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Encyclopedia > M.C. Escher
Hand with Reflecting Sphere (Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror), 1935.
Hand with Reflecting Sphere (Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror), 1935.

Maurits Cornelis Escher (Leeuwarden, June 17, 1898March 27, 1972 in Laren) was a Dutch graphic artist known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs and mezzotints which feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, and tessellations. Download high resolution version (567x850, 57 KB)Hand with Reflecting Sphere (Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror), by M. C. Escher. ... Download high resolution version (567x850, 57 KB)Hand with Reflecting Sphere (Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror), by M. C. Escher. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x754, 205 KB) escher museum, image from flickr Uploaded on August 6, 2005 by Kent Wang, creative commons licenced [1] File links The following pages link to this file: M.C. Escher Escher Museum ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x754, 205 KB) escher museum, image from flickr Uploaded on August 6, 2005 by Kent Wang, creative commons licenced [1] File links The following pages link to this file: M.C. Escher Escher Museum ... The Escher Museum (Escher in het Paleis, Escher in the Palace) is a museum in The Hague, The Netherlands, featuring the works of the Dutch graphical artist M.C. Escher. ... Arms of The Hague The Hague (with capital T; Dutch: officially s-Gravenhage, commonly Den Haag) is the third-largest city in the Netherlands after Amsterdam and Rotterdam, with a population of 472,087 (January 1, 2005) (700,000 in the larger metropolitan area) and an area of approximately 100... Leeuwarden (Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... Laren (population: 11,590 in 2004) is a town in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Graphic arts is the applied trade-skills of a print technician. ... Euclid, detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... An impossible object is an object that cannot exist according to the known laws of nature, but has a description or representation suggesting, at first sight, that it can. ... Infinity refers to several distinct concepts which arise in theology, philosophy, mathematics and everyday life. ... A tessellated plane. ...

Contents


Youth

Maurits Cornelis, or Mauk as he was to be nicknamed, was born in Leeuwarden (Friesland), the Netherlands. He was the youngest son of civil engineer George Arnold Escher and his second wife, Sarah Gleichman. In 1903, the family moved to Arnhem where he took carpentry and piano lessons until the age of thirteen. Leeuwarden (Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... The term civil engineer refers to an individual who practices civil engineering. ... George Arnold Escher (??-??) was a Dutch civil engineer who worked in Japan during the Meiji period. ... Arnhem is a municipality and a city in the east of the Netherlands, located on the Lower Rhine, and the capital of the Gelderland province. ... A carpenter is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry -- a wide range of woodworking that includes constructing buildings, furniture, and other large objects out of wood. ... A grand piano A piano is a keyboard instrument, which is widely used in western music for solo performance, chamber music, and accompaniment, and also as a convenient aid to composing and rehearsal. ...


From 1912 until 1918 he attended secondary school. Though he excelled at drawing, his grades were generally poor, and he was required to repeat the second form. In 1919 Escher attended the Haarlem School of Architecture and Decorative Arts. He briefly studied architecture, but switched to decorative arts and studied under Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita, an artist with whom he would remain friends for years. In 1922 Escher left the school, having gained experience in drawing and particularly woodcutting. Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Haarlem is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, capital of the North Holland province. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ...


Marriage and later life

Self-portrait (1943) by M.C. Escher
Enlarge
Self-portrait (1943) by M.C. Escher

Escher traveled to Italy regularly in the following years. It was in Italy that he first met Jetta Umiker, the woman whom he married in 1924. The young couple settled down in Rome and stayed there until 1935, when the political climate under Mussolini became unbearable. The family next moved to Château-d'Œx, Switzerland where they remained for two years. M. C. Escher, self portrait (thumbnail) Copyright details M. C. Eschers Selfportrait © 2003 Cordon Art - The Netherlands. ... M. C. Escher, self portrait (thumbnail) Copyright details M. C. Eschers Selfportrait © 2003 Cordon Art - The Netherlands. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... Château-dÅ’x is a commune in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ...


Escher, who had been very fond of and inspired by the landscape in Italy, was decidedly unhappy in Switzerland, so in 1937, the family moved again, to Ukkel, a small town near Brussels, Belgium. World War II forced them to move for the last time in January 1941, this time to Baarn, the Netherlands, where Escher lived until 1970. Uccle/Ukkel within the Brussels-Capital Region Uccle (French) or Ukkel (Dutch) is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. ... Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (French: Bruxelles, pronounced in French although often mistakenly pronounced by citizens of France; Dutch: Brussel; German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium, the French Community of Belgium, the... Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France/Free France, • Soviet Union, • USA, • China, ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II... Baarn is a municipality and a town in the central Netherlands. ...


