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Encyclopedia > M. C. Escher
Maurits Cornelis Escher

M.C. Escher (self-portrait)
Born June 17, 1898(1898-06-17)
Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
Died March 27, 1972 (aged 73)
Laren, The Netherlands
Nationality Flag of the Netherlands Dutch
Field drawing, lithography
Famous works Relativity, Waterfall, Hand with Reflecting Sphere
Awards Knighthood of the Order of Orange-Nassau

Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 17, 1898March 27, 1972), usually referred to as M. C. Escher, was a Dutch graphic artist. He is known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs and mezzotints. These feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture and tessellations. Image File history File links EscherSelf1929. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Leeuwarden ( (help· info), Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Laren (population: 11,590 in 2004) is a town in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Relativity is a famous lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in December, 1953. ... Waterfall is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M.C. Escher which was first printed in October, 1961. ... Hand with Reflecting Sphere also known as Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher (Maurits Cornelis Escher) which was first printed in January, 1935. ... Order of Orange-Nassau Knights Medal, military division (male version) The Order of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Orde van Oranje Nassau) is a military and civil order of the Netherlands which was first created on 4 April 1892 by the Queen regent Emma of the Netherlands, acting on behalf of... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Graphic arts is a term applied historically to the art of printmaking and drawing. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Two famous undecidable figures, the Penrose triangle and devils pitchfork. ... For other uses, see Infinity (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ...

Contents

Early life

Maurits Cornelis, or "Mauk" as he came to be nicknamed[1], was born in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. He was the youngest son of civil engineer George Arnold Escher and his second wife, Sara Gleichman. He was a sickly child, and was placed in a special school at the age of seven and failed the second grade[2]. In 1903, the family moved to Arnhem where he took carpentry and piano lessons until he was thirteen years old. Leeuwarden ( (help· info), Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... George Arnold Escher (May 10, 1843 – June 14, 1939) was a Dutch civil engineer who worked in Japan during the Meiji period. ... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ... A carpenter is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry -- a wide range of woodworking that includes constructing buildings, furniture, and other large objects out of wood. ...


From 1903 until 1918 he attended primary and secondary school. Though he excelled at drawing, his grades were generally poor. In 1919, Escher attended the Haarlem School of Architecture and Decorative Arts. He briefly studied architecture, but failed a number of subjects (partly due to a persistent skin infection) and switched to decorative arts[2]. Here he studied under Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita, with whom he would remain friends for years. In 1922 Escher left the school, having gained experience in drawing and making woodcuts. A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... This article is about building architecture. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ... Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita (Amsterdam, June 6, 1868 - Auschwitz, ca. ... A woodcut is a method of printing in which an image is carved into the surface of a piece of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with chisels. ...


Later life

In 1922, an important year in his life, Escher traveled through Italy (Florence, San Gimignano, Volterra, Siena) and Spain (Madrid, Toledo, Granada). He was impressed by the Italian countryside and by the Alhambra, a fourteenth-century Moorish castle in Granada, Spain. He came back to Italy regularly in the following years. In Italy he met Jetta Umiker, whom he married in 1924. The young couple settled down in Rome and stayed there until 1935, when the political climate under Mussolini became unbearable. Their son, Giorgio Arnaldo Escher, named after his grandfather, was born in Rome. The family next moved to Château-d'Œx, Switzerland where they remained for two years. The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red palace) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Château-dÅ’x is a municipality in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. ...


Escher, who had been very fond of and inspired by the landscapes in Italy, was decidedly unhappy in Switzerland, so in 1937, the family moved again, to Ukkel, a small town near Brussels, Belgium. World War II forced them to move in January 1941, this time to Baarn, the Netherlands, where Escher lived until 1970. Most of Escher's better-known pictures date from this period. The sometimes cloudy, cold, wet weather of the Netherlands allowed him to focus intently on his works, and only during 1962, when he underwent surgery, was there a time when no new images were created. Uccle/Ukkel within the Brussels-Capital Region Uccle (French) or Ukkel (Dutch) is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Baarn is a municipality and a town in the central Netherlands. ...


