplify logistics. The Royal Australian Armoured Corps' M1A1 AIM SA uses diesel fuel; it is cheaper and makes practical sense for Australian military logistics. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2385x1500, 950 KB) A US Army (USA) M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBT) is marshaled away from the aircraft, after being offloaded from a US Air Force (USAF) C-17A Globemaster III aircraft at Balad Air Base (AB), Iraq, during Operation... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2385x1500, 950 KB) A US Army (USA) M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBT) is marshaled away from the aircraft, after being offloaded from a US Air Force (USAF) C-17A Globemaster III aircraft at Balad Air Base (AB), Iraq, during Operation... For the Lockheed aircraft with this designation, see C-17 Super Vega. ... Balad Air Base control tower The Sustainer Theater at Camp Anaconda. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) M1A1 Driving Controls File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) M1A1 Driving Controls File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Honeywell Heating Specialties Company Stock Certificate dated 1924 signed by Mark C. Honeywell - courtesy of Scripophily. ... Lycoming Engines is a major aircraft engine company, known primarily for their smaller general aviation engines. ... Allison Transmission is a manufacturer of automatic transmissions for medium and heavy-duty commercial vehicle applications. ... The automatic gear selector in a Ford Five Hundred vehicle An automatic transmission (commonly abbreviated as AT) is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually (similar but larger devices are also used for railroad... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... This article is about the fuel. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... Petrol redirects here. ... An aviation fuel truck. ... JP-8, or JP8 (for Jet Propellant) is a jet fuel, specified in 1990 by the U.S. government. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The gas turbine propulsion system has proven quite reliable in practice and combat, but its high fuel consumption is a serious logistic issue (starting up the turbine alone consumes nearly 11 gallons of fuel).[citation needed] The high speed, high temperature jet blast emitted from the rear of M1 Abrams tanks makes it difficult for the infantry to proceed shadowing the tank in urban combat. The turbine is very quiet when compared to diesel engines of similar power output and produces a significantly different sound from a contemporary diesel tank engine, reducing the audible distance of the sound, thus earning the Abrams the nickname, "whispering death" during its first REFORGER exercise. Future US tanks may return to reciprocating engines for propulsion, as 4-stroke diesel engines have proven quite successful in other modern heavy tanks, e.g. the Leopard 2, Challenger 2 and Merkava. The small size, simplicity, power-to-weight ratio, and easy removal/replacement of the turbine powerpack does, however, present significant advantages over any proposed reciprocating replacement. Jet Blast is the phenomenon of rapid air movement produced by the jet engines of aircraft, particularly on or before takeoff. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... The Challenger 2 is the most recent main battle tank in service with the United Kingdom and Oman. ... // The Merkava (Hebrew:  , Chariot) is the main battle tank of the Israel Defense Forces. ...


The Abrams can be carried by a C-5 Galaxy or a C-17 Globemaster III. The limited capacity (two combat-ready in a C-5, one combat-ready tank in a C-17) caused serious logistical problems when deploying the tanks for the First Gulf War, though there was enough time for 1,848 tanks to be transported by ship.
The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is a military transport aircraft designed to provide strategic heavy airlift over intercontinental distances. ... For the Lockheed aircraft with this designation, see C-17 Super Vega. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


Combat history

In World War II, it took a Sherman Tank an average of 17 rounds to destroy an enemy tank 700 meters away. The Abrams, by contrast, can destroy certain enemy tanks by firing, on the move, a single round from 2,000 meters away.[4] As the Abrams entered service in the 1980s, they would operate alongside M60A3 within the United States military, and with other NATO tanks in numerous Cold War exercises. These exercises usually took place in Western Europe, especially West Germany, but also in some other countries like South Korea. During such training, Abrams crews honed their skills for use against the men and equipment of the Soviet Union. However, by 1991 the USSR had collapsed and the Abrams would have its trial by fire in the Middle East. The M4 Sherman was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium tank exceeded 50,000 units, and its chassis served as the basis for thousands of other armored vehicles such... The M47, M48 and M60 Patton were the United States Armys principal tanks of the Korean and Vietnam Wars. ...


Operation Desert Storm

Abrams main battle tanks of the 3rd Armored Division move out on a mission during Operation Desert Storm. A Bradley IFV and logistics convoy can be seen in the background.
Abrams main battle tanks of the 3rd Armored Division move out on a mission during Operation Desert Storm. A Bradley IFV and logistics convoy can be seen in the background.

The Abrams remained untested in combat until the Gulf War in 1991. A total of 1,848 M1A1s were deployed to Saudi Arabia. The M1A1 was superior to Iraq's Soviet-era T-55 and T-62 tanks, as well as Iraqi assembled Russian T-72s, and locally-produced copies (Asad Babil tank). The T-72s like most Soviet export designs lacked night vision systems and then-modern range finders, though they did have some night fighting tanks with older active infrared systems or floodlights — just not the latest starlight scopes and passive infrared scopes as on the Abrams. Only 23 M1A1s were taken out of service in the Gulf[5] and none of these losses resulted in crew deaths from Iraqi fire. Some others took minor combat damage, with little effect on their operational readiness. There were only 3 tank crew members wounded beyond doubt by enemy action. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2790x1860, 2351 KB) M-1A1 Abrams main battle tanks of the 3rd Armored Division move out on a mission during Operation Desert Storm. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2790x1860, 2351 KB) M-1A1 Abrams main battle tanks of the 3rd Armored Division move out on a mission during Operation Desert Storm. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 3rd Armored Division, Spearhead. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... The M2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and M3 Bradley CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle) are American infantry fighting vehicles manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments, (formerly United Defense, originally FMC). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... CCCP redirects here. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... The T-62 Soviet main battle tank is a further development of the T-55. ... The Lion of Babylon tank or Asad Babil (Arabic: اسد بابل) was an Iraqi-built version of the Soviet T-72 MBT (main battle tank), assembled in a factory established in the 1980s near Taji, north of Baghdad. ... An American soldier simulates using a weapon mounted night vision device A night vision device (NVD) is an optical instrument that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. ... A range finder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target. ...