Most of Escher's better-known pictures date from this period. The sometimes cloudy, cold, wet weather of the Netherlands allowed him to focus intently on his works, and only during 1962, when he endured surgery, was there a time when no new images were created. A typical modern surgical operation For other uses, see Surgery (disambiguation). ...


Escher moved to the Rosa-Spier house in Laren in the northern Netherlands in 1970, a retirement home for artists where he could have a studio of his own. He died at the home on 27 March 1972, at 73 years of age. Escher and Umiker had three sons. Laren (population: 11,590 in 2004) is a town in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ...


Works

Drawing Hands, 1948.
Drawing Hands, 1948.

Well known examples of his work include Drawing Hands, a work in which two hands are shown drawing each other, Skie and Water, in which light plays on shadow to morph fish in water into birds in the sky, and Ascending and Descending, in which lines of people ascend and descend stairs in an infinite loop, on a construction which is impossible to build and possible to draw only by taking advantage of quirks of perception and perspective. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x723, 224 KB)http://people. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x723, 224 KB)http://people. ... Drawing Hands (1948) is a lithograph by M. C. Escher. ... Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and animations that changes (or morphs) one image into another through a seamless transition. ... For example see: Infinite Loop This article is about the programming term. ... Examples of visually ambiguous patterns. ... Look up perspective in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


He used lithographs and woodcuts as media. In his graphic art, he portrayed mathematical relationships among shapes, figures and space. Additionally, he explored interlocking figures using black and white to enhance different dimensions. Integrated into his prints were mirror images of cones, spheres, cubes, rings, and spirals.


In addition to sketching landscape and nature in his early years, he also sketched insects, which frequently appeared in his later work. His first artistic work was completed in 1922, which featured eight human heads divided in different planes. Later in about 1924, he lost interest in “regular division” of planes, and turned to sketching landscapes in Italy with irregular perspectives that are impossible in natural form.

Relativity, 1953.

Although not having had a training in mathematics—Escher's understanding of mathematics was largely visual and intuitive—Escher's work has a strong mathematical component, and more than a few of the worlds which he drew are built around impossible objects such as the Necker cube and the Penrose triangle. Many of Escher's works employed repeated tilings called tessellations. Escher's artwork is especially well-liked by mathematicians and scientists, who enjoy his use of polyhedra and geometric distortions. For example, in Gravity, multi-colored turtles poke their heads out of a stellated dodecahedron. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (883x850, 152 KB)Relativity, by M. C. Escher. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (883x850, 152 KB)Relativity, by M. C. Escher. ... Two famous undecidable figures, the Penrose triangle and devils pitchfork An impossible object is an object that cannot exist according to the known laws of nature, but has a description or representation suggesting, at first sight, that it can. ... The Necker Cube is an optical illusion first published in 1832 by Swiss crystallographer Louis Albert Necker. ... The Penrose triangle Impossible Triangle sculpture, East Perth, Australia The Penrose triangle, also known as the tribar is an impossible object. ... A tessellated plane. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Albert Einstein is almost without question, currently the most widely recognized scientist among the general public. ... In mathematics, there are three related meanings of the term polyhedron: in the traditional meaning it is a 3-dimensional polytope, and in a newer meaning that exists alongside the older one it is a bounded or unbounded generalization of a polytope of any dimension. ... Table of Geometry, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Gravitation (also known as Gravity) is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in June, 1952. ... Stellation is a process of constructing new polygons (in two dimensions), new polyhedra in three dimensions, or in general new polytopes in n dimensions. ... A dodecahedron is literally a polyhedron with 12 faces, but usually a regular dodecahedron is meant: a Platonic solid composed of twelve pentagonal faces, with three meeting at each vertex. ...


The mathematical influence in his work emerged in about 1936, when he was journeying the Mediterranean with the Adria Shipping Company. Specifically, he became interested in order and symmetry. Escher described his journey through the Mediterranean as “the richest source of inspiration I have ever tapped.”


