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Encyclopedia > Lysis

Lysis (Greek λύσις, lusis from luein = to separate) refers to the death of a cell by breaking of the cellular membrane, often by viral or osmotic mechanisms that compromise its integrity.[citation needed] A solution containing the contents of lysed cells is called a "lysate". Lysis can refer to: Lysis, the dissolving of cells known more specifically as cytolysis Lysis (disease), the reduction of symptoms of a disease Lysis (Plato), a dialogue of Plato about friendship (philia) Lysis of Taras, a Greek philosopher Lytic cycle, one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other...

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Cell lysis is used mostly in western blotting to analyse the composition of specific proteins, lipids and nucleic acids individually or as complexes. Depending upon the detergent that is used either all membranes are lysed or certain membranes are lysed, leaving other membranes intact. For example if the cell membrane only is lysed then gradient centrifugation can be used to collect certain organelles - nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts and endoplasmic reticulum. The isolated organelles can then be analysed by electron microscopy or western blotting. Picture of a Western blot with 5 vertical lanes A Western blot is a method in molecular biology/biochemistry to detect protein in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... Highly simplified diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... Look up complex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... This article or section should include material from Net flux A membrane is a thin, typically planar structure or material that separates two environments. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Lysosomes are organelles in eukaryotic cells that contain digestive enzymes to digest macromolecules. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... Picture of a Western blot with 5 vertical lanes A Western blot is a method in molecular biology/biochemistry to detect protein in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. ...


Cytolysis

Main article: Cytolysis
blood cells under different solutions
blood cells under different solutions

Cytolysis is the lysis of cells in a hypotonic environment. Cytolysis is caused by excessive osmosis, or movement of water, towards the inside of a cell (hyperhydration). The cell membrane cannot withstand the osmotic pressure of the water inside, and so it explodes. Osmosis occurs from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential passing through a semipermeable membrane, so these bursting cells are located in hypotonic environments. Cytolysis is the lysis, or death, of cells due to the rupture of the cell membrane. ... Image File history File links Osmotic_pressure_on_blood_cells_diagram. ... Image File history File links Osmotic_pressure_on_blood_cells_diagram. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Osmosis is the net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high solvent potential to an area of low solvent potential, up a solute concentration gradient. ... Water intoxication is a medical condition (also known as hyperhydration) in which an individuals intake of water is excessive. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gasoline explosions, simulating bomb drops at an airshow. ... Scheme of semipermeable membrane during hemodialysis, where red is blood, blue is the dialysing fluid, and yellow is the membrane. ...


Cytolysis can be prevented by several different mechanisms, including the contractile vacuole that exists in some paramecium which rapidly pump water out of the system of the cell. Figure 1: A paramecium. ... Species Paramecium tetraurelia Paramecium aurelia Paramecium caudatum The Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa formerly known as slipper animalcules from their slipper shape. ...


Cytolysis does not occur under normal conditions in plant cells because plant cells have a strong cell wall that contains the osmotic pressure, or turgor pressure, that would otherwise cause cytolysis to occur.


Plasmolysis

Plasmolysis
Plasmolysis
Main article: Plasmolysis

Plasmolysis is the contraction of cells within plants due to the loss of water through osmosis. In a hypertonic environment, the cell membrane peels off of the cell wall and the vacuole collapses. These cells will eventually wilt and die unless the flow of water caused by osmosis can stop the contraction of the cell membrane. Download high resolution version (1656x1527, 809 KB) Epidermal cells of Rhoeo discolor after plasmolysis. ... Download high resolution version (1656x1527, 809 KB) Epidermal cells of Rhoeo discolor after plasmolysis. ... Before Plasmolysis. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Osmosis is the net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high solvent potential to an area of low solvent potential, up a solute concentration gradient. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the cell membrane, that provides the cell with structural support, protection, and a filtering mechanism. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tumor lysis syndrome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (430 words)
In medicine (oncology and hematology), tumor lysis syndrome is a complication of chemotherapy to particularly large tumors (e.g.
Blood tests done when tumor lysis syndrome is suspected generally include full blood count, renal function (creatinine), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, and albumin (to correct calcium levels).
Oddly, gout is not a feature of tumor lysis; the high uric acid levels that cause gout probably need to be present for an extended period of time before the putative crystals can develop.
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