The M1A1 was capable of making kills at ranges in excess of 2500 m. This range was crucial in combat against tanks of Soviet design in Desert Storm, as the effective range of the main gun in the Soviet/Iraqi tanks was less than 2000 meters (Iraqi tanks could not fire Anti-Tank missiles like their Russian counterparts). This meant Abrams tanks could hit Iraqi tanks before the enemy got in range - a decisive advantage in this kind of combat. In friendly fire incidents, the front armor and fore side turret armor survived direct APFSDS hits from other M1A1s at the front and side armor. This was not the case for the side armor of the hull and the rear armor of the turret, as both areas were penetrated at least in two occasions by friendly DU ammunition during the Battle of Norfolk.[6] This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ... Turret (highlighted) attached to a tower on a baronial building in Scotland In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects from the wall of a building, such as a medieval castle or baronial house. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... The Battle of Norfolk was a tank battle fought on 27 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between armored forces of the United States Army and those of the Iraqi Republican Guard. ...


Nearly all sources claim that no Abrams tank has ever been destroyed as a result of fire from an enemy tank, but some have certainly taken some damage which required extensive repair. There is at least one account, reported in the following Gulf War's US Official Assessment (scan), of an Abrams being damaged by three kinetic energy piercing rounds. The DoD report indicates that witnesses in the field claimed it was hit by a T-72 Asad Babil. The KE rounds were unable to fully penetrate and stuck in the armor, but because of the external damage it was sent to a maintenance depot. This is the only verified case of an M1A1 put out of action by an Iraqi MBT.[7] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1100, 28 KB)Template:Http://www. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... DOD or DoD may refer to: Australian Department of Defence United States Department of Defense Department of Defence of the Republic Of Ireland Date of death Date of discharge Day of Defeat, computer game Delivery of deed Draft on demand DrinkOrDie, a software cracking and warez trading network Diary of...


Presumably the impacts set the storage boxes on fire. The tests at the impact point indicate the sabot shells were conventional, since no radiological trace was found there. An APFSDS separating from its spindle sabot Anti-tank round with its sabot A sabot (pronounced say-boh) refers to a device named for a shoe used in a firearm or cannon to fire a projectile, such as a bullet, that is smaller than the bore diameter. ...


Six other M1A1s were allegedly hit by 125 mm tank fire in the Gulf war official report, but the impacts were largely ineffectual.[8]

M1A1 lost to friendly fire during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.
M1A1 lost to friendly fire during Operation Desert Storm in 1991.

On the night of February 26, 1991, four Abrams were disabled in a suspected friendly fire incident by Hellfire missiles fired from AH-64 Apache attack helicopters, with the result of some crew members wounded in action.[9] The tanks were part of TF 1-37,[10] attacking a large section of Tawakalna Republican Guard Division, their numbers being B-23, C-12, D-24 and C-66. However, C-12 was definitively hit and penetrated by a friendly DU shot[11] and there is some evidence that another Iraqi T-72 may have scored a single hit on B-23, besides the alleged Hellfire strike (see Iraqi T-72 article). Image File history File links AbramsLost-1991. ... Image File history File links AbramsLost-1991. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Hellfire AGM-114A AGM-114 Hellfire (Helicopter launched fire-and-forget) is a U.S. air-to-ground missile system designed to defeat tanks and other individual targets while minimizing the exposure of the launch vehicle to enemy fire. ... The AH-64 Apache is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... A Russian Mil Mi-24 attack helicopter. ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ... An M1A1 Abrahms Main Battle Tank. ... Iraqi President Saddam Hussein talks with elite Republican Guard officers in Baghdad on March 1, 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x1099, 35 KB)Template:Http://www. ... The Lion of Babylon tank or Asad Babil (Arabic: اسد بابل) was an Iraqi-built version of the Soviet T-72 MBT (main battle tank), assembled in a factory established in the 1980s near Taji, north of Baghdad. ...


Tanks D-24 and C-66 took some casualties as well[12] Only B-23 became a permanent loss. The DoD's damage assessments state that B-23 was the only M1 with signs of a Hellfire missile found nearby.[13]


Also during Operation Desert Storm, three Abrams of the 24 ID were left behind the enemy lines after a swift attack on Talil airfield, south of Nasiriyah, on February 27. One of them was hit by enemy fire, the two other embedded in mud. The tanks were destroyed by US forces in order to prevent any trophy-claim by the Iraqi Army.[14] Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized). ... Ali Air Base (ICAO: ORTL) is an air base located near Nasiriyah, Iraq. ... Nāşirīyah (also transliterated as Nassiriya or Nasiriya; in Arabic الناصرية, al-Nasiriyah or an-Nasiriyah) is a city in Iraq. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


List of Abrams disabled or damaged in Desert Storm

No. Identification Number Type of Weapon Place & Date Description of damage Casualties
1. Bumper B-31[15]

TF 1-5 CAV

Mine February 19

Ruqi Pocket “Minefield” redirects here. ...