After the journey, at the Alhambra Palace, Escher tried to improve upon the art works of Moors and used geometric grids as the basis for his sketches, which then he built on with additional designs, mainly animals such as birds and lions. The Alhambra The Alhambra (Red Castle) (in Arabic الحمراء) is an ancient palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. A usual misconception is to relate them to the inhabitants of modern day Mauritania to which they are only related by...


His first study of mathematics, which would later lead to its incorporation into his art works, began with George Pólya’s academic paper on plane symmetry groups sent to him by his brother Berend. This paper inspired him to learn the concept of the 17 wallpaper groups (plane symmetry groups). Utilizing this mathematical concept, Escher created periodic tilings with 43 colored drawings of different types of symmetry. From this point on he developed a mathematical approach to expressions of symmetry in his art works. For the years following 1937 he created woodcuts using the concept of the 17 plane symmetry groups. George Pólya (December 13, 1887 - September 7, 1985, in Hungarian Pólya György) was a mathematician, who was born in Budapest, Hungary and died in Palo Alto, USA. He worked on a great variety of mathematical topics, including series, number theory, combinatorics, and probability. ... The symmetry group of an object (e. ... Example of a Persian design with wallpaper group p6m A wallpaper group (or plane crystallographic group) is a mathematical concept to classify repetitive designs on two-dimensional surfaces, such as walls, based on the symmetries in the pattern. ...


In 1941, Escher wrote his first notebook, now publicly recognized, called Regular Division of the Plane with Asymmetric Congruent Polygons, which detailed his mathematical approach to artwork creation. His intention in writing this was to aid himself in progressing the integration of mathematics into art. Escher is considered a research mathematician of his time because of his documentation with this notebook. In this notebook, he studied color based division, and developed a system of categorizing combinations of shape, color, and symmetrical properties. By studying these areas, he explored an area that later mathematicians labeled crystallography, an area of mathematics. Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ...


Around 1956, Escher explored the concept of representing infinity on a two-dimensional plane. Discussions with Canadian mathematician H.S.M. Coxeter inspired Escher’s interest in hyperbolic tessellations, which are regular tilings of the hyperbolic plane. Escher’s work Circle Limit I demonstrates this concept. In 1995, Coxeter verified that Escher had achieved mathematical perfection in his etchings in a published paper. Coxeter wrote, "[Escher] got it absolutely right to the millimetre." Harold Scott MacDonald Donald Coxeter (February 9, 1907 - March 31, 2003) is regarded as one of the great geometers of the 20th century. ... A triangle immersed in a saddle-shape plane, as well as two diverging parallel lines. ...


Escher later completed Circle Limit II, III and IV. These works continued to demonstrate his ability to create perfectly consistent mathematical designs. His works gained him fame: He was awarded the Knighthood of the Order of Orange Nassau in 1955. Subsequently he regularly designed art for dignitaries around the world. Order of Orange-Nassau Knights Medal The Order of Orange-Nassau is an order of the Netherlands which was first created in 1890 by the Queen Regent Emma of the Netherlands, acting on behalf of her under-age daughter Queen Wilhelmina. ...


In 1958, he published a paper called Regular Division of the Plane, in which he described the systematic buildup of mathematical designs in his artworks. He emphasized, "[Mathematicians] have opened the gate leading to an extensive domain."


Overall, his early love of Roman and Italian landscapes and of nature led to his interest in regular division of a plane. He used the media woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints. In his lifetime he created over 150 colored works utilizing the concept of regular division of a plane. Other mathematical principals evidenced in his works include hyperbolic plane on a fixed 2-dimensional plane, and application three-dimensional objects such as spheres, columns, and cubes into his works. For example, in a print called "Reptiles," he combined two and three-dimensional images. In one of his papers, Escher emphasized the importance of dimensionality to him and described himself as "irritated" by flat shapes: "I make them come out of the plane." The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ...

Waterfall, 1961.
Waterfall, 1961.