On April 30, 1955, Escher was awarded a Knighthood of the Order of Orange-Nassau. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Order of Orange-Nassau Knights Medal, military division (male version) The Order of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Orde van Oranje Nassau) is a military and civil order of the Netherlands which was first created on 4 April 1892 by the Queen regent Emma of the Netherlands, acting on behalf of...


Escher moved to the Rosa-Spier house in Laren in 1970, a retirement home for artists where he had his own studio. He died at the home on March 27, 1972, at 73 years of age. Laren (population: 11,590 in 2004) is a town in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Works

Escher's first print of an impossible reality was Still Life and Street, 1937. His artistic expression was created from images in his mind, rather than directly from observations and travels to other countries. Well known examples of his work also include Drawing Hands, a work in which two hands are shown, each drawing the other; Sky and Water, in which light plays on shadow to morph fish in water into birds in the sky; Ascending and Descending, in which lines of people ascend and descend stairs in an infinite loop, on a construction which is impossible to build and possible to draw only by taking advantage of quirks of perception and perspective. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x723, 224 KB)http://people. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (863x723, 224 KB)http://people. ... Drawing Hands (1948) is a lithograph by M. C. Escher. ... Still Life and Street is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in March, 1937. ... Drawing Hands (1948) is a lithograph by M. C. Escher. ... Sky and Water I and II are prints by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which were first printed in 1938 and which are almost stylistically identical and created within months of each other. ... 3 Frames from a morph from George W. Bush to Arnold Schwarzenegger showing the mid-point between the two extremes Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and animations that changes (or morphs) one image into another through a seamless transition. ... Ascending and Descending, an M. C. Escher lithograph print Ascending and Descending is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in 1960. ... Examples of visually ambiguous patterns. ... Perspective when used in the context of vision and visual perception refers to the way in which objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes or dimension and the position of the eye relative to the objects. ...


He worked primarily in the media of lithographs and woodcuts, though the few mezzotints he made are considered to be masterpieces of the technique. In his graphic art, he portrayed mathematical relationships among shapes, figures and space. Additionally, he explored interlocking figures using black and white to enhance different dimensions. Integrated into his prints were mirror images of cones, spheres, cubes, rings and spirals. Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface, as well as a method of manufacturing semiconductor and MEMS devices. ... A woodcut is a method of printing in which an image is carved into the surface of a piece of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with chisels. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ...


In addition to sketching landscape and nature in his early years, he also sketched insects, which frequently appeared in his later work. His first artistic work was completed in 1922, which featured eight human heads divided in different planes. Later around 1924, he lost interest in "regular division" of planes, and turned to sketching landscapes in Italy with irregular perspectives that are impossible in natural form.

Although Escher did not have a mathematical training—his understanding of mathematics was largely visual and intuitive—Escher's work has a strong mathematical component, and more than a few of the worlds which he drew are built around impossible objects such as the Necker cube and the Penrose triangle. Many of Escher's works employed repeated tilings called tessellations. Escher's artwork is especially well-liked by mathematicians and scientists, who enjoy his use of polyhedra and geometric distortions. For example, in Gravity, multi-colored turtles poke their heads out of a stellated dodecahedron. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (883x850, 152 KB)Relativity, by M. C. Escher. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (883x850, 152 KB)Relativity, by M. C. Escher. ... Relativity is a famous lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in December, 1953. ... Two famous undecidable figures, the Penrose triangle and devils pitchfork An impossible object is an object that cannot exist according to the known laws of nature, but has a description or representation suggesting, at first sight, that it can. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Impossible cube. ... The Penrose triangle Impossible Triangle sculpture, East Perth, Australia The Penrose triangle, also known as the tribar, is an impossible object. ... A tessellated plane seen in street pavement. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... This article is about the profession. ... In mathematics, there are three related meanings of the term polyhedron: in the traditional meaning it is a 3-dimensional polytope, and in a newer meaning that exists alongside the older one it is a bounded or unbounded generalization of a polytope of any dimension. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... Gravitation (also known as Gravity) is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in June, 1952. ... Stellation is a process of constructing new polygons (in two dimensions), new polyhedra in three dimensions, or in general new polytopes in n dimensions. ... A dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve faces, but usually a regular dodecahedron is meant: a Platonic solid composed of twelve regular pentagonal faces, with three meeting at each vertex. ...