Tracks/Engine None
2. Unknown number[16]

1st Brigade, 2nd Armored Division

Mine February 24

Southern Kuwait

Tracks None
3. Bumper K-42[17]

2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment

Struck by DPICM artillery February 26

73 Easting A Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions (DPICM) is an artillery or surface-to-surface missile warhead designed to burst into sub-munitions at an optimum altitude and distance from the desired target for dense area coverage. ...

Loader machine-gun and left fuel cell destroyed 1 WIA
4. Bumper B-66[18]

TF 1-41, 2nd Armored Division(FWD) WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ...

Three DU kinetic energy rounds, after being hit by an Iraqi RPG February 26

Norfolk line Depleted uranium storage yard. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ...

Penetration in the hull,

below the turret

1 KIA,

2 WIAs Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ...

5. Bumper B-22

TF 1-41, 2nd Armored Division(FWD)

One DU kinetic energy round February 26

Norfolk line

Front slope hit

with no internal damage

1 WIA
6. Bumper A-14

TF 1-41, 2nd Armored Division(FWD)

One DU kinetic energy round February 26

Norfolk line

One hit in the left side of the hull. Extensive damage by fire 3 WIAs
7. Bumper A-31

TF 1-41, 2nd Armored Division(FWD)

Splinters of one DU kinetic energy penetrator February 26

Norfolk line

Hit in the rear left hull None
8. Bumper A-33

TF 1-41, 2nd Armored Division(FWD)

Two DU rounds, after being hit by TOW missile February 26

Norfolk line A TOW missile being fired from a Jeep. ...

Double penetration of the hull 3 WIAs
9. Bumper D-24

TF 1-37, 1st Armored Division An M1A1 Abrahms Main Battle Tank. ...

Small caliber shaped charge February 26

Assault on Tawakalna Division

Impact on NBC exhausts, compartment penetrated 2 WIAs
10. Bumper B-23

TF 1-37, 1st Armored Division NBC is an initialism used to indicate nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. ...

Large caliber shaped charge, then hit by an unknown round, likely a KE (non-DU) February 26

Assault on Tawakalna Division

Two hits, one on the rear grills, another penetrated both sides of the hull. Catastrophic damage by fire 1 WIA
11. Bumper C-12

TF 1-37, 1st Armored Division

One DU kinetic energy penetrator, then hit by anti-tank missile February 26

Assault on Tawakalna Division An Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) is a missile the primary purpose of which is to hit and destroy tanks. ...

KE round achieved a double penetration of the hull. The anti-tank missile set the storage area of the turret on fire None
12. Bumper C-66

TF 1-37, 1st Armored Division

Two small shaped charges February 26

Assault on Tawakalna Division

Small penetration of the left rear side of the hull. Impact on the turret defeated by armor 3 WIAs
13. Bumper C-12[19]

TF 4-8th CAV, 3rd Armored Division

73 mm shell
from a BMP-1
February 26

Assault on Tawakalna Division The BMP-1 is a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle which was first introduced in the early 1960s. ...

Minor damage to sponson box and .50 machine-gun 1 WIA
14. Bumper B-24[20]

TF 4-8th CAV, 3rd Armored Division

Enemy indirect fire February 26

Assault on Tawakalna Division

Damaged to sponson box and duffle bags None
15. Bumper C-24[21]

TF 4-8th CAV, 3rd Armored Division

Friendly DPICM February 26

Assault on Tawakalna Division A Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munitions (DPICM) is an artillery or surface-to-surface missile warhead designed to burst into sub-munitions at an optimum altitude and distance from the desired target for dense area coverage. ...

Storage area shredded by shrapnel

Main gun punctured

None
16. Unknown number

197th Brigade, 24 Infantry Division

Crippled by enemy fire, then destroyed by DU rounds February 27

Assault on Tallil airfield

Ammunition blown-up None
17. Unknown number

197th Brigade, 24 Infantry Division

Stuck in mud, then destroyed by DU rounds February 27

Assault on Tallil airfield

Ammunition blown-up None
18. Unknown number

197th Brigade, 24 Infantry Division

Stuck in mud, then destroyed by DU rounds February 27

Assault on Tallil airfield

Ammunition blown-up None
19. Bumper HQ66[22][23]

Commander tank, TF 4-64 Armor, 24 Infantry Division

Two conventional KE or HEAT rounds from a 100 mm gun February 27

South-west of Basra This article is about the city of Basra. ...

120 mm gunner's primary sight (GPS) damaged and fuel-cell punctured. Sight replaced next morning. Tank continued in combat. None
20. Unknown number

Turret number:5840U


Hull number:D10060[24]

Three conventional KE rounds from an Iraqi T-72 Unknown date/location Two partial penetrations on the rear turret right side (possible fire in the storage area). Cosmetic damage on the turret front DU left armor plate. None
21. Bumper A-22[25]

2nd Platoon, A Company, TF 4-64, 24 Infantry Division

Secondary explosions from an Iraqi T-72[26] March 2

Rumeilah Oilfields

Storage area devastated by fire.

Ammunition blown-up.

1 WIA

The Iraq war

M1A1 Abrams from A Company, Task Force 1st Battalion, 35th Armor Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, pose for a photo under the "Hands of Victory" in Ceremony Square, Baghdad, Iraq.