Topology is another mathematical concept he studied in his life. Topology is the study of properties that are left unchanged by continuous deformation. Topology is the founding concept for its branches general (point-set) topology, algebraic topology, and differential topology. Escher learned additional concepts in mathematics from British mathematician Roger Penrose. From the new knowledge he created Waterfall and Up and Down, featuring irregular perspectives similar to the concept of the Möbius strip; Möbius being a mathematician who studied topology. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x1080, 357 KB)http://people. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x1080, 357 KB)http://people. ... Topology (Greek topos, place and logos, study) is a branch of mathematics concerned with spatial properties preserved under bicontinuous deformation (stretching without tearing or gluing); these are the topological invariants. ... Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics in which tools from abstract algebra are used to study topological spaces. ... In mathematics, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds. ... Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford. ... A Möbius strip made with a piece of paper and tape. ... August Ferdinand Möbius (November 17, 1790, Schulpforta, Saxony, Germany - September 26, 1868, Leipzig) was a German mathematician and theoretical astronomer. ...


Escher printed Metamorphosis I in 1933, which was a beginning part of a series of designs that told a story through the use of pictures. These works demonstrated a culmination of Escher’s skills to incorporate mathematics into art. In Metamorphosis I, he transformed convex polygons into regular patterns in a plane to form a human motif. This effect symbolizes his life change of interest from landscape and nature to regular division of a plane. A convex pentagon In geometry, a convex polygon is a simple polygon whose interior is a convex set. ...


One of his most notable works is the piece Metamorphosis III, which is wide enough to cover all the walls in a room, and then loop back onto itself. Metamorphosis III is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was created between 1967 and 1968. ...


After 1953, Escher was a lecturer to many organizations. A planned series of lectures in North America in 1964 was cancelled due to illness, but the illustrations and text for the lectures, written out in full by Escher, was later published as part of the book Escher on Escher. In July of 1969, he finished his last work before his death, a woodcut called Snakes. It features etchings of patterns that fade to infinity both to the center and the edge of a circle. Snakes transverse the circle and the patterns in it, with their heads sticking out of the circle.


Selected list of works

Metamorphosis III, 1967 - 1968.

Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Dolphins (Dolphins in Phosphorescent Sea) is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Castrovalva is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in February, 1930. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... The Bridge is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher, which was first printed in March, 1930. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Atrani, Coast of Amalfi is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher witch was first printed in August, 1931. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Still Life with Spherical Mirror is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in November, 1934. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Hand with Reflecting Sphere (Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror) is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in January, 1935. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Hieronymus Bosch; alleged portrait (around 1560) Hieronymus Bosch, also Jeroen Bosch, Jerome Bosch,(c. ... Regular Division of the Plane is a series of drawings by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which began in 1936. ... Still Life and Street is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in March, 1937. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Metamorphosis I is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in May, 1937. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Metamorphosis II is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Reptiles is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in March, 1943. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Magic Mirror is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in January, 1946. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Three Spheres II is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in April, 1946. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Another World (Other World) is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in January, 1947. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Drawing Hands (1948) is a lithograph by M. C. Escher. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Stars is a wood engraving print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in 1948. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Curl-up or Wentelteefje (original Dutch title) is a lithograph print by M. C. Escher which was first printed in November, 1951. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... House of Stairs is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in November, 1951. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Puddle, a M.C. Escher woodcut print Puddle is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M.C. Escher which was first printed in February, 1952. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Gravitation (also known as Gravity) is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in June, 1952. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Image File history File links Escher,_Metamorphosis_III.jpg Low resolution, fair use image of Metamorphosis III, 1967 - 1968. ... Image File history File links Escher,_Metamorphosis_III.jpg Low resolution, fair use image of Metamorphosis III, 1967 - 1968. ... Relativity, a M. C. Escher lithograph print Relativity is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in December, 1953. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Convex and Concave is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in March, 1955. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Three Worlds is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in December, 1955. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Belvedere is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in May, 1958. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Waterfall is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M.C. Escher which was first printed in October, 1961. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Metamorphosis III is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was created between 1967 and 1968. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ... Snakes is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in July, 1969. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer. ...