The mathematical influence in his work emerged around 1936, when he was journeying the Mediterranean with the Adria Shipping Company. Specifically, he became interested in order and symmetry. Escher described his journey through the Mediterranean as "the richest source of inspiration I have ever tapped." The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


After his journey to the Alhambra, Escher tried to improve upon the art works of the Moors using geometric grids as the basis for his sketches, which he then overlaid with additional designs, mainly animals such as birds and lions. The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red palace) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada, in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the south-eastern border of the city of Granada. ... For other uses, see moor. ...


His first study of mathematics, which would later lead to its incorporation into his art works, began with George Pólya’s academic paper on plane symmetry groups sent to him by his brother Berend. This paper inspired him to learn the concept of the 17 wallpaper groups (plane symmetry groups). Utilizing this mathematical concept, Escher created periodic tilings with 43 colored drawings of different types of symmetry. From this point on he developed a mathematical approach to expressions of symmetry in his art works. Starting in 1937, he created woodcuts using the concept of the 17 plane symmetry groups. George Pólya (December 13, 1887 – September 7, 1985, in Hungarian Pólya György) was a Hungarian mathematician. ... The symmetry group of an object (e. ... Berend George Escher Berend George Escher (April 4, 1885 Gorinchem - October 11, 1967 Arnhem) was a Dutch geologist. ... Example of an Egyptian design with wallpaper group p4m A wallpaper group (or plane symmetry group or plane crystallographic group) is a mathematical classification of a two-dimensional repetitive pattern, based on the symmetries in the pattern. ... A woodcut is a method of printing in which an image is carved into the surface of a piece of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with chisels. ...


In 1941, Escher wrote his first paper, now publicly recognized, called Regular Division of the Plane with Asymmetric Congruent Polygons, which detailed his mathematical approach to artwork creation. His intention in writing this was to aid himself in integrating mathematics into art. Escher is considered a research mathematician of his time because of his documentation with this paper. In it, he studied color based division, and developed a system of categorizing combinations of shape, color and symmetrical properties. By studying these areas, he explored an area that later mathematicians labeled crystallography. Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ...


Around 1956, Escher explored the concept of representing infinity on a two-dimensional plane. Discussions with Canadian mathematician H.S.M. Coxeter inspired Escher’s interest in hyperbolic tessellations, which are regular tilings of the hyperbolic plane. Escher’s works Circle Limit I–IV demonstrate this concept. In 1995, Coxeter verified that Escher had achieved mathematical perfection in his etchings in a published paper. Coxeter wrote, "Escher got it absolutely right to the millimeter." H.S.M. Coxeter. ... A triangle immersed in a saddle-shape plane, as well as two diverging parallel lines. ...


His works brought him fame: he was awarded the Knighthood of the Order of Orange Nassau in 1955. Subsequently he regularly designed art for dignitaries around the world. Order of Orange-Nassau Knights Medal, military division The Order of Orange-Nassau is a military and civil order of the Netherlands which was first created in 1890 by the Queen Regent Emma of the Netherlands, acting on behalf of her under-age daughter Queen Wilhelmina. ...


In 1958, he published a paper called Regular Division of the Plane, in which he described the systematic buildup of mathematical designs in his artworks. He emphasized, "Mathematicians have opened the gate leading to an extensive domain." Regular Division of the Plane is a series of drawings by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which began in 1936. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Overall, his early love of Roman and Italian landscapes and of nature led to his interest in regular division of a plane. He worked in the media of woodcuts, lithographs and mezzotints. In his lifetime he created over 150 colored works utilizing the concept of regular division of a plane. Other mathematical principles evidenced in his works include the superposition of a hyperbolic plane on a fixed 2-dimensional plane, and the incorporation of three-dimensional objects such as spheres, columns and cubes into his works. For example, in a print called "Reptiles," he combined two and three-dimensional images. In one of his papers, Escher emphasized the importance of dimensionality and described himself as "irritated" by flat shapes: "I make them come out of the plane." Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ...