Further combat was seen during 2003 when US forces invaded Iraq and deposed the Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. The campaign saw very similar performance from the tank with no Abrams crew member being lost to hostile fire during the battle in Iraq, mainly due to unopposed air-support. However, several tanks were destroyed due to secondary effects from enemy weapons. Abandoned Abrams were destroyed by friendly fire to prevent recovery of vehicle or technology. Damages by 25 mm AP-DU, anti-armor RPG fire and 12.7 mm rounds was encountered. But on no occasion anti-tank guided weapons or anti-tank mines struck the US MBTs.[27] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x1960, 1254 KB) US Army (USA) M1A1 Abrams MBT (Main Battle Tank), and personnel from A Company (CO), Task Force 1st Battalion, 35th Armor Regiment (1-35 Armor), 2nd Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 1st Armored Division (AD), pose for a photo... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x1960, 1254 KB) US Army (USA) M1A1 Abrams MBT (Main Battle Tank), and personnel from A Company (CO), Task Force 1st Battalion, 35th Armor Regiment (1-35 Armor), 2nd Brigade Combat Team (BCT), 1st Armored Division (AD), pose for a photo... A street map of Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... Russian 12. ... For other uses, see Air-to-ground missile. ... An Anti-tank mine, or AT mine is similar to a Landmine except generally designed with a less sensitive trigger and more explosive power so as to be able to take out an armored vehicle, and not go off until such a vehicle comes along. ...


The most lopsided achievement of the M1A2s was the destruction of seven T-72 Lion of Babylon tanks in a point-blank skirmish (less than 50 yards) near Mahmoudiyah, about 18 miles (29 km) south of Baghdad, with no losses for the American side.[28] However, on October 29, 2003, two soldiers were killed and a third wounded when their tank was disabled by an anti-tank mine, which was combined with other explosives (500 kg, including several 155 mm rounds) to increase its effect. The massive explosion beneath the tank knocked off the turret. This marked the first time deaths resulted from a hostile-fire assault on the M1 tank from enemy forces.[citation needed] Following lessons learned in Desert Storm, the Abrams and many other US combat vehicles used in the conflict were fitted with Combat Identification Panels to reduce friendly fire incidents. These were fitted on the sides and rear of the turret, with flat panels equipped with a four-cornered 'box' image on either side of the turret front (the latter of which can be seen in the above image, similar flat panels also being employed on British Challenger 2 tanks serving in the conflict). In addition to the Abrams' already-formidable armament, some crews were also issued M136 AT4 shoulder-fired anti-tank rockets under the assumption that they might have to engage heavy armor in tight urban areas where the main gun couldn't be brought to bear. Some Abrams were also fitted with a secondary storage bin on the back of the existing bustle rack on the rear of the turret referred to as a bustle rack extension to enable the crew to carry more supplies and personal belongings. is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... A CIP panel can be seen mounted on the side of this M1A1 Abrams turret The Combat Identification Panel, also known as the Coalition Identification Panel or simply CIP panel, is a device mounted on military ground vehicles to distiguish them from the enemy during battle. ... The British FV4034 Challenger 2 is an advanced new generation main battle tank (MBT) currently in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman. ... This article is about the unguided anti-tank weapon. ... A Marine Corps M1A1 Abrams with a bustle rack and bustle rack extension packed full of gear. ...


During the major combat operations in Iraq, Abrams crew members were lost when one tank of the US Army's 3rd Infantry Division, and US Marine Corps troops, drove onto a bridge. The bridge collapsed, dropping the tank into the Euphrates River, where four Marines drowned. The 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized) —nicknamed the Rock of the Marne— is a United States Army infantry division based at Fort Stewart, Georgia. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...

A destroyed USMC M1A1 Abrams rests in front of a Fedayeen camp just outside of Jaman Al Juburi, Iraq on April 6, 2003.
A destroyed USMC M1A1 Abrams rests in front of a Fedayeen camp just outside of Jaman Al Juburi, Iraq on April 6, 2003.

During an early attack on Baghdad, one M1A1 was disabled by a recoilless rifle round that had penetrated the rear engine housing, and punctured a hole in the right rear fuel cell, causing fuel to leak onto the hot turbine engine. After repeated attempts to extinguish the fire, the decision was made to destroy or remove any sensitive equipment. Oil and .50 caliber rounds were scattered in the interior, the ammunition doors were opened and several thermite grenades ignited inside. Another M1 then fired a HEAT round in order to ensure the destruction of the disabled tank. The tank was completely disabled but still intact. Later, an AGM-65 Maverick and two AGM-114 Hellfire missiles were fired into the tank to finish its destruction. Remarkably, the tank still appeared to be intact from the exterior.[29] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1720x1160, 513 KB) A scuttled M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBT) rests in front of a Fedayeen camp just outside of Jaman Al Juburi, Iraq during Operation IRAQI FREEDOM. (Released to Public) DoD photo by: GYSGT ERIK S. HANSEN, USMC Date... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1720x1160, 513 KB) A scuttled M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank (MBT) rests in front of a Fedayeen camp just outside of Jaman Al Juburi, Iraq during Operation IRAQI FREEDOM. (Released to Public) DoD photo by: GYSGT ERIK S. HANSEN, USMC Date... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... M67 recoilless rifle. ... A thermite mixture using Iron (III) Oxide A thermite mixture using Iron (II,III) Oxide Thermite is a kind of pyrotechnic composition of aluminium powder and a metal oxide which produces an aluminothermic reaction known as a thermite reaction. ... The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-ground tactical missile (AGM) designed for close air support. ... Type Air-to-ground and surface-to-surface Missile Nationality United States Era Cold War and through Global War on Terrorism Launch platform Rotary- and fixed-wing platforms, Unmanned aerial vehicle, tri-pods, ships, and ground vehicles Target Three warhead variants defeat an array of targets including tanks, light armored...