References in popular culture

  • Matt Groening of The Simpsons made a reference to Escher in his Life in Hell comic. In Groening's parody of Escher's Relativity, cartoon rabbits fall down stairs at impossible angles. Groening would later reuse this joke in an episode of Futurama and as a couch gag on The Simpsons. As a teen Groening used to collect Escher posters
  • Eric Shanower's illustrations of the Absurd City in Paradox in Oz are clearly based on Escher's illustrations
  • Similarly, a supposedly pregnant Princess Clara on Comedy Central animated series Drawn Together, was pushed down by Toot Braunstein (and up, around, and back down) a flight of stairs modeled on Relativity in the aptly named M. C. Escher Room.
  • In the "Family Guy" episode Brian Goes Back To College, Stewie and Brian share a room where Stewie puts up a print of "Relativity", which he calls Crazy Stairs. He then breaks it while playing Ultimate Frisbee.
  • In the Jim Henson movie Labyrinth, Relativity is referenced again. The audience is again treated to an answer to the great question: what if somebody walks off the edge? The Escher estate was given acknowledgement in the credits for the film.
  • In Larry Niven's novel Protector, the protagonist builds a working model of Relativity using gravitational engineering.
  • In the Sonic the Hedgehog cartoon (SatAM) episode "Blast from the Past pt1", the two lead characters walk through a room modeled after Relativity
  • The bonus stages of the first Sonic the Hedgehog game, for the Sega Genesis/Mega Drive, feature an animated background of birds turning into fish, a reference to Sky and Water.
  • The Psygnosis computer game Lemmings features a level called Tribute to M.C. Escher, although it doesn't sport Escheresque graphics.
  • The Crystal Shard computer game SubTerra features a similarly named level, which does consist entirely of a repetitive pattern.
  • The early nineties rock music group Chagall Guevara wrote a song called "Escher's World" which made many references to the impossible structures that can be found in Escher's work.
  • The picture of the large eye with the skull in its iris appears on the wall in the room of Donnie Darko.
  • Escher is also the subject of a song by the rock group The Breakfast. The song is called "Escher's Etchings" and is included on their 2003 live album Bona Fide. The lyrics can be read here
  • The music video for "Around the World" by Daft Punk, directed by Michel Gondry, is based on Escher's Encounter.
  • The music video for "Drive" by Incubus is based on Drawing Hands, beginning with an animated hand drawing a piece of paper and second hand to form the actual Escher drawing. It also shows the hand drawing lead singer Brandon Boyd to attach itself to. All drawings in the video were done by the band members themselves.
  • The music artist Momus wrote a song named mc esher on his album folktronic.
  • In the animated TV series "Xiaolin Showdown", in the episode "Days Past" Omi and Dashi fought across a multitude of M.C Escher's optical illusions.

Matt Groening Matthew Abram Groening (born February 15, 1954 in Portland, Oregon; his family name is pronounced /greɪnɪŋ/, rhyming with raining) is an American cartoonist and the creator of the animated television series The Simpsons and Futurama. ... The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening. ... Life in Hell is a weekly comic strip by Matt Groening. ... In contemporary usage, parody is a form of satire that imitates another work of art in order to ridicule it. ... Relativity, a M. C. Escher lithograph print Relativity is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in December, 1953. ... Futurama is an animated United States cartoon series (March 28, 1999-2003) created by Matt Groening (who also created The Simpsons). ... On the FOX animated television series The Simpsons, the opening credits sequence features a visual joke usually involving the Simpson familys living room couch; this is the primary element that changes between opening sequences. ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ... 1942 US government war poster. ... Age of Bronze issue 12 cover art; copyright 2001 by Eric Shanower Eric James Shanower (b. ... Comedy Central is a cable television channel in the United States. ... Drawn Together is an American animated television series on Comedy Central created by Dave Jeser and Matt Silverstein, and first aired on October 27, 2004. ... Relativity, a M. C. Escher lithograph print Relativity is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in December, 1953. ... Family Guy is an American animated sitcom created by Seth MacFarlane for FOX in 1999. ... Brian Goes Back To College is an episode from season 4b of FOX animated television series Family Guy. ... Ultimate (often called Ultimate Frisbee) is a competitive non-contact team sport played with a flying disc. ... For the company founded by Henson, see The Jim Henson Company. ... Labyrinth Animated Title Labyrinth is a 1986 fantasy film directed by Jim Henson. ... Estate is a term used in the common law. ... Larry Niven Laurence van Cott Niven (born April 30, 1938) is a US science fiction author. ... Cover from a 1981 publication Protector is a 1973 science fiction novel by Larry Niven, set in his Known Space universe. ... This article covers the physics of gravitation. ... Sonic the Hedgehog is a television series was a joint effort by SEGA and DiC and released in 1993 on ABC (U.S.). While it doesnt follow the game establishments to a tee, it was still a storyline that was founded by the combined works of SoA (Sega of... Bonus Stage Bonus Stage (abbreviated BS) is an action/adventure/comedy flash animated series by Matt Wilson that focuses attention on the randomness, sarcasm, and parodic moments of life. ... Sonics character has been redesigned with age through the years. ... The Mega Drive/Genesis was a 16-bit video game console released by Sega in Japan (1988), Europe (1990) and most of the rest of the world as the Mega Drive. ... Original Sega Mega Drive (PAL version) Sega Mega Drive (Japanese: メガドライブ Mega Doraibu) is a 16-bit video game console released by Sega in 1988. ... The cover artwork of most Psygnosis games was by psychedelic artist Roger Dean. ... Lemmings, a Commodore Amiga computer game developed by DMA Design and published by Psygnosis in 1991, was one of the most popular computer games of its time. ... Crenshinibon is an evil artifact in the Forgotten Realms setting, featured primarily in the novels The Crystal Shard, Passage to Dawn, The Silent Blade, and Servant of the Shard by R.A. Salvatore. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, a bass guitar, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, trumpet, and trombone are common in some styles, however, horns have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since... Chagall Guevara was an American rock band, heavily influenced by The Clash, formed in 1989 by solo artist Steve Taylor, guitarists Dave Perkins and Lynn Nichols (from the 1970s Phil Keaggy band), bassist Wade Jaynes, and drummer Mike Mead. ... Donnie Darko is a 2001 cult film, the first by writer and director Richard Kelly. ... Daft Punk is the collective name of Paris musicians Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo (born February 8, 1974) and Thomas Bangalter (born January 3, 1975). ... Michel Gondry (born May 8, 1964) is a film, commercial, and music video director noted for his inventive visual style and manipulation of mise en scène. ... Incubus is a five-man alternative rock band based out of Calabasas, CA. Members include Brandon Boyd (vocals and percussion), Mike Einziger (guitar), Ben Kenney (bass), Jose Pasillas (drums) and DJ Kilmore (turntables). ... Drawing Hands (1948) is a lithograph by M. C. Escher. ... Brandon Boyd Brandon Charles Boyd (born February 15, 1976) is the lead vocalist and percussionist of the alternative rock band Incubus. ... Momus Nick Currie (born February 11, 1960 in Paisley, Scotland), more popularly known by the pseudonym Momus (after the Greek god of mockery), is a songwriter and blogger. ...