Escher also studied the mathematical concepts of topology. He learned additional concepts in mathematics from British mathematician Roger Penrose. From this knowledge he created Waterfall and Up and Down, featuring irregular perspectives similar to the concept of the Möbius strip. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x1080, 357 KB)http://people. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (865x1080, 357 KB)http://people. ... Waterfall is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M.C. Escher which was first printed in October, 1961. ... A Möbius strip, an object with only one surface and one edge; such shapes are an object of study in topology. ... Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. ... A Möbius strip made with a piece of paper and tape. ...


Escher printed Metamorphosis I in 1937, which was a beginning part of a series of designs that told a story through the use of pictures. These works demonstrated a culmination of Escher’s skills to incorporate mathematics into art. In Metamorphosis I, he transformed convex polygons into regular patterns in a plane to form a human motif. This effect symbolizes his change of interest from landscape and nature to regular division of a plane. Metamorphosis I is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in May, 1937. ... A convex pentagon In geometry, a convex polygon is a simple polygon whose interior is a convex set. ...


One of his most notable works is the piece Metamorphosis III, which is wide enough to cover all the walls in a room, and then loop back onto itself. Metamorphosis III is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was created between 1967 and 1968. ...


After 1953, Escher became a lecturer to many organizations. A planned series of lectures in North America in 1962 was cancelled due to illness, but the illustrations and text for the lectures, written out in full by Escher, was later published as part of the book Escher on Escher. In July of 1969, he finished his last work before his death, a woodcut called Snakes. It features etchings of patterns that fade to infinity both to the center and the edge of a circle. Snakes transverse the circle and the patterns in it, with their heads sticking out of the circle. Snakes is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in July, 1969. ...


Many well known museums include original works by Escher in their collections. Some leading public collections include the following: The National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., The National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, The Israel Museum in Jerusalem, The Escher Museum at The Hague, The Netherlands, and the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Escher's work appears in many of the finest private collections including the Schwartz Collection of Boston, the Walker Collection of San Diego, the Vess Collection of Detroit, the Roosevelt Collection of Palm Beach, the Price Collection of Connecticut, and the Elder Collection of San Francisco. The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... National Gallery of Canada on Canada Day. ... The Escher Museum (Escher in het Paleis, Escher in the Palace) is a museum in The Hague, The Netherlands, featuring the works of the Dutch graphical artist M.C. Escher. ... The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, comprising the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in Golden Gate Park and the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in Lincoln Park is the largest public arts institution in the city of San Francisco and one of the largest art museums...

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x754, 205 KB) escher museum, image from flickr Uploaded on August 6, 2005 by Kent Wang, creative commons licenced [1] File links The following pages link to this file: M.C. Escher Escher Museum ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x754, 205 KB) escher museum, image from flickr Uploaded on August 6, 2005 by Kent Wang, creative commons licenced [1] File links The following pages link to this file: M.C. Escher Escher Museum ... The Escher Museum (Escher in het Paleis, Escher in the Palace) is a museum in The Hague, The Netherlands, featuring the works of the Dutch graphical artist M.C. Escher. ... Hague redirects here. ...

Namesake

The asteroid 4444 Escher, discovered in 1985, was named after him.