M1A1 conducts reconnaissance in Iraq on Sept. 6, 2004.
M1A1 conducts reconnaissance in Iraq on Sept. 6, 2004.

On November 27, 2004 an Abrams tank was badly damaged from the detonation of an extremely powerful improvised explosive device (IED). The IED consisted of three M109A6 155 mm shells, with a total explosive weight of 34.5 kg, that detonated next to the tank. The tank's driver received lethal injuries from shrapnel. The other three crew members were able to escape. An M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank from Bravo Company, 185th Armor, 81st Armor Brigade, conducts an area reconnaissance around Balad, Iraq on Sept. ... An M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank from Bravo Company, 185th Armor, 81st Armor Brigade, conducts an area reconnaissance around Balad, Iraq on Sept. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ...


On December 25, 2005 another M1A2 was disabled by an explosively formed penetrator IED. The IED penetrated through a road wheel, and hit the fuel tank, which left the tank burning near central Baghdad. One crew member, Spc. Sergio Gudino, died in the attack. is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An explosively formed penetrator (EFP), also known as an explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armour effectively at stand-off distances. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ...


On June 4, 2006 two of the four soldiers in an Abrams crew died in Baghdad, when an IED detonated near their M1A2. is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some Abrams were disabled by Iraqi infantrymen in ambushes employing short-range antitank rockets, such as the Russian RPG-7, during the 2003 invasion. Although the RPG-7 is unable to penetrate the front and sides, the rear and top are vulnerable to this weapon. Frequently the rockets were fired at the tank tracks. Another was put out of action in an incident when fuel stowed in an external rack was struck by heavy machine gun rounds. This started a fire that spread to the engine.[3] [4]. An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ... The RPG-7 (Russian: ) is a widely-produced, portable, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket propelled grenade weapon. ...


There have also been a number of Abrams crewmen killed by sniper fire during times when they were exposed through the turret hatches of their tanks. Some of these attacks were filmed by insurgents for propaganda purposes and spread via the Internet. One of these videos shows a large IED detonating beneath an Abrams and nearly flipping the vehicle, though the tank landed back on its treads and appeared to have suffered no serious damage as it was still mobile and traversing the turret following the attack.


Variants and upgrades

An M1A1 Abrams tank from 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, breaches the obstacle belt with a mine plow during an amphibious assault in 1997.
An M1A1 Abrams tank from 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, breaches the obstacle belt with a mine plow during an amphibious assault in 1997.
Grizzly.
Grizzly.
  • XM1 Experimental model. Nine test-beds were produced in 1978.
  • M1 First production variant. Production began in 1979 and continued to 1985 (3,273 build for US).
    • M1IP (Improvement Production). Produced briefly in 1984 before the M1A1, contained upgrades and reconfigurations.
  • M1A1 Production started in 1986 and continued to 1992 (4,976 build for US, 221 for USMC, 755 for Egypt, 59 M1A1 AIM SA sold to Australia).
    • M1A1HC (Heavy Common) added new depleted uranium armor mesh, pressurized NBC system, rear bustle rack for improved stowage of supplies and crew belongings, and M256 120 mm smoothbore cannon.
    • M1A1-D (Digital) A digital upgrade for the M1A1HC, to keep up with M1A2 SEP.
      • M1A1-AIM (Abrams Integrated Management) A program whereby older units are reconditioned to zero hour conditions.[5] 59 M1A1 AIM SA have been sold to Australia.
    • M1A1 KVT (Krasnovian Variant Tank) M1A1's that have been visually modified to resemble Soviet-made tanks for use at the National Training Center, fitted with MILES gear and a Hoffman device.
  • M1A2 (Baseline) Production began in 1992 (77 build for US and more than 600 M1s upgraded to M1A2, 315 for Saudi Arabia, 218 for Kuwait).
  • M1A2 SEP (System Enhancement Package) Also with upgraded 3rd generation depleted uranium encased armor with graphite coating (240 new build, 300 M1A2s upgraded to M1A2SEP for the USA, 250 for Egypt in 2 Egyptian co-production batches of 125 each).
  • M1 Grizzly Engineer Vehicle [6]
  • M1 Panther II Remote Controlled Mine Clearing Vehicle[7]
  • M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge[8]
  • M1 Panther II Mine Clearing Blade/Roller System.
  • M1 Assault Breacher Vehicle.
  • M1 Armored Recovery Vehicle. Only a prototype produced.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2578x1624, 1004 KB) An M1 Abrams tank from 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, breaches the obstacle belt with a mine plow during the amphibious assault on Red Beach. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2578x1624, 1004 KB) An M1 Abrams tank from 1st Tank Battalion, 1st Marine Division, breaches the obstacle belt with a mine plow during the amphibious assault on Red Beach. ... The 1st Tank Battalion is an armored battalion of the United States Marine Corps which is based out of the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, California. ... The 1st Marine Division is the oldest, largest (active duty), and most decorated division in the United States Marine Corps representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. ... U.S. Army M-1A1 Abrams tank with mine plow from 1995 or earlier A mine plow (plough in British English) is a tank-mounted device designed to clear a lane through a minefield, allowing other vehicles to follow. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,016 × 1,512 pixels, file size: 1,021 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,016 × 1,512 pixels, file size: 1,021 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The term vismod is an abbreviation of the term visually modified, and is used by the US military to refer to any vehicle, aircraft, or other object that has been altered to simulate equipment used by an enemy for training purposes, often by specialized units referred to as the OpFor... ... US Army M4 with MILES laser attachment. ... The M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge is an armored combat engineering vehicle designed to provide deployable bridge capability for units engaged in military operations. ...