See also

The Escher Museum (Escher in het Paleis, Escher in the Palace) is a museum in The Hague, The Netherlands, featuring the works of the Dutch graphical artist M.C. Escher. ... GEB cover Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid (commonly GEB) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book by Douglas Hofstadter, published in 1979 by Basic Books. ... Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American academic. ... This is a list of lists of artists. ... Printmaking is a process for producing multiple original pieces of artwork; painting, on the other hand, is a process for producing a single original piece of artwork. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
M.C. Escher

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

Bibliography

  • M.C. Escher, The Graphic Work of M.C. Escher, Ballantine, 1971. Includes Escher's own commentary.
  • M.C. Escher, The Fantastic World of M.C. Escher, Video collection of examples of the development of his art. ISBN1-56838-051-1
  • Locker, J.L. (2000). The Magic of M. C. Escher. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0810967200
  • Ernst, Bruno; Escher, M.C. (1995). The Magic Mirror of M.C. Escher (Taschen Series). TASCHEN America Llc. ISBN 1886155003 Escher's art with commentary by Ernst on Escher's life and art, including several pages on his use of polyhedra.
  • Abrams (1995). The M.C. Escher Sticker Book. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0810926385
  • "Escher, M. C.." The World Book Encyclopedia. 10th ed. 2001.
  • O'Connor , J. J. "Escher." Escher. 01 2000. University of St Andrews, Scotland . 17 June 2005 http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Escher.html.
  • Schattschneider, Doris and Walker, Wallace. M. C. Escher Kaleidocycles, Pomegranate Communications; Petaluma, CA, 1987. ISBN 0906212286.
  • Schattschneider, Doris. M.C. Escher : visions of symmetry, New York, N.Y. : Harry N. Abrams, 2004. ISBN 0810943085.
  • M.C. Escher's legacy : a centennial celebration ; collection of articles coming from the M.C. Escher Centennial Conference, Rome, 1998 / Doris Schattschneider, Michele Emmer (editors). Berlin ; London : Springer-Verlag, 2003. ISBN 354042458X (alk. paper), ISBN 354042458X (hbk).

June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


 
 

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