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Encyclopedia > M cells

M cells (or Microfold cells) are cells found in the follicle-associated epithelium of the Peyer's patch that have the unique ability to sample antigen from the lumen of the small intestine and deliver it via transcytosis to antigen presenting cells and lymphocytes located in a unique pocket-like structure on their basolateral side. Peyers patches are secondary lymphoid organs named after the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Hans Conrad Peyer. ... An antigen is a substance that stimulates an immune response, especially the production of antibodies. ... Lumen can mean: Lumen (unit), the SI unit of luminous flux Lumen (anatomy), the cavity or channel within a tubular structure Thylakoid lumen, the inner membrane space of the chloroplast 141 Lumen, an asteroid discovered by the French astronomer Paul Henry in 1875 Lumen (band), an American post-rock band... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... Transcytosis is the process by which various macromolecules are transported across the interior of a cell. ... ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... is a membrane This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Contents

Structure

M cells differ from normal enterocytes in that they do not have microvilli on their apical surface, but broader microfolds that give the cell its name. Enterocytes are epithelial cells of the superficial layer of the small and large bowel tissue. ... Categories: Stub ...


The filamentous brush border glycocalyx, an extracellular polysaccharide layer found thoughout the intestine attached to enterocytes, is much thinner or absent on M cells. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Glycocalix. ...


Pathology

M cells are exploited by several pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as a way to penetrate the intestinal epithelium. Shigella Flexneri can cause diarrhea in humans. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Development

Factors promoting the differentiation of M cells have yet to be elucidated, but they are thought to develop in response to signals from immune cells found in the developing Peyer's patch.[1]


References

  1. ^ Kraehenbuhl J, Neutra M. "Epithelial M cells: differentiation and function.". Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 16: 301-32. PMID 11031239. Link

External links

  • Slide at ucsd.edu
Gastrointestinal tract
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Upper gastrointestinal tract

Mouth | Pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx) | Esophagus | Crop | Stomach (rugae, gastric pits, cardia, pylorus) The gastrointestinal tract or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal, (nourishment canal) or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Look up Mouth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... In human anatomy, the hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx, and is the part of the throat that connects to the esophagus. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/œsophagus), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... The crop is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion that is found in many animals, including earthworms, leeches, insects, and birds. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Rugae are the mucus-covered ridges, or folds, located on the inside of the stomach wall. ... Gastric pits are indentations in the stomach which denote entrances to the glands. ... The cardia is the anatomical term for the junction orifice of the stomach and the esophagus. ... From Greek pylorus; pyl- = gate, -orus = guard. ...


Lower gastrointestinal tract


Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) | Vermiform appendix In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... Grays Fig. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ...


Large intestine: Cecum | Colon (ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon) | Rectum (Houston valve, rectal ampulla, pectinate line) | Anal canal (anal valves, anal sinuses, anal columns) The large intestine, or colon is the last part of digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the cecum or caecum is a pouch connected to the large intestine between the ileum. ... In the anatomy of the digestive system, the colon (> Greek ) is the part of the intestine from the caecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon or large intestine or large bowel is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... The Descending Colon passes downward through the left hypochondriac and lumbar regions along the lateral border of the left kidney. ... The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Although the term rectum means straight, the human rectum is not. ... The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine. ... The rectal sinuses, end in small valve-like folds, termed anal valves, which join together the lower ends of the rectal columns. ... The rectal columns are separated from one another by furrows, or rectal sinuses, which end below in small valve-like folds, termed anal valves. ... The lumen of the anal canal presents, in its upper half, a number of vertical folds, produced by an infolding of the mucous membrane and some of the muscular tissue. ...


Anus: Sphincter ani internus muscle | Sphincter ani externus muscle Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy Anal redirects here. ... The Sphincter ani internus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Sphincter ani externus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ...


Enteric nervous system: Meissner's plexus | Auerbach's plexus The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an interdependent part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The nerves of the small intestines are derived from the plexuses of sympathetic nerves around the superior mesenteric artery. ... Part of the enteric nervous system, Auerbachs plexus exists between the longitudinal and circular layers of muscle in the gastrointestinal tract and provides motor innervation to both layers and secretomotor innervation to the mucosa. ...


Enteroendocrine cells: G cells | Enterochromaffin cells | Enterochromaffin-like cell Enteroendocrine cells are specialized endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract. ... In medicine, the G cell is a type of cell in the stomach that secrets gastrin. ... Serotonin Enterochromaffin (EC) cells (Kulchitsky cells) are a type of enteroendocrine cell[1] occuring in the epithelia lining the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cells found in the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, particularly in the vicinity of parietal cells. ...


GALT: Peyer's patches | M cells Overview About 70% of the bodys immune system is found in the digestive tract. ... Peyers patches are secondary lymphoid organs named after the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Hans Conrad Peyer. ...


parietal cells | chief cells | goblet cells | Brunner's glands | Paneth cells | enterocytes Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are cells located in the stomach epithelium. ... A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and rennin. ... Goblet cells are glandular simple columnar epithelial cells whose sole function is to secrete mucus. ... Brunners glands are submucosal glands located throughout the duodenum. ... Paneth cells provide host defense against microbes in the small intestine. ... Enterocyte is a type of epithelial cell of the superficial layer of the small and large intestine tissue. ...


intestinal villus/microvillus | crypts of Lieberkühn | circular folds | taenia coli | haustra | epiploic appendix For other meanings of villus/villi, see villi. ... A microvillus (usually not occurring alone, so usually referred to as the plural microvilli) is a small (0. ... The crypts of Lieberkühn are glands found in the epithelial lining of the small intestine. ... The circular folds (valves of Kerkring) are large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the bowel. ... The haustra of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation, which give the colon its segmented appearance. ... The epiploic appendices (or epiploic appendages) are small pouches of the peritoneum filled with fat and situated along the colon and upper part of the rectum. ...


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