Specifications of variants

M1 M1IP M1A1 M1A2 M1A2 SEP
Length 32.04 ft (9.77 m)
Width 12 ft (3.7 m)
Height 7.79 ft (2.37 m) 8.0 ft (2.44 m)
Top speed 45 mph (72 km/h) 41.5 mph (67 km/h) 42 mph (68 km/h)
Range 310 mi (498 km)   288 mi (465 km) 243 mi (391 km)  
Weight 61.4 tons (55.7 tonnes) 62.8 tons (57.0 tonnes) 67.6 tons (61.3 tonnes) 68.4 tons (62.1 tonnes) 69.5 tons (63.0 tonnes)
Main armament 105 mm M68 rifled 120 mm M256 smoothbore
Crew 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)

Note: All of the above produce a power of 1500 hp (1119 kW). The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... The Royal Ordnance L7 is the basic model of Britains most successful tank gun. ... An M1 Abrams tank firing the Rheinmetall L44 fitted with a hoffman device. ...


Tank Urban Survival Kit for M1A2

M1A2 with TUSK
M1A2 with TUSK

The Tank Urban Survival Kit, or TUSK, is a series of improvements to the M1 Abrams intended to improve fighting ability in urban environments. Historically, urban and other close battlefields have been the worst place for tanks to fight—a tank's front armor is much stronger than that on the sides, top, or rear, and in an urban environment, attacks can come from any direction, and attackers can get close enough to reliably hit weak points in the tank's armor, or get sufficient elevation to hit the top armor square on. Download high resolution version (2160x1400, 483 KB)M1A2 TUSK image released into the public domain by the US goverment. ... Download high resolution version (2160x1400, 483 KB)M1A2 TUSK image released into the public domain by the US goverment. ...


Armor upgrades include reactive armor on the sides of the tank and slat armor (similar to that on the Stryker) on the rear to protect against rocket-propelled grenades and other shaped charge warheads. Military vehicles are commonly armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets or shells, protecting the soldiers inside from enemy fire. ... For other uses, see Stryker (disambiguation). ... A rocket propelled grenade (RPG) is a man-portable, shoulder-launched weapon capable of firing an explosive device longer distances than an otherwise unassisted soldier could throw. ...


A gun shield and a thermal sight system are added to the loader's top-mounted M240B 7.62 mm machine gun, and a Kongsberg Gruppen Remote Weapon Turret carrying a .50 caliber machine gun (again similar to that used on the Stryker) is in place of the tank commander's original .50 caliber machine gun mount, wherein the commander had to expose himself to fire the weapon manually. An exterior telephone allows supporting infantry to communicate with the tank commander. A US Marine manning an M240 machine gun equipped with a gun shield A gun shield is a device designed to be mounted on a crew-served weapon such as a machine gun or artillery piece, sometimes improvised in the field in an add-hoc manner using salvaged materials, to... Kongsberg Gruppen (KOG) (lit. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


The TUSK system is a field-installable kit that allows tanks to be upgraded without needing to be recalled to a maintenance depot.


While the reactive armor may not be needed in most situations in maneuver warfare, items like the rear slat armor, loader's gun shield, infantry phone (which has already seen use on Marine Corps M1A1s as early as 2003), and Kongsberg Remote Weapons Station for the .50 caliber machine gun will be added to the entire M1A2 fleet over time. Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ...


In addition to this, a Transparent Armor Gun Shield may also be implemented as part of this kit, as it is already seeing use on some Abrams serving in Iraq.


M1 Abrams camouflage

A group of M1A1s enter the Twin Bridges training area prepared for a mock battle in the Republic of Korea during Foal Eagle '98. These M1A1s can be seen with their factory single green paint scheme.
A group of M1A1s enter the Twin Bridges training area prepared for a mock battle in the Republic of Korea during Foal Eagle '98. These M1A1s can be seen with their factory single green paint scheme.

Unlike older US military vehicles from World War II through Vietnam, which used a scheme of dark brownish OD with large white stars, prototypes and early production M1 (105mm gun) & M-1IP models used the flat medium green paint known as "olive drab." Some units painted their M1s with the older MARDEC (seagull) paint scheme but the turn-in requirements for these tanks required repainting them to solid green. Therefore, even though a large number of the base model M1s were camouflaged in the field, few or none exist today. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ...


M1A1s (120mm gun) came from the factory with the NATO 3 color camouflage Black/Med-Green/Dark-Brown CARC paint jobs[citation needed]. Today M1A1s are given the NATO three color paint job during rebuilds. M1s and M1A1s in Desert Storm were hastily painted desert tan for the 1991 Gulf war. Some, but not all, of these tanks were re-painted to their "authorized" paint scheme. M1A2s built for Middle East countries were painted in desert tan.


Some M1 series tanks are being painted desert tan for service in Iraq and some are not. Replacement parts (roadwheels, armor skirt panels, drive sprockets, etc.) are painted overall green, which can sometimes lead to vehicles with a patchwork of green and desert tan parts.


Operators

  • Flag of Australia Australia - 59 M1A1 AIM SA tanks were bought from the United States in 2006, to replace the Leopard AS1 in 2007.[30]
  • Flag of Egypt Egypt - 1005 (755 M1A1 to be brought to M1A2 SEP standard + 250 M1A2 SEP) M1A1[31]
  • Flag of Kuwait Kuwait - 218 M1A2[32]
  • Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia - 315 M1A2 - 73 M1A1[33]
  • Flag of the United States United States - Over 8000 built
    • 1174 M1A2 (Army inventory)[34]
    • 4393 M1A1 (Army inventory)[35]
    • 403 M1A1 (USMC inventory)[36]
    • Remaining number of M1 (Army, M1 in service according to the US Army Factfile but probably only used by National Guard).