Selected list of works

Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Dolphins also known as Dolphins in Phosphorescent Sea is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Tower of Babel M. C. Escher, 1928 Woodcut Tower of Babel is a 1928 woodcut by M. C. Escher. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Castrovalva is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in February, 1930. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... The Bridge is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher, which was first printed in March, 1930. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Atrani, Coast of Amalfi is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher witch was first printed in August, 1931. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Still Life with Spherical Mirror is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in November, 1934. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Hand with Reflecting Sphere also known as Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher (Maurits Cornelis Escher) which was first printed in January, 1935. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Hieronymus Bosch, (latinized, actually Jheronimus Bosch; his real name Jeroen van Aken) (c. ... Regular Division of the Plane is a series of drawings by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which began in 1936. ... Still Life and Street is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in March, 1937. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Metamorphosis I is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in May, 1937. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Sky and Water I is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in June 1938. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Sky and Water II is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in 1938. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Metamorphosis II is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Reptiles is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in March, 1943. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Magic Mirror is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in January, 1946. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Three Spheres II is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in April, 1946. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Another World also known as Other World is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in January, 1947. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Drawing Hands (1948) is a lithograph by M. C. Escher. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ... Stars is a wood engraving print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in 1948. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Curl-up or Wentelteefje (original Dutch title) is a lithograph print by M. C. Escher which was first printed in November, 1951. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... House of Stairs is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in November, 1951. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Puddle, a M.C. Escher woodcut print Puddle is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M.C. Escher which was first printed in February, 1952. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Gravitation (also known as Gravity) is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in June, 1952. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Relativity is a famous lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in December, 1953. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Convex and Concave is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in March, 1955. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Three Worlds is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in December, 1955. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Cube with Magic Ribbons is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in 1957. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Belvedere is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in May, 1958. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Ascending and Descending, an M. C. Escher lithograph print Ascending and Descending is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in 1960. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Waterfall is a lithograph print by the Dutch artist M.C. Escher which was first printed in October, 1961. ... Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Metamorphosis III is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was created between 1967 and 1968. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Snakes is a woodcut print by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher which was first printed in July, 1969. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface...

Bibliography

  • M.C. Escher, The Graphic Work of M.C. Escher, Ballantine, 1971. Includes Escher's own commentary.
  • M.C. Escher, The Fantastic World of M.C. Escher, Video collection of examples of the development of his art, and interviews, Director, Michele Emmer.
  • Locher, J.L. (2000). The Magic of M. C. Escher. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-6720-0.
  • Ernst, Bruno; Escher, M.C. (1995). The Magic Mirror of M.C. Escher (Taschen Series). TASCHEN America Llc. ISBN 1-886155-00-3 Escher's art with commentary by Ernst on Escher's life and art, including several pages on his use of polyhedra.
  • Abrams (1995). The M.C. Escher Sticker Book. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-2638-5 .
  • "Escher, M. C.." The World Book Encyclopedia. 10th ed. 2001.
  • O'Connor, J. J. "Escher." Escher. 01 2000. University of St Andrews, Scotland. 17 June 2005. http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Escher.html.
  • Schattschneider, Doris and Walker, Wallace. M. C. Escher Kaleidocycles, Pomegranate Communications; Petaluma, California, 1987. ISBN 0-906212-28-6.
  • Schattschneider, Doris. M.C. Escher : visions of symmetry, New York, N.Y. : Harry N. Abrams, 2004. ISBN 0-8109-4308-5.
  • M.C. Escher's legacy: a centennial celebration; collection of articles coming from the M.C. Escher Centennial Conference, Rome, 1998 / Doris Schattschneider, Michele Emmer (editors). Berlin; London: Springer-Verlag, 2003. ISBN 3-540-42458-X (alk. paper), ISBN 3-540-42458-X (hbk).
  • M.C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, edited by J. L. Locher, Amsterdam 1981.

Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ "We named him Maurits Cornelis after S[arah]'s beloved uncle Van Hall, and called him 'Mauk' for short ....", Diary of Escher's father, quoted in M. C. Escher: His Life and Complete Graphic Work, Abradale Press, 1981, p. 9.
  2. ^ a b Barbara E, PhD. Bryden. Sundial: Theoretical Relationships Between Psychological Type, Talent, And Disease. Gainesville, Fla: Center for Applications of Psychological Type. ISBN 0-935652-46-9. 

See also

Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid: A metaphorical fugue on minds and machines in the spirit of Lewis Carroll (commonly GEB) is a Pulitzer Prize (1980)-winning book by Douglas Hofstadter, published in 1979 by Basic Books. ... Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945 in New York, New York) is an American academic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The special way of thinking and the rich graphic work of the Dutch graphic artist M. C. Escher (1898–1972) have had continuous influence in the science world and in the art world too. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
M. C. Escher
Persondata
NAME Escher, M. C.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Escher, Maurits Cornelis (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Artist
DATE OF BIRTH June 17, 1898
PLACE OF BIRTH Leeuwarden, Netherlands
DATE OF DEATH March 27, 1972
PLACE OF DEATH Hilversum, Netherlands
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Leeuwarden ( (help· info), Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ...

 
 

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