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a German designed and produced main battle tank that first entered service in 1965 and was used as the main battle tank for Germany, several other European countries, Australia, Canada, Brazil and Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

See also

The following is a (partial) listing of M series military vehicles used by the US Army. ... This is a List of armoured fighting vehicles worldwide. ... M1 Tank Platoon is a tactical simulation of tank warfare, released by MicroProse Software in 1989, for the Commodore Amiga, Atari ST and IBM PC compatible home computers. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Production cost of M1A2 (upgraded) from Lima Army Tank Plant (LATP), Globalsecurity.org]
  2. ^ R. P. Hunnicutt, Abrams: A History of the American Main Battle Tank
  3. ^ Clancy, Tom: Armored Cav: A Guided Tour of an Armored Cavalry Regiment. Berkeley Books, 1994, pages unknown (will be updated).
  4. ^ Rick Atkinson, Crusade p. 251, 1993.
  5. ^ "According to the Army’s Office of Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 23 Abrams tanks were destroyed or damaged in the Persian Gulf area. Of the nine Abrams destroyed, seven were due to friendly fire, and two were intentionally destroyed to prevent capture after they became disabled. Other Abrams tanks were damaged by enemy fire, land mines, on-board fires, or to prevent capture after they became disabled." From Early performance assessment of Bradleys and Abrams, p. 24.
  6. ^ A Company, 3-66 Armor, Abrams (Bumper # A-33). TAB H -- Friendly-fire Incidents. “At approximately 4:30 AM on February 27th, an anti-tank guided missile (probably fired from a Bradley) struck A-33 in the engine compartment. The crew, uninjured, was evacuating the disabled tank when two DU rounds hit the tank in the left side of the hull and exited through the right side. The tank commander, driver, and gunner sustained injuries from fragments. The loader, who was already outside the tank, was uninjured. A-31 crew members assisted in rescuing A-33's crew.”; Sketch depicting the path of a DU 120 mm round through the hull of Abrams C-12, OSD.
  7. ^ Early performance assessment of Bradleys and Abrams p. 24. “CALL cites one incident in which an Abrams was reportedly struck twice by a T-72 tank firing from 2,000 meters. CALL reported that the crew involved in the incident stated that one projectile had bounced off the tank and the other had embedded itself in the armor.”
  8. ^ Zaloga, page 38.
  9. ^ George Forty cites an M1A1 tank platoon leader from TF 1-37:"Speculation continues concerning what knocked out our four tanks. The three most probable answers are T-72 main gun, dismounted anti-tank missile, or Apache launched Hellfire missile. The fact that Apaches were operating to our rear and witnesses's reports of high round trajectory support the friendly fire theory. However, ballistics reports suggest that 125 mm HEAT rounds produced the damage on some of the tanks. Visual examination of others reveals one obvious sabot hole. Overall, the physical evidence implies that T-72 fire took out our tanks, but the friendly fire possibility cannot be excluded."
  10. ^ OSD 1998-07-29.
  11. ^ DoD damage statement about C-12.
  12. ^ Two official damage assessments acknowledge casualties: D-24, C-66.
  13. ^ Item B. Note that the M1 was hit in the rear hull, not in the turret.
  14. ^ "One of the M1s is hit and disabled. The crew is extracted safely and the tank left behind, not before it is destroyed by the task force commander who fires two rounds into it. The first bounces off, the second penetrates and set it on fire[…] The terrain is still causing problems. On the attack several vehicles get embedded in mud and can't be extracted. The problem is complicated by enemy missile and machine gun fire. Two tanks and two armored personnel carriers are destroyed and discarded." - Halberstadt, Hans: Desert Storm: Ground War. Motorbooks International, 1991. p. 111.
  15. ^ Halberstadt, Hans: Desert Storm:Ground War. Motorbooks International, 1991. p. 35; Atkinson, Rick: Crusade, The untold story of the Persian Gulf War. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993. pp. 332–3; Captain Todd A. Buchs, B. Co. Commander, "Knights In the Desert." Publisher/Editor Unknown. p. 111.
  16. ^ One M1 tank struck a mine in the breach and lost some road wheels. No one in the tank was injured, and the tank was back in action within a day
  17. ^ See this document (scan).
  18. ^ TAB H - Friendly-fire Incidents
  19. ^ Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 279.
  20. ^ official account
  21. ^ official account
  22. ^ Scales, Brig. Gen. Robert H.: Certain Victory. Brassey's, 1994, p. 257.
  23. ^ Personal log, Armitstead, CPT, HHC 4-64 AR
  24. ^ Table 2, official assessment (the M1A maintenance codename is A2).
  25. ^ Details on the identification of this particular tank in the talk page, by a first hand witness.
  26. ^ "The brigade losses were one wounded, one M-2A1 Bradley damaged, and one M-1A1 Abrams lost when secondary explosion of a T-72 set sleeping bags stowed on the M-1 on fire." US Army
  27. ^ Abrams Tank Systems, Lessons Learned Operation Iraqi Freedom 2003, globalsecurity.
  28. ^ Conroy, Jason & Martz, Ron: Heavy Metal: A Tank Company's Battle To Baghdad. Potomac Books, 2005, p. 158.
  29. ^ Zucchino, David: Thunder Run: The Armored Strike to Capture Baghdad. Grove Press, 2004, pp. 20-30, 73.
  30. ^ [1] Australian National Audit Office report on the DMO project Land 907
  31. ^ MILITARIUM - M1 Abrams
  32. ^ MILITARIUM - M1 Abrams
  33. ^ MILITARIUM - M1 Abrams
  34. ^ M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank
  35. ^ M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank
  36. ^ M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (834x1169, 260 KB) Summary Excerpt from: Rostker, Bernard: Enviromental Exposure Report:Depleted Uranium in the Gulf. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (848x1100, 176 KB) Originally from: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (848x1104, 178 KB) Originally from: http://www. ...

References

  • King of the Killing Zone by Orr Kelly, 1989. W.W. Norton Company.
  • Rostker, Bernard: Environmental Exposure Report:Depleted Uranium in the Gulf. DoD Publication, 1998.[9].
  • United States General Accounting Office:Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams. Washington, January 1992.PDF.
  • Halberstadt, Hans. Desert Storm Ground War. Osceola, WI, Motorbooks International, 1991. 128 pp.
  • Forty, George: Tank Action. From the Great War to the Gulf, Allan Sutton Publishing Ltd., Phoenix Mill 1995.
  • Zaloga Steven J., & Sarson, Peter: M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 1982-1992. Osprey Military, New Vanguard. Reed International Books Ltd, 1993.
  • M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank. FAS Military Analysis Network. Retrieved on January 17, 2004.
  • TUSK to update Abrams for urban battle. Army News Service. Retrieved on April 6, 2005.
  • Army Times - Two soldiers die in attack on Abrams tank, October 29, 2003
  • DoD News: DoD Identifies Army Casualty - Dec 25, 2005 attack
  • DoD News: DoD Identifies Army Casualties - June 04, 2006 incident

Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

General Dynamics Corporation (NYSE: GD) is a defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2006 it is the sixth largest defense contractor in the world[2]. The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War era of defense consolidation. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Nicholas D. Chabraja is the CEO of General Dynamics Corp. ... James S. Crown is a businessman. ... Lester Crown (born 1926) is the son of Chicago financier Henry Crown (d. ... Hickory Cluster in Reston, Virginia Charles M. Goodman was an architect who made a name for his modern designs in Northern Virginia after World War II. While his work has a regional feel, he ignored the colonial revival look so popular in Virginia. ... Admiral Jay L. Johnson Born in Great Falls, Mont. ... George Joulwan (born 19XX) was a U.S. general. ... John (Jack) Keane (born 1945) is a retired four-star general and former Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army, and a defense analyst. ... General Lester Lyles is a commander and chief of the Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, OH. What his position entails is that he conducts research develops, test and evaluate, and provides the acquisition managers service and logistics support which is necessary to keep the Air Force weapons system... Carl Epting Mundy Jr. ... Robert Walmsley was born in Aberdeen in 1941 and was educated at Fettes College in Edinburgh. ... Bath Iron Works from NAS Brunswick photo gallery Bath Iron Works (BIW) is a shipyard located on the Kennebec River in Bath, Maine. ... General Dynamics Electric Boat (usually abbreviated as Electric Boat), a division of General Dynamics Corporation, is a major builder of submarines for the United States Navy. ... General Dynamics (NYSE: GD) is a defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures. ... Gulfstream G200 Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is a producer of several models of private jets. ... National Steel and Shipbuilding Company or simply NASSCO is a shipyard in San Diego, California, and a division of General Dynamics. ... GD redirects here. ... The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers, one of the destroyer classes of the United States Navy, is built around the Aegis combat system and the SPY-1D multi-function phased array radar. ... USMC Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Los Angeles class submarines The Los Angeles class is a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines (SSN) that forms the backbone of the United States submarine fleet, and is the most numerous class of nuclear powered submarine in the world. ... The United States has 18 Ohio class submarines: 14 nuclear-powered SSBNs, each armed with 24 Trident II SLBMs; they are also known as Trident submarines, and provide the sea-based leg of the nuclear triad of the United States strategic deterrent forces 4 nuclear-powered SSGNs, each armed with... USS Seawolf (SSN-575) The Seawolf class attack submarine (SSN) was the intended successor to the Los Angeles class, ordered at the end of the Cold War in 1989. ... The Virginia class (or SSN-774 class) of attack submarines are the first U.S. subs to be designed for a broad spectrum of open-ocean and littoral missions around the world. ... For other uses, see Stryker (disambiguation). ... Bowman is the name of the new tactical communications system being deployed by the British Armed Forces. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... A fiscal year (or financial year or accounting reference date) is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial statements in businesses and other organizations. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Main Battle Tank M1A1 "Abrams" (1039 words)
M1 "Abrams" is armed with M68E1 105-mm rifled gun (modified British L7 gun), fitted with ejector and thermo sleeve body stabilized in two planes.
M1 "Abrams" is able to notice tanks in 3 000 km range at night and in 1 200 in fog.
M1 "Abrams" is also fitted with radiological and chemical reconnaissance equipment, fire prevention system, heater and communication sources.
M1 Abrams Tank (1327 words)
The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank is the namesake of the late General Creighton W. Abrams, former Army Chief of Staff and commander of the 37th Armored Battalion.
The M1 retains the M68 105mm rifled cannon used on the M60 series tanks, which was originally based on the British M7 105mm cannon design, and is capable of firing both rifled and fin stabilized ammunition.
M1 track is made up of vulcanized rubber blocks (M156 variety) or removable rubber pads (M158.) The turret is also angular in appearance, with the main gun mounted in an exposed mantlet in the center of the turret face.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m